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Davis explores cultural diversity and defines it as cultural competence. It is a merger and exchange of knowledge held by people and groups into specific standards such as policies, practices and attitudes which can be used in right cultural settings.
Adams (1995) describes that cultural competence relates to groups or people with selected cultural characteristics such as history, values, belief systems or behaviours of members of another ethnic group.
In other words, cultural competence sets out policies to enable a system of working effectively in cross-cultural situations; it has a diversity of people from different backgrounds with similar opportunities to develop good relations in the workplace, in schools and within the neighbourhood. For example, ACNA (African Caribbean National Artistic Centre) Nottingham is a Caribbean Centre based in St Ann's (Nottingham City, 2013). ACNA is a centre where people from the Caribbean of all ages come and meet, a place where the older people would sit and talk about their stories from the Caribbean.
Rosenau (1992) believes that people use folk stories, myths or legends, known as mini-narratives, to promotes a social bond among individuals in their everyday lives.This centre also delivers activities to promote social and cultural identity. There are computer classes and creative writing clubs weekly. The members speak in different languages; some have a dialect formed from broken French, an influence from Dominica and St Lucia. Creole is an important part of most shared identity and culture. However, older people may speak it with a stronger accent. In other parts of the Caribbean such as Jamaica, Patois is spoken.
Nottingham city is one of the UK's most important cities for business and enterprise, learning and science, sport and culture. The city has one of the UK's largest and most successful retail centres, public transport, parks and green spaces and cultural opportunities. (Nottingham City, 2013). It has international businesses, including Boots, Capital One and Paul Smith (Nottingham City, 2013). The two main universities have over 60,000 students enrolled between them. In Nottingham city, there are 20 wards, which are represented by Nottingham Councillors (see appendix 1).
Examples are Denewood Triangle, Strelley Estate and Moorgreen Estate. According to Nottingham's deprivation ranking as improved in 2007, it was the 13th most deprived local authority area, and in 2010, it's the most deprived area. There have been some improvements in employment, education and crime(REF).
Community Cohesion Henderson (2000) describes that community development can be viewed under several auspices, including health regeneration and crime reduction, where there is a shared belief that community participation and citizen involvement are necessary for social improvement. Etzioni (1993) looks at community involvement around family social responsibility underpinning this approach, especially in relation to volunteering, parenting and active citizenship expressed through collective self-help and voluntary forms of association.
Radical community work emphasises people's civil rights and strives for social justice seeking to develop a political conscience and powerful forms of collective organising to affect social change through redistribution of power. For example, communities and organisations may involve the development of anti-oppressive strategies by helping people to challenge the roots of their disadvantage and demand better or fairer treatment. The Local Government Association (2002) defines community cohesion as a sense of belonging for all communities . Ledwith (1997) looks at the radical version of community development through causes of poverty and disadvantages to be found in the economic system, reflection of historical patterns of exploitation embedded in social and political institutions.
Population statistics for Nottingham around 50 years ago were broken down, and stats now show the ethnic make up of Nottingham. How will we know if community cohesion is improving?(3 ) The Society How does it compare with a generation ago?Graphs What would Harrison (4) say about these graphs? How does the theory here relate to a city?
Community Cohesion work in Nottingham is about how people get along together, and it lies in the heart of safe and strong communities. Communication is important, and it helps identify the social issues that lead to fragmented neighbourhoods and increase in antisocial behaviour. Nottingham wants to encourage people to stay and value being part of the city. Nottingham has developed a strategy aimed to develop a citywide community, cohesion strategy. It identifies ways to help increase cohesion across the city and is looking up into four main aims of the community cohesion strategy as it aims to reduce inequalities, discrimination and levels of deprivation, increase community engagement, increase and promote interaction between people, to increase safety and respect for individuals and communities.
Can you give examples of how it works? What Acts of Parliament underpin community cohesion? Race Relations Act date Sex Discrimination Act, DDA, Resettlement of Offenders ActHuman Rights ActFor each one say how it aids community cohesion.These acts of parliament are reflected and outworked in Policy documents of all organizations e.g. Equal Opps policies (Public and Community sectors) working with people.What works well with the above?
The Race Relations Amendment Act (2000) has become even more important for schools to have a clear understanding of the implications of Race Equality in the 21st century, and to have effective structures in place to implement it is therefore important in all settings, whether they be multi-ethnic, multi-faith inner city schools or all white schools in a rural situation. Racist acts (such as handing out racist literature, racist comments and attitudes etc.) can happen in schools, and no pupils from minority ethnic backgrounds can have long term implications for the wider community.(REF) Addressing the complex needs of black and minority ethnic (BME) Communities Employment trends in Nottingham the UK's most disadvantaged communities demonstrates high unemployment and low qualification achievement attainments. Equality Objectives
Equality objectives set out the improvements on Black and Minority ethnic (BME) groups, who have special educational needs or from care leaver backgrounds in employment, education or training. This will continue to increase on the percentage of respondents stating public services treat people fairly. There is an increase in satisfaction with information being easy to understand for BME and disabled citizens. There are increased employment rates for disabled people, different ethnic groups and care leavers.(Ref).
There is representation of women, disabled people, LGBT colleagues and different ethnic groups in the Council's workforce. The following equality objectives have been agreed by the Council to help drive forward and improve its performance on equality.They replaced the equality objectives contained within the Council's previous equality scheme, "Fair and Just Nottingham". (REF). The objectives will be reviewed after 12 months, and we will publish our performance through our regular Performance Reports. There is an increasing percentage of 16-18 year old Nottingham City Residents from deprived wards, Black and Minority ethnic (BME) groups, with special educational needs or from care leaver backgrounds in employment, education or training 90% of bus routes to be fully accessible for disabled people by 2013.
The percentage of respondents stating public services treat people fairly continue to increase. There is an increase in satisfaction with information being easy to understand for BME and disabled citizens. There has been a change over the past 50 years in equality and diversity. There has been an increase in the range of ethnic peoples living in the city, and this section comprises 33.7% of the overall city population (REF).
There are also a number of minority groups who have specific housing needs. The recent riots in England have sparked a vigorous debate about the causes. This has shown an impact on people, who feel more threatened and predudiced. In society, economic inequality and economic grievances have a role. Government statistics confirmed that, in reality, the age distribution of rioters was more complex than initial media reporting suggested.Around 15,000 people who stole from businesses and caused damage to property lost their lives, and many people lost their businesses and homes. The disturbances started following the fatal shooting by police of Mark Duggan in Tottenham, London. It was on 10th August 2012, and last year, disorder spread to 66 different areas across England. In fact, there were examples of known troublemakers not getting involved in the riots. The media seemingly neglected to report any successful youth projects that had actively stopped people getting involved, either spontaneously during early August, 2012 or as a result of sustained preventative work (REF).
The Nottingham Stands Together strategy aims to eliminate gun and drug related crime in the city born out of the tragic death of a young girl, Danielle Beccan, in 2004. The strategy has been a partnership approach led by the Nottingham City Council and elected members from Nottingham Police and the voluntary sector. Much of the work focuses on prevention and stopping young people from getting involved in gun and drug related crimes in the first place. Other aspects have been a gun amnesty and targeting of suspected offenders. There has been a significant decrease in gun-related crimes, so much so that there has been national interest in the work in Nottingham (REF).
What else is not working in Nottingham? (Poverty figures? Teen preg? BME unemployment figures?) How has Nottingham changed since 1960s? Manufacturing and industry are now culturally diverse due to population from around the world. Therefore, how does this community get cohesion? Schools, volunteer groups, council of churches, faith groups--why are they important? How do the Public and Voluntary sectors work together now? SureStart How does the city council communicate with citizens? Local media? How does Public Sector and Voluntary/Community sector work together? Why is it so important they are together now? (MONEY/FUNDING) A reflection and analysis of the importance of cultural understanding and cultural competency in advancing the empowerment agenda within community-based work (5) INFED Here, says what it is. How does it apply to outworks in Nottingham and in your work placement?
The government says that community empowerment in its wider sense is at the core of takling deprivation and building aspiration. By supporting residents to control their environment and services, we support them to grow in confidence and build skills that will transfer to other areas of their lives, including employability (REF). Empowerment also builds a sense of ownership and community pride, which means that areas are more cared for by residents who have a greater stake (ref).
The New Art Exchange in Hyson Green, opened in 2008.It is the UK's only gallery outside London dedicated to Black and Asian artists. Housing public galleries, workshop space, rehearsal rooms and offices, as well as a cafe and shop, the centre hopes to become the UK's (WHAT) for multicultural arts. Bringing people together through the arts is a way of promoting learning and understanding about other cultures. The New Art Exchange plays a major role in bringing people together and promoting understanding. The project has been backed by funding from Arts Council England, Nottingham City Council, The Neighbourhood Development Company, the East Midlands Development Agency, the Greater Nottinghamshire Partnership and the European Regional Development Fund. It is expected that the New Art Exchange will form a keystone in the regeneration of the area (Ref)
City Arts has created a (WHAT?) base in Nottingham; City Arts create opportunities to bring people together and stimulate change within communities. This group concentrates on working with communities and groups focused in the areas of high quality outdoor arts production, and it (WHO) has worked with the artists and communities and research-based arts and health work(REF).
It is a description and justification for an effective community work process to ensure maximum impact and influence for the views of local people (community voice). What is a community voice? Who is the voice from?What do they say? How is it used, and for what? Give an example of when it has been used. Why are the views of people important? Do they influence local government policy? How? Give examples. On local councillors and elections, have you got figures on how the local election turned out? Local MPs Surgeries. You might be able to cut and paste about MPs and councillor's surgeries. An analysis of the global dimension and its impact on communities. How do global forces impact upon the community of Nottingham? Employment (global economic downturn) asylum seekers.
Fleeing political and economic strife and turning up in cities like Nottingham. Respecting thoughts and cultures of others (6) Thompson understanding different names a translator in interview, different languages seeing beyond the barriers and valuing the values and skills the person has. Going to a home and finding they have different customs.
Respecting this. How does this affect the cultural cohesion? Does it make it better or does it make it worse to produce ethnic ghettoes? (back up with stats.) (7)
A conclusion suggests ways in which a community worker should view cultural diversity in the context of community empowerment and how this will impact your future work. Community workers have to understand the diversity in modern society and in cities like Nottingham. Say what globalisation has brought. How has your practice at work had to change to accommodate people? TRAINING