Fruit Juice In Mixture Of Fruit Juices Cultural Studies Essay

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Taste is the sense by which the chemical qualities of food in the mouth are distinguished by the brain, based on information provided by the taste buds. Human's ability to taste occurs when tiny molecules released by chewing, drinking, or digesting our food stimulates special sensory cells in the mouth and throat. These taste cells, or gustatory cells, are clustered within the taste buds of the tongue and roof of the mouth, and along the lining of the throat. Many of the small bumps on the tip of your tongue contain taste buds. At birth, we have about 10,000 taste buds, but after age 50, we may start to lose them.

When the taste cells are stimulated, they send messages through three specialized taste nerves to the brain, where specific tastes are identified. Each taste cell expresses a receptor, which responds to one of at least five basic taste qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Umami, or savory, is the taste we get from glutamate, which is found in chicken broth, meat extracts, and some cheeses. A common misconception is that taste cells that respond to different tastes are found in separate regions of the tongue. In humans, the different types of taste cells are scattered throughout the tongue.

Taste quality is just one aspect of how we experience a certain food. Another chemosensory mechanism, called the common chemical sense, involves thousands of nerve endings, especially on the moist surfaces of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat. These nerve endings give rise to sensations such as the coolness of mint and the burning or irritation of chili peppers. Other specialized nerves give rise to the sensations of heat, cold, and texture. When we eat, the sensations from the five taste qualities, together with the sensations from the common chemical sense and the sensations of heat, cold, and texture, combine with a food's aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets us know whether we are eating a pear or an apple.

Experiment Justification:

Human's ability to distinguish taste mainly depends on three aspects, which are the conscious perception of taste, emotional quality of taste and memories of taste. Perception and memories do dominate the most in distinguishing tastes, when different fruit juices are mixed together; the taste is mixed up, thus causing confusion in interpreting taste by human brain and fails to conclude out the taste. People may easily manage to recognize the flavor of fruit juices individually rather than mixing up them due to the conscious perception and memories of taste.

Experiment Variables:-

Manipulated variable: Mixture of fruit juices

Responding variable: The ability of subjects to identify each fruit juice

Constant variable: Ratio of mixing two fruit juices

Experiment Methodology:

Three types of juices, which are mango juice, orange juice and pink guava juice, were prepared.

The mango juice, orange juice and pink guava juice were labeled with alphabet A, B, and C respectively.

Two types of juices would be mixed together with the ratio 1:1.

A measuring cup was used to measure the juices.

The juices were mixed, which are A+B, B+C and A+C and labeled with number 1, 2, and 3 respectively.

Then, the mixed juices were ready to be tasted.

Experiment Result:

* IC - Identity card number, HP - handphone number, (M) - Male, (F) - Female

Table 1.1

Subjects

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

Name: Chong Lian (M)

IC: 590207-10-6623

HP: 016-2958828

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Lee Chee Kong (M)

IC: 821127-10-5845

HP: 016-3466631

Mango + Lime

Pink Guava + Mango

Pink Guava + Orange

Name: Teh Chan Mun (M)

IC: 780505-14-5169

HP: 016-6065887

Grapes + Orange

Pink Guava + Lime

Mango + Carrot

Name: Wong Kah Xin (M)

IC: 910623-10-5339

HP: 010-2523512

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Mango + Orange

Name: Teoh Chun Hooi (M)

IC: 910429-10-5319

HP: 017-3231088

Mango + Apple

Pink Guava + Carrot

Grapes + Pink Guava

Name: Chin Kah Mun (F)

IC: 880114-14-5506

HP: 016-2878136

Mango + Orange

Grapes + Pink Guava

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Yong Suet Lai (F)

IC: 940619-14-5730

HP: 010-2193566

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Chong Li Fun (F)

IC: 820906-14-5120

HP: 016-3028989

Mango + Orange

Grapes + Pink Guava

Grapes + Mango

Name: Chong Kim Lan (F)

IC: 630112-06-5658

HP: 016-2958831

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Mango + Orange

Name: Chong Lee Thing (F)

IC: 910917-10-5764

HP: 016-2538982

Orange + Lime

Pink Guava + Orange

Grapes + Mango

Tested by: Chong Lee Kim

* IC - Identity card number, HP - handphone number, (M) - Male, (F) - Female

Table 1.2

Subjects

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

Name: Lye Wend Jin (M)

IC: 780212-08-6847

HP: 016-6825207

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Apple

Pink Guava + Orange

Name: Hong Han Kee (M)

IC: 891227-02-5619

HP: 010-2198076

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Apple

Mango + Apple

Name: Moo Phooi Loy (M)

IC: 640717-08-5415

HP: 016-5415722

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Carrot

Grapes + Blackcurrant

Name: Chong Kah Hoe (M)

IC: 930305-08-5019

HP: 016-5443520

Mango + Lime

Grapes + Pink Guava

Grapes + Mango

Name: Ngoi Zhan Nam (M)

IC: 910811-08-6307

HP: 016-5644709

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Carrot

Grapes + Mango

Name: Ng Li Keang (F)

IC: 790317-08-5536

HP: 016-6264557

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Chan Chooi Ling (F)

IC: 940109-02-6002

HP: 010-3885365

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Apple

Pink Guava + Lime

Name: Soon Mei Ling (F)

IC: 891025-01-5262

HP: 010-2259626

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Apple

Pink Guava + Carrot

Name: Fong Ai Lin (F)

IC: 790404-07-5340

HP: 016-4822611

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Apple

Grapes + Carrot

Name: Mok Chao Wen (F)

IC: 991027-14-6510

HP: 019-3325356

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Lime + Carrot

Tested by: Hong Wan Ying

* IC - Identity card number, HP - handphone number, (M) - Male, (F) - Female

Table 1.3

Subjects

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

Name: Lau Weng Kang (M)

IC: 910312-01-6771

HP: 014-3822713

Orange + Blackcurrant

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Apple

Name: Hue Jiunn Jye (M)

IC: 911030-01-5011

HP: 012-7752669

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Blackcurrant

Apple + Orange

Name: Khor Yu He (M)

IC: 911012-01-6345

HP: 016-7835143

Mango + Orange

Blackcurrant + Apple

Mango + Apple

Name: Chong Wey Kuen (M)

IC: 910213-08-3437

HP: 016-7365456

Mango + Apple

Mango + Orange

Blackcurrant + Apple

Name: Hannah Mok Han Rhu (F)

IC: 901213-01-5088

HP: 0197527440

Mango + Apple

Pink Guava + Apple

Apple + Orange

Name: Yap Swee Chee (F)

IC: 940421-02-3232

HP: 016-7302801

Mango + Orange

Mango + Apple

Pink Guava + Orange

Name: Lee Xiang Yi (F)

IC: 900523-01-3544

HP: 017-7105164

Pink Guava + Blackcurrant

Blackcurrant + Mango

Mango + Apple

Name: Koh Sok Fong (F)

IC: 930127-01-5184

HP: 0143123963

Pink Guava + Mango

Orange + Mango

Mango + Apple

Name: Thian Mee Lin (F)

IC: 701115-08-5182

HP: 012-7931909

Pink Guava + Apple

Apple + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Name: Chong Zhi Kuan (F)

IC: 940421-01-3232

HP: 013-7573171

Pink Guava + Mango

Orange + Mango

Apple + Orange

Tested by: Lau Sze Wei

* IC - Identity card number, HP - handphone number, (M) - Male, (F) - Female

Table 1.4

Subjects

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

Name: Lee Chin Chong (M)

IC: 561201-10-5475

HP: 012-5176628

Pink Guava + Orange

Lime + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Name: Ling Wen Kai (M)

IC: 940311-14-5945

HP: 016-3797543

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Carrot

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Lee Bing Jian (M)

IC: 940713-14-5323

HP: 013-2646173

Orange

Mango + Orange

Mango + Lime

Name: Kong Chee Wai (M)

IC: 881113-56-6135

HP: 016-2373783

Orange + Apple

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Kong Chee Hung (M)

IC: 920307-14-5629

HP: 016-2702882

Orange + Lime

Grapes + Carrot

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Lee Shu Wen (F)

IC: 900325-14-6248

HP: 012-3036001

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Tang Swee Kim (F)

IC: 651001-10-5752

HP: -

Orange + Apple

Mango

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Lee Ying Ying (F)

IC: 880901-56-6684

HP: 012-1353268

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Carrot

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Teoh Pei Yi (F)

IC: 940719-14-6378

HP: 017-9880318

Mango + Orange

Orange + Carrot

Mango + Orange

Name: Kong Wei Ling (F)

IC: 941027-14-6080

HP: 016-2334608

Orange + Apple

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Tested by: Lee Shin Yi

* IC - Identity card number, HP - handphone number, (M) - Male, (F) - Female

Table 1.5

Subjects

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

Name: Simon Monjulim (M)

IC: 630523-12-5237

HP: 019-8505990

Lime + Orange

Pink Guava + Lime

Pink Guava + Orange

Name: Chong Guo Hao (M)

IC: 991116-12-5957

HP: 088-267718

Mango + Orange

Orange + Blackcurrant

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Leong Hee Seng (M)

IC: 520826-71-5125

HP: 013-8517166

Grapes + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Kong Kai Lun (M)

IC: 920421-12-5699

HP: 012-8437862

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Lime + Orange

Name: Raymond Monjulim (M)

IC: 971109-12-5459

HP: 016-5841929

Mango + Orange

Grapes + Orange

Apple + Orange

Name: Liaw Seu Tee (F)

IC: 640922-12-5180

HP: 013-8655188

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava

Pink Guava + Blackcurrant

Name: Fong Kui Han (F)

IC: 601109-12-5362

HP: 012-8243318

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Ny Shy Tying (F)

IC: 930415-12-5376

HP: 016-8019603

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Lime + Orange

Name: Fong Kui Yin @ Fong Kui Tai (F)

IC: 560506-12-5106

HP: 088-221002

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Lime + Orange

Name: Gloria Monjulim (F)

IC: 931217-12-5230

HP: 016-5861231

Mango + Orange

Grapes + Orange

Mango + Lime

Tested by: Leong Boon Fung

* IC - Identity card number, HP - handphone number, (M) - Male, (F) - Female

Table 1.6

Subjects

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

Name: Lim Hock Leong (M)

IC: 910612-14-5669

HP: 012-3493396

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava

Carrot

Name: Chiew Chee Seng (M)

IC: 940419-08-5593

HP: 017-5075498

Mango + Orange

Orange + Carrot

Orange + Carrot

Name: Chang Wooi Keat (M)

IC: 940818-14-7325

HP: 016-2058256

Mango + Orange

Mango + Carrot

Mango + Carrot

Name: Wong Lap Tat (M)

IC: 530414-01-5201

HP: 012-7778332

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Yeo Jia Cai (M)

IC: 940114-01-5607

HP: 019-6969108

Mango + Orange

Orange + Apple

Mango + Apple

Name: Chua Ping Sian (F)

IC: 941205-04-5056

HP: 014-6269486

Mango + Orange

Orange + Carrot

Apple + Carrot

Name: Leng Chia Hui (F)

IC: 940730-01-6080

HP: 016-7346788

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Ng Ya Teng (F)

IC: 940515-10-5806

HP: 010-2109298

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Orange

Pink Guava + Mango

Name: Wau Hui Ying (F)

IC: 940824-05-5128

HP: 011-28205424

Mango + Orange

Apple + Orange

Mango +Apple

Name: Lau Soon Kia (F)

IC: 570422-01-5662

HP: 017-8434127

Mango + Orange

Pink Guava + Lime

Pink Guava + Orange

Tested by: Wong An An

Graph 1.7 shows the number of subjects who got correct and wrong in identifying 3 mixed juices. In juice 1, 37 subjects got correct while 23 subjects got wrong in identification of fruit juices; in both juice 2 and juice 3, 17 subjects got correct while 43 subjects got wrong in identification of fruit juices.

Table 1.8 shows the number of subjects according to age and the number of subjects who got correct identifying juice 1, juice 2 and juice 3. There are a total number of 60 subjects being tested, which are 41 subjects from age 10 to 29, 12 subjects from age 30 to 49, and 7 subjects from age 50 to 69.

Age range

Number of subjects

Number of subjects who got correct in

Juice 1

Juice 2

Juice 3

10 - 29

41

26

12

11

30 - 49

12

7

1

2

50 - 69

7

4

4

4

Chart 1.9 shows the percentage of subjects who got correct and wrong in identifying a total of 3 mixed juices despite of subject's gender and age. 39% of subjects got correct in identification of fruit juices while 61% of subjects got wrong in identification of fruit juices.

Result Discussion:

How taste works?

Taste signals go to the limbic system and to the cerebral cortex

http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/gif/tastepat.gif

When the taste cells send electrical messages to the nerve cells, the messages are continuously passed to two major centers called limbic system and the cerebral cortex through relay neurons.

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/limbicsystem.gif

The limbic system includes the hypothalamus, amygdala and hippocampus, which functions in emotional state and memory formation, makes us experience emotional changes and feel nostalgic when tasting. Meanwhile, the frontal cerebral cortex is responsible for conscious identification of flavor. The mixed up juices tend to become a very new taste ever in their life.

Thus, when the subjects consume the mixed fruit juices, they will feel odd and confused in the identification, feeling unacceptable to the "new" taste. The mixed up juices tend to become a very new taste ever in their life. Mixing of the fruit juices may sends conflicting information to the brain, thus causing confusion in identification. There may be some reason to explain. Firstly, they have no memory in tasting such "new" flavor. Secondly, due to the fruit juices are mixed, there is no conscious identification of flavor, meaning that they are not knowing the flavor of juices at all in advance.

Taste receptors response

Each receptor may respond best to only one type of taste, say sweet, but it can also weakly respond to sour taste. This is because the taste cells have more than one type of membrane receptor. The messages will be sent to brain, depending on what taste the subjects are testing. Also, complicated connections make neurons in the brain to detect a complex taste, such as sweet-sour taste.

Biases in flavor of real fruit juice and artificial fruit juice

In the experiment, the manipulated variable, which involves the fruit juices used are not extracted from real fruit but fruit juices with synthetic flavor, causing biases in flavor of real fruit and artificial fruit flavor. Difference in the flavor of real fruit and the artificial one may cause different interpretation and failure to interpret in human tongue.

Human's perception

Human often depends on perception; like their thinking may lead to the logical fruit color when they see the color of juices and the pulp in orange juice (visual). For example, (i) the subjects will have perceptual ability to guess whether it is orange or mango when they see yellow color in juices, consequently they will automatically eliminate the choice of blackcurrant. (ii) They may guess that it is orange juice when seeing orange pulps inside the juice.

And too, taste cells and olfactory cells often work together to identify flavor. Taste buds of the tongue identify taste; nerves in the nose identify smell. Both sensations are communicated to the brain so that the integration can be completed. When the subjects smell the juices, the volatile fruit juice odor penetrates into their nasal cavity. The perception of olfactory contributes to the identification of flavor.

Conclusion

Human's ability to distinguish taste is based on memory, perception and conscious flavor of taste.

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