Environments Merging Multiple Conflicting Issues Cultural Studies Essay

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Fundamentally, we could say that architecture is an artistic concept or an expression of an idea that uses the medium of building. Through its processes and its techniques, the aim is to communicate. Like an artist uses a canvas in order to express his or her ideas and an architect uses his or her building as a 'canvas' for expression.

Focusing the meaning of architecture on pure art for art's sake, can be a purposeless quest. It can degrade its meaning. Architecture is a form of art, communities' value and emotion. Like all art, it can be disturbing, inspiring, alienating and transcending, depending upon the goals, conscious or unconscious, of the people who instigated and design it.

Architecture is an entity with an innate capacity to lift the spirits and excites the human emotions to wonder, awe and joy. Through form and through an understanding of the language of architecture, the architect can harness a whole slew of technologies, technique and materials to create a sublime work of art. When this is achieved, the architect transcend to realm of poets and artist.

1.1 Role of skin and structure in architecture

The building skin as separating and linking element between inside and outside: reflection on the function of the building. A building's façade is like a business card- it is the layer that communicates with the world around. The building skin plays an especially important role. First and foremost it provides protection from the elements demarcates private property and create privacy, safety and security but its aesthetic and cultural function is just as important. The façade's design also pays great attention to the aesthetic finish, environmental impact or the quality of light that reaches the interior.

The outer skin of a building fulfills a number of functions. It protects the interior from external influences- weather, temperature differences, or from being overlooked. It is not usually desirable to be sealed off hermetically, so that as well as offering protection, the façade must open up to the outside world, interact with it and admit air and light. Openings link the inside and the outside functionally and/ or visually. And relate to the two to each other.

What is structure?

Structure can be describe as a collection or assemblage of materials that, when joined together, will withstand the loads and forces to which they are subjected. These loads are not confined just to the weight off the building itself, but will also include such forces as wind, people, furniture and fitting, the interior designer need to have an understanding of structure in order to be sure that any alteration or addition that they make an existing building will not compromise its structural integrity.

Up till the end of the twentieth century there were two basic methods of constructions: Load bearing and frame, the load-bearing structure is thick and heavy and is usually constructed from bricks or stone blocks built up from the ground. This type of structure generally creates small confined spaces due to the restricted span of the roof or floor beams, usually organized in a grid formation, which take the weight of the building. They can make from concrete, steel or timber.

This creates large open spaces. The walls, which take no structural an so the choice of cladding material is almost unlimited. This type of organization is referred to as free plan. The twenty-first century has brought contemporary method of construction, such as monologues and practical. The structural logic of and existing building is a key factor that will influence the remodeling. Different types and qualities of space can be created from different structural systems. This understanding is a key part of the reading and analysis of the building.

1.2 Façade of conservation building


1.3 case studies

2. Functional value in architecture design

Quality is the extent to which a product fulfills the requirements set for it. 'Functional' refers to the function or functions performed by something. In this case a building. Thus, the functional quality of a building means its ability to fulfill the functions envisaged for it. The relationship between quality and cost is often treated as a functional aspect (efficiency of design), or as an economic issue. Functional quality refers primarily to a building's efficiency, practical usability or utility value, taking into accounts the financial means available. Functional quality requires a building to have good accessibility ('access foe all'), to provide sufficient flexible and to provide spatial and physical condition that will ensure a safe, healthy and pleasant environment.

Fundamental aim of the building is to protect people from external climate condition, such as intensive solar radiation, extreme temperatures, precipitation and wind. In construction, the building skin is the primary subsystem through which prevailing external condition can be influenced and regulated to meet the comfort requirements of the user inside the building. Like the skin a clothing of humans, this raiment, too, fulfils the task demanded of it by performing a number of made possible by means of the appropriate design and construction. In terms of comfort, Functional properties take precedence over structural, aesthetic and ecological aspects.


2.1 Environments in the interior space

Interior space meditated between architecture and human beings, between the walled in immobility of a building and its a inhabitants or visitor. Its task is the transformation undefined rooms in museums, flats, office, theatre, and churches, and to allow living space into the bare structure of constructed building, the design of these rooms always allow for inferences pertaining to the style, preference and needs of their users. It reflects fashion and trends, not to mention changing ways of life.

Contextual studies of the environment: climate, light, temperature, orientation, view/aspect, and materials.

Climate: the climate will have a direct influence upon the quality of the interior necessary measures always have to be taken to ensure that the occupied spaces are adequately comfortable. These measures include controlling the temperature, regulating the amount of heat admitted and keeping out rain, wind, snow and excessive heat.

Light, the control and manipulation of natural light can create exquisite or dramatic atmosphere. The quality of natural light can vary with the season; the long, watery, winter sun is both welcoming and warming as it penetrates deep into the heart of a space, but the intensity of the high, bright, summer blaze can be uncomfortable, thus creating the need for shade.

Temperature, humans are only able to live comfortably within a very narrow band of different temperature levels. For this reason, architects have always had to be aware of temperature control and user comfort within their designs. Such mechanisms have been highly sophisticated since ancient roman times often involve the capture and control of nature resources.

Orientation, the designer can manipulate the position of the space or building, turning the main spaces towards favorable conditions and away from unattractive ones, whether this is the sun, particular weather condition or a response to contextual features. This can often significantly alter both the spirit and physical conditions of an interior.

View/aspect, the space face, or be orientated towards a particular physical landmark or view: a response to the aspect.

Materials, the materials that the space is constructed from will have a large effect on the internal environment. Physical factors such as acoustics, temperature and light can all be altered in this way, materials can also help create atmosphere, and can link a space with its context.

(Case studies)

2.2 Disadvantages of functional environment without aesthetic value

le corbusier's modular system espouse his five principles of modern architecture and attempts to assign rules and convention to architecture.

Though is a claimed to solve standardisation problems and promote harmony through our physical environment, in the end it created and 'aesthetic' that was only suitable for its time, the years before and after the world wars. After a period of time, post modern reacted to what was seen as in increasingly in humane monolithic environment. The mass of people regarded modern architecture as bleak and uninteresting. The other effect of modern design was the architecture communicated nothing but homogeneity and boredom.

B. Incorporating aesthetic value in functional space

1. Quality of architecture

What is good is a question of value. A work of architecture is always generated from a number of conflicting generating issues. The way these issues are dealt with ultimately determines the quality of every work of architecture. Of all the issues that an architect must deal with when designing a work of architecture some are more important to address than others. This is also a question of value, and as a further extension of this idea, it is proposed that number of specific issues must be addressed successfully if we are to evaluate a work of architecture as being good.

One case study example would be Daniel Libeskind's signature series, The Villa that is located worldwide. (Characteristic)

It is unique at every turn, offering maximum insulation and durability, cutting edge technologies and compliance with some of the toughest energy-saving standards across the world.


2. Complexity and simplicity


3. The relevance of aesthetic to practical design

3.1 Professionals benefit???

3.2 Public benefit

C. Environment plays a part in

Environment plays a major role in setting the right ….

The studio

The environment within which design is learnt and practiced is distinctive. For instance, the studio setting emphasizes the importance of professional interaction and deliberation, which is necessitated by the special requirements of media, community. Time also serves as an affirmation of designing as a deliberate act. Unlike the development of many areas of professional skill, design learning concentrates substantial effort on the act of deliberation. In sense other disciplines could learn a great deal from studio-based learning.

There are several factors, which can enhance effectiveness of the design as learning environment. These include the shrouding of design in mystery. The dual knowledge thesis in all its guises throws the designer into morass of difficulties that range from unnecessary fear of the unknown to attempting to reconcile notions of 'subjective judgment' with certainly. Where design is isolated from 'normal' scholarship or day-to-day activities, there is the tendency to ignore the difficulties of designing. The studio may be a place where everything happened but design. It becomes a place for discussions about the particular design task of designing, and criticism after the event. However, the activity itself, in which an attempt to switch from the 'convergence of analytical thinking' to the 'divergence of design thinking', is frequently relegated to the realm of a private anguish. On the other hand, it is apparent that there are ways of talking about design and of teaching design in which an appeal to mystery or special cognitive skill is unnecessary. Where there is mystery then designing is removed from effective dialogue. Design ideas are personal and unavailable for general scrutiny. The designer becomes a party to that other great theme of the Romantic Movement, the oppressed and misunderstood here

In defusing the mysteries of a special creative apparatusm we see that condition of being-in-the-world already implicates the cogito. In the sense developing by hegel ans heidgger, thoughts is in the world and of the world, and we participated from time to time to claim some of it as our own. Are some environments more conducive to thoughtful and creative outcomes than others? If so, then perhaps architecture could concern itself with the orchestration of suitably memonic and cognitive environments; rooms, public space, landscape and technospheres by which to think. Design brings the commonplace of creativity to light in that it present as so many interventions into the environment, thought is provoked anew, or set on a different course when an urban sculpture is inveigled, a façade is defiled, a bridge is completed. An office building is demolished, ancient foundations are excavated, or the scaffolding comes down to reveal a new building, by this reading we don't just think in order to produce design, but design interventions in the environments provoke thought. Design is a way of thinking.

D. How to create an impact on human senses

The content of this part touch on human psychology. Most of it is based on the speculations of art-critics and architects and of psychologists whose interest in architecture is based on their studies of perceptions. It fits most comfortably under the heading of appreciation of architecture, and should not be confused with the parallel line enquiry labeled psychology of architecture. The latter is the work of psychologist who mate statistical analyses of the observed behavior and self-reported feeling of ordinary people concerning build form and its accompany spaces. It is a commonplace that buildings have 'character'. Some buildings convey an impression of power, generating reactions of awe and fear in observer who may feel that in these senses the building is 'speaking' to them the aim of this part is to discuss accounts of such impression and theories of their origin.

The constant interplay between the rational and emotional facets of our nature makes it extremely difficult to distinguish their effect in our response to architecture, although the majority of commentators attempt to do so.

Impression of cathedral of rheims as if complete in orderly fashion. Height and vertical projections held great significance for medieval patrons and builder.

1. Emotional responses to space

Movement from one space and another of very different quality may produce similar effect. The entrance porches of old cathedrals enclose a small void, often gloomy, and rigidly defined by solid walls and a low, vaulted ceiling. When people savor the quality of space by 'projecting' themselves into it, either mentally or physically, they tend to choose prominent features to provide goals.

The experience of being in a confined tunnel, such as a narrow pedestrian subway, has it own special quality which is tinged with many sorts of reverberations, mental effort because they conflict with the more real perception of endless continuity in the longitudinal direction.

2. Emotional responses to form

A more common reaction is a feeling of general unease about anything which we cannot easily categorize: anything that appears bizarre, ungainly, unusual, or deformed. It includes the fear of what appears irrational, or what implies that somebody holds values, tastes or an approach to life that is radically opposed to our own

Properties such as sharpness and angularity, contrasted with roundness and fullness, have a strong influence on the way we feel about objects. Architects talk of 'hard' and 'soft' forms. These perceptions may be due to associations with pleasant or painful encounters in childhood. Hollows and cavities may arouse the instinct to shelter displayed in the child's fascination with 'cubby houses'.

The perception of 'visual weight' may be affected by the way we feel about forms, or the feelings we project on to them, as much as by the circuitry of our brains. To see certain inflatable buildings as 'sausage-like' is to project inappropriate associations on to them. To describe them as 'heavy' as a result is to project the observer's feelings about sausages on to them. The observer is evidently unable or unwilling to apprehend the lightness of the fabric and the supporting air

3. Emotional responses to scale

"whenever the word scale is being used, something is being compared with something else."-moore.

Scale, in general, is a terms which refers to the relative size of an object as perceived by its viewer. In architecture, Scale refers to a relationship typically established between either familiar building elements (door, stair, handrails) or the human figure. The term human scale, is used to describe building dimensions based on the size of the human body, and is sometimes referred to as the 'anthropomorphic scale'. Scale in architecture is used to generate different sensual and perceptual experience.

Human feels comfortable in an environment that relates to their size and compositions of their body structure. Spaces are created to relate to a human scale to give a sense of comfort such a house. Space and structures can be scaled up in design of public building where humans are made to feel small

4. Case studies


The question of language and aesthetic is architecture has been the subject of constant debate. There have been, and will continue to be, many thoughts and opinions on what constitute the notion of fundamental principles of architecture, the basic elements of aesthetics and the appropriate language of architecture.

We can agree that architects, no matter in what culture and religion they are practicing, are required to understand the sense of scale and proportion including the handling of texture and color of building materials.