Foreign Relations Of Japan Cultural Studies Essay

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Ever since japan surrendered after the World War II, the Japanese diplomatic policy has been based on partnership with US and the emphasis was mostly on international cooperation such as UN. Japan also took part in western world's confrontation with the Soviet Union in East Asia. Japan becomes one of the most powerful countries during 1960s and 1970s through rapid economic development.

Japanese foreign policy was not self-assertive and they kept focusing on economic growth. But their policy changed slowly seeing the Gulf War. This also led them to move to peacekeeping operations by UN and sending its troops to Cambodia, Mozambique, Golan Heights and East Timor.

Apart from its immediate neighbours, Japan has pursued a more active foreign policy in recent years, recognizing the responsibility which accompanies its economic strength. Japan always wanted to become a hub of human resource development as well as for research and intellectual contribution to further promote cooperation in the field of peace-building. This follows the modest success of a Japanese-conceived peace plan which became the foundation for nationwide elections in Cambodia in 1988

Foreign investments

Most of their foreign investments were not significant economic relations. All their foreign investments were heavily influenced by government regulations, which kept investment flow very small. These controls applied to direct investment in the creation of subsidiaries under the control of a parent company, portfolio investment, and lending. They created controls to prevent foreigners from gaining ownership of the economy when japan is in week state after the world war -II and by concerns over the balance of payments deficits. Beginning in the late 1960s, these controls were gradually loosened, and the process of deregulation accelerated and continued throughout the 1980s. The result was a dramatic increase in capital movements, with the biggest change occurring in outflows-investments by Japanese in other countries. By the end of the 1980s, Japan had become a major international investor. Because the country was a newcomer to the world of overseas investment, this development led to new forms of tension with other countries, including criticism of highly visible Japanese acquisitions in the United States and elsewhere.


Japanese culture has always been linked to past which shows their attitudes and concerns of the present day. Popular films, television, manga, music, and video games all developed from older artistic and literary traditions, and many of their themes and styles of presentation can be traced to traditional art forms

The contemporary Japanese culture not only creates entertainment it also helps in solving the problems of an industrial world. Japan is typically a hard working country when a survey was taken by the Government to find how much the people spend as leisure time the found it to be just two and half hours per week and those leisure activities are watching television, listening to radio and reading newspapers

The manga culture was originated from japan and it continues to be the popular across Japan, they are also too good at video games which they are always critically acclaimed for the quality of animations which is now slowly moving to US and United Kingdom.

In the late 1980s, the family was the focus of leisure activities, such as excursions to parks or shopping districts. Although Japan is often thought of as a hard-working society with little time for leisure, the Japanese seek entertainment wherever they can. It is common to see Japanese commuters riding the train to work, enjoying their favourite manga, or listening through earphones to the latest in popular music on portable music players.Japan has been coming up new hangout like the game centres', bowling alleys, and which still remains as major hangout for people in that region

Together, the publishing, film/video, music/audio, and game industries in Japan make up the growing Japanese content industry, which, in 2006, was estimated to be worth close to 26 trillion Yen (USD$ 400 billion.).


Japan is always a homogenous society with a strong group and national identity with little emphasis to social and ethical class diversity. Japan is very unique in its society as they have highly structured approach to managing and resolving the differences. Harmony has been the main emphasis in Japanese culture as they believe it marks the personal dignity. Harmony is the key value in Japanese society. Harmony is the guiding philosophy for the Japanese in family and business settings and in society as a whole. Japanese education system lays more emphasis on interdependence of all the people and help them to create that group work culture.

They place great emphasis on politeness, personal responsibility and working together for the universal, rather than the individual goals. This has been their major strength in bring people together and working for a cause and achieving their goals easily.

Japanese emphasis more on non-verbal communication which rely heavily on the facial expression. The verbal communication is always misleading based on the tone of voice and the words spoken. Most Japanese maintain an impassive expression when speaking.  In crowded situations the Japanese avoid eye contact to give themselves privacy. 

Japanese Hierarchy 

The Japanese are always conscious of the age and status and they behave like a family were the elders are preferred to head the group. Even their school children address senior to them ('senpai') or junior to them ('kohai'). The oldest person in a group is always revered and honoured. In a social situation, they will be served first and their drinks will be poured for them.


The Japanese domestic market always referred to their motor vehicle and components. Within the car manufacturing they are designed and inbuilt in Japan which is follows the Government norms and regulations and has to suit the market preference. All their motor vehicles has inbuilt speed limiter as per Government norms even though they can go faster. They started the supply chain revolution in Toyota production system which has been a study for so many years.

Japanese market is always know for innovation, they are the ones who come up with technology which is eco-friendly and efficient. The economy of Japan is the third largest national economy in the world after the United States and the People's Republic of China and is the world's second largest developed economy .Japan's per capita GDP (PPP) was at $34,739 or the 25th highest in 2011. Japan is a member of Group of Eight.

Japan is the world's 3rd largest automobile manufacturing country, has the largest electronics goods industry, they also have huge number of patents in automobile industry to support their innovation capabilities. Facing increasing competition from China and South Korea, manufacturing in Japan today now focuses primarily on high-tech and precision goods, such as optical equipment, hybrid cars, and robotics.

As of 2011, 68 of the Fortune 500 companies are based in Japan. The economy of Tokyo is the largest metropolitan economy in the world. In 1980s, rising stock and real estate prices caused the Japanese economy to overheat in what was later to be known lead to bubble burst and real estate prices peaked in 1991. Then once their economy recovered they have been challenging every developed nation in the world.



Formal Relations Began

Notes Albania


See Albania-Japan relations

Albania and Japan resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.[28]

Albania has an embassy in Tokyo. Armenia


See Armenia-Japan relations

Armenia is represented in Japan through its embassy in Beijing (China).

Japan is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).

Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia Austria


See Austria-Japan relations

Austria has an embassy in Tokyo and 4 honorary consulates (in Hiroshima, Nagoya, Osaka and Sapporo).

Japan has an embassy in Vienna and an honorary consulate in Salzburg. Bulgaria


See Bulgaria-Japan relations

Bulgaria has an embassy in Tokyo and an honorary consulate in Yokohama.[29]

Japan has an embassy in Sofia.[30]

Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria Croatia

1920[31] and restored 1957[32]

See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic#Asia Denmark


See Denmark-Japan relations Estonia


See Foreign relations of Estonia#Relations by country European Union


See Japan-European Union relations Finland


See Foreign relations of Finland#Asia France


See France-Japan relations

The history of Franco-Japanese relations (æ-¥ä»é-¢ä¿‚ Nichi-Futsu kankei?) goes back to the early 17th century, when a Japanese samurai and ambassador on his way to Rome landed for a few days in Southern France, creating a sensation. France and Japan have enjoyed a very robust and progressive relationship spanning centuries through various contacts in each others' countries by senior representatives, strategic efforts, and cultural exchanges. Georgia


See Georgia-Japan relations

Japan has extended foreign aid to Georgia for various economic and cultural development projects.

The balance of trade between the two nations is heavily in favor of Japan, with Japan exporting automobiles and manufactured goods, and Georgia exporting food products and chemicals.

Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze made an official visit to Japan in March 1999 and President Mikheil Saakashvilivisited Japan in March 2007.

Since November 2006, Georgia has maintained an embassy in Tokyo.

Japan has an embassy in Tbilisi.

Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan

Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Georgia Germany

January 1861

See Germany-Japan relations

Regular meetings between the two countries have led to several cooperations. In 2004 German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi agreed upon cooperations in the assistance for reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan,[33][34] the promotion of economic exchange activities,[35] youth and sports exchanges[36] as well as exchanges and cooperation in science, technology and academic fields.[37] Greece


See Greece-Japan relations

There has been a Greek embassy in Tokyo since 1960, and a Japanese embassy in Athens since the same year, when it was decided to upgrade the Japanese Consulate which had opened in 1956. Since then the two countries have enjoyed excellent relations in all fields, and cooperate closely.[38] Holy See


The first Papal visit to Japan took place in 1981. the present Apostolic Nuncio to Japan is Archbishop Alberto Bottari de Castello(since 2005) Japan first sent an ambassador, Ken Harada, to the Vatican during World War II. Hungary


See Hungary-Japan relations

Hungary has an embassy in Tokyo and 2 honorary consulates (in Hamamatsu and Osaka).[39]

Japan has an embassy in Budapest.[40]

Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary Iceland


See Foreign relations of Iceland#Rest of world Ireland


See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland#Asia Italy


See Foreign relations of Italy#Asia and Oceania Kosovo


See Japan-Kosovo relations

Japan recognised it in 18 March 2008.[41] The first Ambassador of Japan to the Republic of Kosovo is Akio Tanaka. He is subordinate to the Japanese Embassy in Vienna, Austria[42] Lithuania


See Japan-Lithuania relations

Japan has an embassy in Vilnius, established in 1997.[43]

In 1998, Lithuania has an embassy in Tokyo.[44]

Ambassador to Lithuania is Miyoko Akashi, ambassador to Japan is Dainius Kamaitis.

In 2007 the Emperor and Empress of Japan Akihito and Michiko paid an official visit in Lithuania. Netherlands


See Japan-Netherlands relations

The relations between Japan and the Netherlands after 1945 have been a triangular relationship. The invasion and occupation of theNetherlands East Indies during World War II brought about the destruction of the colonial state in Indonesia, as the Japanese removed as much of the Dutch government as they could, weakening the post-war grip the Netherlands had over the territory. Under pressure from the United States, the Netherlands recognised Indonesian sovereignty in 1949 (see United States of Indonesia). Moldova


Japan has a non resident ambassador in Ukraine.

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova, H.E. Mr. Nicolae Tabacaru paid a visit to Japan from 31 January to 4 February 1999. It was a first official visit of a Cabinet Member of the Republic of Moldova to Japan. The visit has strengthened the friendly relations between Japan and the Republic of Moldova.

Since 2000 Japan implements in Moldova the grant programme for the improvement of agriculture and private farming.

Embassy of the Republic of Moldova in China

Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova

Japanese ministry of foreign affairs about Moldova Montenegro

24 July 2006

See Japan-Montenegro relations

Japan recognised Montenegro on 16 June 2006 and established diplomatic relations on 24 July 2006. Montenegro had declared war on Japan in 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War and never signed a peace treaty until 2006, shortly before the opening of diplomatic relations. The war lasted for 101 years. Trade, mostly related to electronics, exports from Japan to Montenegro (163 million yen per annum) outweigh Japan's imports (2 million yen per annum). Romania

August 1902

See Foreign relations of Romania#Asia: East Asia

The first representation of Romania in Japan was opened in 1921

Japan was represented in Romania through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).

After World War II, both states resumed their diplomatic relations in 1959.

Japan has an embassy in Bucharest.[45]

Romania has an embassy in Tokyo and 4 honorary consulates (in Atami, Osaka, Nagoya and Yokohama).[46]

Japanese Ministry of Foreign affairs about relations with Romania Russia


See Japan-Russia relations

Japan's relations with Russia are hampered by the two sides' inability to resolve their territorial dispute over the four islands that make up the Northern Territories (Kuriles), which the U.S.S.R. seized towards the end of World War II. The stalemate has prevented conclusion of a peace treaty formally ending the war. The dispute over the Kuril Islands exacerbated the Japan-Russo relations when the Japanese government published a new guideline for school textbooks on 16 July 2008 to teach Japanese children that their country has sovereignty over the Kuril Islands. The Russian public was outraged by the action the Foreign Minister of Russia criticized the action while reaffirming its sovereignty over the islands.[47][48] Serbia


See Japan-Serbia relations

Japan has an embassy in Belgrade.

Serbia has an embassy in Tokyo and an honorary consulate in Osaka. Slovenia


Japan has an embassy in Ljubljana.[49]

Slovenia has an embassy in Tokyo.[50]

Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Slovenia Soviet Union


See Japan-Soviet Union relations

Relations between the Soviet Union (1922-1991) and Japan were always tense. For one, both countries were in opposite camps during the Cold War. A second strain on relations is territorial conflicts, dealing with both the Kuril Islands dispute and the SouthSakhalin dispute. These two, and a number of smaller conflicts, prevented both countries from signing a peace treaty after World War II, and even in 2007 matters remain unresolved.

Strains in Japan - Soviet Union relations have deep historical roots, going back to the competition of the Japanese and Russianempires for dominance in Northeast Asia. In 1993, nearly fifty years after the end of World War II, a state of war between Japan and Russia existed technically because the government in Moscow had refused in the intervening years to sign the 1951 peace treaty. On 30 July 1998, the newly elected Japanese prime minister Keizō Obuchi had focused on major issues: signing a peace treaty with Russia, and reviving the Japanese economy. Before his death, his policy with the Russian Federation has eluded implementation and the relations between the two nations remained under a state of war. The main stumbling block in all Japan's subsequent efforts to establish bilateral relations on what it called "a truly stable basis" was the territorial dispute over the Kurils, which are known as the Northern Territories in Japan. Spain

First contact in 1613, officialized in 1868.

Japan has an embassy in Madrid and consulates in Barcelona and Las Palmas.

Spain has an embassy in Tokyo.

Since 1997, every year a Japan-Spain Symposium for the cultural exchange between the two countries is held.

Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Spain

Spanish Embassy in Tokyo about Spanish relations with Japan Switzerland


Japan has an embassy in Bern and a general consulate in Geneva.[51][52]

Switzerland has an embassy in Tokyo.

Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Switzerland

Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Japan Turkey


See Japan-Turkey relations

First embassies were opened in 1925.

Japan has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.[53]

Turkey has an embassy in Tokyo.[54]

There are 10,000 Turks living in Japan.

Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Japan Ukraine


See Japan-Ukraine relations

Japan extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on 28 December 1991, immediately after the breakup of theSoviet Union

Ukraine maintains an embassy in Tokyo.[55]

Japan maintains an embassy in Kiev.[56] United Kingdom


See Japan-United Kingdom relations

The relationship between the United Kingdom and Japan began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyūshū at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641-1853) there were no relations, but the treaty of 1854 saw the resumption of ties which, despite the hiatus of the Second World War, remain very strong in the present day.