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Sex in general between the attributes and properties are different in terms of male and female, masculine, and men, women, and the time neuter. Over third wife, he theorists, philosophers and feminists theories and different concepts on sex, gender identity, gender as a social role, the differences between the sexes, gender socialization, the feminist movement.
Gender is not only a biological difference, but subjectivity and identity in the deepest sense, and other psychological and cultural differences ". Gender diversity "(286 tosh, 2002) and a clear example of gender norms, social and cultural factors that are socially acceptable in society. For example, a young girl whose teacher receives its social norms, such as its role in what they were doing and what they do in a certain culture. Really? The same branch of knowledge (tosh, 2002. S. 287).
Men and women are different, the biological, psychological and physiological differences between men and women. Gender difference is not just an abstract idea, given their male and female organs are different cultural contexts and events (Nealon and Giroux, 2003, p. 168) stresses. But the feminist movement fought for the liberation of women in a male dominated society of economic independence, political and social .. They also struggled against the pressure, inequality and discrimination and fought for the emancipation of women in the macho culture. Sex is tamed by moral teaching writing and literature. (Tosh, 2002, p. 287)
Finally, the sexual characteristics of men and women. There are various biological and psychological effects of cultural and social phenomena and practices.
Post-colonialism and politics, literary theory and intelligent response effects and consequences of colonialism and cultural identity of the last camps to expect. Post-colonialism is a branch of postmodernism and presents the cultural and political independence of those exposed. Theory of decolonizing the future challenges and heritage, trends and fashion typical of the mind in relation to colonialism and professionally by their actions. The process of decolonization took place after the mark colonization colonization (Nealon, Girux, 2003, p. 141). Post-colonialism analyze the consequences and negative effects of Western Europe in places, people and cultures (acute, 2008)
Understand the concept of post-colonialism, it is very important to understand the idea of suffering, and colonialism. Colonialism refers to enlargement of imperialism and interventionism. It includes expansion and hegemonic tendencies and the political environment in a country where the rules of other nations and developing trade and economic interests. Indian colony in England and many African countries, colonies of European countries. "Colonialism Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance." (Nagel 2003 Ferguson, Introduction).
Meeting post-colonialism colonialism in all its forms and manifestations, wherever they are specifically associated with the hegemonic mentality of human nature, which omnipresent.Neo-colonialism in a new form of imperialism and colonialism. As well said Kwame Nkrumah, the form of neo-colonialism to exploit the resources of underdeveloped countries. (1965, Introduction). Developed countries continue to neo-colonialism or a means of attracting more support from the famous and loved and undemocratic
dictatorships in third world countries and international organizations to support. Then Nealon and Giroux neo expression correctly describes the situation of developing countries in the new world order, because the political sovereignty of the bad economic situation (2003, 141) is in danger.
Post colonial literature plays a decisive role in the rebirth of culture and identity change lost in the history of colonization. In an era of post-colonialism, said that the ex-colonized people to produce their identity and their own history, literature and philosophy at lower identities for themselves (2003, p 145) has presented a challenge.
Finally, post-colonialism, political theory and literature to cushion the impact and consequences of colonialism in all its forms and manifestations. Cons trends and the legacy of colonialism and insist that culture and identity through literature.
Means of social memory, memories, or historical information based on recent memories of social groups in one generation to another. Tosh includes "tradition, nostalgia, memory and social progress" (2002, p. 20).
Social memory, illustrates the logic of popular knowledge about the past based on previous experience justifies the current, often at the expense of historical authenticity.(Tosh, 2002, p. 3). Crumley describes the social memory of information between different groups and individuals, transmitted from generation to generation, unconsciously. People, their attitudes, characteristics and features provided by their feelings, and relationships of generations (2002).
Social memory is also synonymous with the terms of the collective memory and culture. Social memory of a nation often depicted in some or memorials it chooses to build. This type of memory called the cultural memory of a nation. Social memory is also partly due to historical consciousness. past events is necessary, as in all societies need to understand the memories. (Tosh, 2002, p. 2).
The conclusion is that social memory embodied in a society, alternative views on the past. These beliefs are formed in the communication between the two generations, and insufficient evidence for the past.
Authority refers merely to the credibility, recognition, acceptance and correction of the statement or the author of the work is fixed in good faith and that can be used as a reliable source. It is very important that the author of a work is permitted, authorized, and canonized topic.Establishment written by the authorities as a writer is canonized and known to be a champion, and as an expert in his workplace. The legitimacy of the authentic work of great and credible to think about fundamental issues, the human mind to return to the origins of knowledge can be drawn. (Nealon and Giroux, 2003 to:. E, p. 9).
"Someone wrote that the writer, but the power of the writer lies in the recognition, intensity, reliability and general acceptance of all sections of society, because all the knowledge produced by the suspect until proven rules and legally and established standards for canonization "proved to be a list of major works. But not only does the production of literature, but also creates for other subjects such as history, philosophy and sociology, etc. (Nealon, 2003, p. 10 -.. Giroux 11).
Origin of the author's main question, "Who said that," "may be oral or written, to be" accurate, relevant and true (Everman. 1998). The power to determine the author, there is a number of standards assessed on the criterion of holiness. For example, the identity of his credentials, education, profession, or expertise in particular subject to the author, a rule of power sharing, institutional relations, labor publications, citations, intentions, objectivity and accuracy of the authenticity of the government also decided in the drive (this assessment arises: 2004) Sens, and author considered the canonical rules of agency work (Nealon and Giroux, 2003 to:. e S 16).
The conclusion is that the power of a writer assess the canonization, which not only provides power for "brilliant" and "greatness", but also contains a special relationship based on the reliability of the "honor" and "Respect" (Nealon and Giroux. 2003 In: e p. 11).
Discourse to examine the wording means the conversation, communication, speech, language, language use, especially in a work context or theme. social sciences. Discourse on how to express or communicate a specific language on a specific topic in the social world, the term "discourse" is versatile and has become a standard number of disciplines in social sciences, linguistics, humanities, philosophy,ethics and history and many other areas. He used the language of analysts, philosophers, theorists, such as post-structuralist or post-modernists, historians and others to analyze literary texts and non-literary concepts is a complex theoretical and philosophical and narrative development.
By John Tosh, while the creative approach to address the interpretation of texts to explain, he began to describe the speech that "the world some point the text consists of different types of production, each with its own cultural background the conceptual categories and models .. Each part belongs to the practice of the language of discourse or body (tosh, 2002, p.187) summarizes the discussions of the concept of tosh theorist and philosopher Michel Foucault --- French perception of speech essentially Foucault - - .. speech was not only an example, the use of language, but a form of power or knowledge (tosh quotes, 2002, 187), the speech, the ideas, beliefs, attitudes and experience of Social Issues, formalizing the process, focusing on production and design of power and truth. Foucault also given the principle that debate on weather the President power relations (Foucault, 1972 in.) Roger Fowler called the remarks at a speech or write existing values, beliefs, looking at the organization or representation of experience (cited in Mills, 2004, p. 14.
Discourse analysis refers to study the properties of the language that goes beyond the boundaries of a sentence. According to the tosh that the important process of modern linguistics on the basis of relativism (tosh, 2002, 187: e texts contain more than one level of meaning and the underlying power (tosh, 2002.193): Historians recognize they can not penetrate all the layers of meaning in their documents. Each piece is a socially specific historical situation (tosh, 2002.195).
Construction of the speech marks the difference between things, for example, people are not born criminals, but to judge the law to distinguish between criminals and law firm. (Nealon, Girux, 2003, p. 169): There is a social logic of the text, open historic rally study (Gabrielle "Spiegel", a reference to the tosh, 2002, 196). What tosh language, the power of new forms of political and social initiatives to formalize this connection, for example, justified by the French Revolution "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" (Tosh, 2002, 281). Another example is two separate speeches on the various guerrilla movements describing them, some soldiers and other terrorists. Dr. Judith Butler, a feminist poststructuralist researcher, describes the boundaries of acceptable speech and truth "(quoted in Richards 2004, p. 309).
. In conclusion. Speech influences our view of things, as its indispensable and ubiquitous concept refers to the language associated with certain types of social context such as cultural discourse, political discourse, legal discourse and religious discourse. It is the institutional form of expression in a language or a particular topic of communication in social practices.
Regional identity is a historical process, based on cultural traits of human groups "set up by regional indicators of understanding of regional identity, it is extremely important that the philosophical notions of identity and identity understanding, identity refers to general characteristics or "attributes" of a group of people formed by the typical "thought and behavior" and was built in a culture, a common language and religion. Although identification and empathy, the similarity of minds, a different group of other people say. distinguish between them and us, "The identification of the crucial importance of politics and regional identity (Johansson. 2001 S. 17 th).
Europe. The concept of regional identity in the center of attention strongly with the rise of nationalism in the nineteenth century, regional identity is determined by human nature and relationships, and has always played a decisive role in achieving theobjectives of the nation. The concept of regional identity should be discussed in light of the concept of region (Johansson. 2001 S. 14 th). It is also associated with geography, in particular regions (Grasso, 1998, p. 617). Institutionization as part of regional identity, but ethnicity is not necessary in a certain territory, but some groups claim the area as well and are therefore known as ethno-territorial. (Johansson. - Since 2001, S. 13, 14).
Finally, regional identity, which is an integral part of the nation-state. Regional identity and identification processes are interdependent state and nation building (Johansson. 2001 S. 18 th). "Territory of the identity of the processor. ... So as we think, and as a cultural area, owned by (and Cambrezy Bonne Maison, 1996, p. 17). It is an indispensable factor in the behavior human and the relationship between a group or groups outside the region, are interconnected in time and space.
Central Europe, the German term, which refers to the geographical and policy in Central Europe, East and West by the Iron Curtain. This term is used to define the division of Europe into two separate areas until the end of the Cold War in 1989. It refers to central Europe. Central Europe between certain parts of Western and Eastern Europe. The idea of Central Europe, are related to the concept of civil society and the opposition of communism during the Cold War.
Concept of Central Europe began to honestly, in 1889 the name of Central Europe, Eastern Europe against communist rule and democracy promotion. The idea was popularized in 1915, Friedrich Naumann. The differences between the USSR and Germany's allies and the division caused the failure of the German people to win the Central Europe has led to two German states and divided Europe (Delanty, 1995 at P 123):. In Delanty, Central Europe, a "normative concept (1995, p 138), as it is seen as an alternative to Western hegemony and expansion as a national concept and Eastern Europe.
Finally, Central Europe, which is originally used as anti-Soviet concept, but after the separation of the 1989 Central and Eastern Europe, Western Europe show.Reality. Historical and cultural idea that was different from the Soviet collectivism and Western consumerism
Nation refers to the convergence between the different ethnic groups are a nation of cultural transformation of the various features and characteristics of the formation of national identity and identification within the state "(The 2.001 Johansson. S. 20-21).
It is surprising that difficult problems that come, first seated or persons. In some cases the creation of a nation state. According to Johansson, against France, the "State of the State" because it was built in the nation (the 2001 th Johansson. S. 185).Hobsbawm also discussed the idea. He also said that the state is not the French nation. (Hobsbawm.1991). For example, French is compulsory for people to join the French government and a common language based on the common identity of the French language (Johansson. 2001, p. 204). France is "the nation-state of origin, formed national unity.
Two types of statements are "ethnic" people, the process developed by the national state, such as Germany, and "civil" nation states, state and nation-building process in France (2004 Seymour S. (3). it is very likely that the concepts of "nation" and "state" to discuss the concept of "nation state" understanding. "Nation" refers to the area of special group of people share a culture and a common history and identity and sovereignty, and "State" was built in the specific field, and political institutions that control the area. (Johansson. - from 2001 S. 186 th, 187).