Gender Consumer Differences In Hospitality Cultural Studies Essay

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Abstract

The essay is about how the design of the hotel attracts a visitor (tourists and business traveller) to come to the hotel. The design of the hotel also has to give a good memory to this visitor so that they will promote the hotel to other people. This will effect to the development of the business hotel. There is different of demand between male and female. The result of the research will effect to the overall of the design. First, there will be a research of the market in Singapore. Then analysis of why people consumes product. The essay will also introduce of what is a boutique hotel and what made it different to other chain hotel. As the essay is about consumer of the hotel, then there is analysis about what factors involve the consuming of the hospitality. The essay will also include the case study about designing in femininity and masculinity.

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Introduction

Does a building or interior spaces have a gender? Should it be either masculine or feminine? People usually describe architecture as an 'it' rather than he or she. By using gender to describe architecture, it will give identity to the architecture. Identity in architecture also can be a tool to human to show the personality of a person. This why there is different design between one home to the others, because it has different personality/style of the owner.

Geographically located in the South-East Asia, Singapore became the transiting point for many tourists. In 1960s and 1970s, Singapore government realized the important of the tourist dollar to the country's economy. So, there had been many projects that have been done to increase the tourists coming to Singapore. For example, the F1 race and the first Youth Olympic Games are to promote Singapore to the worldwide. Then there is casino and other amenities to attract tourists to come to Singapore.

Because of the increasing number of tourists coming to Singapore for the next few years, the demand of hotel will grow. The main purpose of tourist coming to Singapore is Business Travel and Mice, holiday (sightseeing, shopping etc), medical treatment, visiting friends and others. From the statistic of Singapore Tourism Board the majority of visitor coming is for holiday and business. As a result, the target market for the purpose hotel is business travellers and tourists. There is traveller whom travelled alone and with the companion. The companion of the traveller is spouse, group, friends, family with oldest, family with children and business companion. Based on the Singapore Tourism Board, the statistic show that spouse travellers in the higher statistic.

Gender Consumer In Hospitality

The Definition of Consumerism

Consumer society exists in the middle of eighteenth century in Britain, France, the Low Countries and part of Germany and Italy. There are five stages when people did consumption, first, there is a decision of what to buy, and where to buy the things, what to do in the store, and what is the usage of the things and how the consumer handles the waste.

There are many reasons that make people want to buy things. First, people consume things to stay alive. Humans need food, air to continue their live. They also need home to have a security and safety place to rest. Second, there is desire of people to belong in a group that received more attention. For example, people made a brand communities or fans club. Third, people need to have their own identity, which separate them with the others. Fourth, there is a need to feel good and (being spiritual). Pleasure has sought consumer lives in affluent societies. Nowadays, people travel around the world, go to spa, shopping just to consume pleasure. Fifth, if there is hope, there is a motivation. People need to hope and dream in order to have a motivation to consume things. Sixth, consumer is always in a control mode. Consumer attempts to control themselves in their decision making to avoid losses, to achieve their goals and manage risk. And the last is spiritual sustenance. In nowadays world, the spirit needs of comfort, reassurance, and the sustenance. This spiritual sustenance will give people vigour, hope and power. The everyday life will erode one's spirit so there is a need of sustaining activities. This sustaining can be a vacation, watching movie/television programme or reading books.

Boutique Hotel

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The world "boutique" was French origin; it came from Old French word, "botica". At first, people referred boutique as a small store which sold a unique items or a single product that targeted to the market. In around 1950, people start referring an elite fashion shop as 'boutique'. Boutique is not only referring to a standalone shop with one owner but also a high-end shopping chain with multiple shops. In development, boutique is also applied to a larger department store or shopping centre. It is also applied to a business which provided accommodate products or services for a very limited market. And nowadays, boutique is referred to a designed hotel, stylish hotel or themed hotel.

There is no definition in dictionary of what boutique hotel is, but it is known as a perfect and small chic little places which have common characteristic of the less formal charm that seem hanging in the air. Every boutique hotel has its own characteristic and theme. These themed will be different from one boutique hotel to the others. This kind of hotel also provides visitors with a cosy environment with the standard of five star hotel services. Ambience is an important part in boutique hotel because it contributes an experience to the customer. The ambience of the hotel can be defined as the decor, the service or the behaviour of the staff. A good experience in the hotel will leave a memory to the visitor. This will give a possibility that the visitor will recommend to other people. As a result, it will benefit to the hotel income.

Hospitality Consumer

There are three factors of involving individual consumers to interpret hospitality goods and services, which are antecedents, properties and involvement outcomes. Antecedents are the personal, product and situation involvement. Personal involvement includes self-images, needs, drives, values, fantasy, etc. Product, consumer reacts to the hospitality product in a different ways. Situation is levels of involvement are also influenced by the situation in which we consume. Properties of the involvement are applied to the feelings of the experience of the hospitality consumer when associated with goods and services and that lead to behaviour. Outcomes of involvement are depended on the antecedents and the properties involvements.

The Behaviour of Gender Consumer

Gender is a very important subject that is talking about people (personality) and (social) culture. The focus on the consumer means that successful businesses are those that keep their customers in view and deliver products match the consumer needs. The first step is to identify who is making decision to buy a product. Market research has defined the consumer in terms of the social class, age, and geographical location, but not paid attention to the gender. The term of gender is a social concept referring to psychologically, sociologically or culturally rooted traits, attitude, beliefs and behavioural tendencies.

There is a different between what women want and what men want they consuming product, although that is a same product. According to the Salli Brand, the author of the 'The Girls' Guide to DIY (2004), there is a difference priorities between male and female which is quote with " My experience with women is that they are more methodical than men, and that they are more interested in aesthetics. When she buys screws, she'll pick out the prettiest ones. In the other ways, he'll buy the strongest ones." (Marsh 2004, 29)

There are differences between the attitude of men and women. Men is more individualistic, their perspective is the 'I'. Their priority is themselves. In the other side, women is more collective concerns, their perspective is 'we'. Women are more concern to others. Men are an objected centred and women are people centred. In approaching a task, men will take a single task at a time. They will focus on the top priorities. But women will try to take a multi-task (try to accomplish as many tasks as possible) because in their thought all points will be priorities. If they buy a product, men like minimal detail about it. In the other hand, women are perfectionist. They will not buy until their wish list is listed. In looking on a product, men will interested in how product is works but women will more interested in what product features will do.

Gender Architecture

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In 1951, it is unusual to link architecture with gender and sexuality. Architecture and gender are not universally linked. One form does not always mean one thing. The connection between architecture and gender are variable and fluid.

According to J.F.Blonde, a masculine architecture can be understood as one which, without being heavy and, retains in its composition the firmness suited to the grandeur of the location and to the type of building. It is simple in its general forms, and without too much ornamental detail; it has rectilinear plans, right angles and projections which cast deep shade. There is a different between a firm architecture and masculine architecture. By its masses, firm architecture has less weight. Masculine architecture was resolute, expressed its purpose clearly, with no more decoration than the necessary, and conveyed structural solidity and permanence. In the other side, feminine architecture is drawn from the proportion of the Ionic order. The character expressed by Ionic order is more naïve, gentler, and less robust than the Doric order. That is the reason it is used appropriately and with discretion in the decoration of the buildings. Feminine architecture is meant to charm, was permitted a degree of equivocation and ambiguity.

The first image is show the lobby of Glacier Park Hotel. In this hotel, visitor will walk through a long, narrow lobby with two rows of massive tree trunks on the side as columns. In this space, it shows masculine qualities: the strong axis of the interior gives the direction to the reception, the column which indicated an upward trust, the massive timber post show a sense of permanence and the whole space is kept in simplicity.

The second image is the lobby of Old Faithful Inn. The design of this hotel is either feminine or meet the expectation of masculine architecture. The lobby also using timber and rough materials but it was more slender than the Glacier hotel. The exterior of the Old Faithful is designed in the decorative shapes, and decorative is the female characteristic. As a whole, the lobby of the Faithful Inn looks rough and refined (masculine character), but the designed is actually feminized.

The two case study, show the qualities of feminine and the masculine in the interior. Then the next example, Gild Hotel in New York City shows how the designer created the atmosphere for male and female visitors. Located in the financial district, Gild Hotel has inherently manly location. The designer chooses a very bold design, but he put women at the front of his mind. The designer wanted to play with the psychological relationship between men and women. The designer uses the direction of the feeling of the 'Old School Boys'. The usage of soft lines, sumptuous furnishing and zero hard surfaces made the designer able to capture a Wall Street feels that will appeals to the target visitor, businessmen. It is to create an environment that will made both gender feels comfortable.

The application of the design

Based on the target market which is business traveller and tourists, the location of the hotel will be in the Stamford house. The location is very strategic because it is located not only in the central of business centre but also near the tourist attraction and shopping mall. The original building is designed in Victorian style, but the facade will be changed to attract visitor. The first floor facade will be in the concave shape to welcome visitors to the hotel.

The overall planning of the hotel space is divided into the public and private spaces.

Public space is the lobby, restaurant, fitness and the swimming area. The private area will be the rooms. Between these two areas is the outdoors space. There will be an outdoor and indoor restaurant in the hotel. Fitness area will become a semi-outdoor space. The overall designed will play on contrasting between two element in the design, for example the outdoor and indoor space, the rough and delicate space, simple and decorative space. The feminine space is more slender than the masculine space. The masculine space is divined by its simplicity and massive. For the masculine spaces, the chosen material will give a feeling of massive, strong or rough to the interior space. In the other side, the feminine material will give the feeling of lightness, softness or openness to the interior space.

Experience