English Chinese Viewed From Tourist Text Cultural Studies Essay

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English Tourism is an application language, which builds a bridge between different cultural backgrounds and tourists .Translation of tourist text mainly translated through the translation of tourist information in line with all visitors of aesthetic taste, to passing tourists, induced by information, promotion of local cultural features.This article Illustrates the influence of the Differences Between Chinese and Western Culture on Tour Cross-Cultural Communication from the way of thinking, historical allusions and customs, religious traditions, values and aesthetic concepts and geographical environment of the five main areas and analyzes the differences between the East and the West and provides the corresponding strategies to solve the cultural differences. Only use the correct methods and strategies can we build China a "great power of tourism".

Key words:tourist English; cultural differences;translation strategies

Acknowledgements

First and foremost, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor,MS Feng Jing, both for her intellectual guidance and for her warm and constant encouragement during the process of writing this thesis. With patience and prudence, she labored through drafts of this thesis and pointed out defects in my writing. Therefore, I owe all the merits in this thesis, if any, to her, though I am fully aware that the thesis might still contain some mistakes, for which I bear the whole responsibility.

My cordial and sincere thanks go to all the teachers concerned in the School of Foreign Languages, whose interesting and informative courses have benefited me a lot during my college years. The profit that I gained from their profound knowledge, remarkable expertise and intellectual ingenuity will be of everlasting significance to my future life and career.

I am also very grateful to my classmates, who have given me a lot of help and courage during my stay in the University and throughout the process of writing this thesis.

Last but not the least, big thanks go to my family who have shared with me my worries, frustrations, and hopefully my ultimate happiness in eventually finishing this thesis.

Contents

中æ-‡æ‘˜è¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦â€¦.... ....i

Abstract……………….. ………………………………………………….…….. ...ii

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………….. .iii

Introduction……………………………………………………… ………….. ..7

Chapter One The effects of cultural factors on translation of tourist.…………………………………………………………………….. ..8

1.1 Effect of mode of thinking …………………………………………....9

1.2 Effect of literary quotation history and customs....................….…10

1.3 Effect of beliefs and traditions…..……………………………….….10

1.4 Effect of moral values and Aesthetic standard...............................11

1.5 Effect of living environment………………… ………………….......11

Chapter Two Obstacle of translation caused by cultural differences ……………………………… …………………………………….12

Chapter Three Treatment of Cultural Factors in Translation of tourism text ………………………………….…...15

3.1 The amplification of cultural information ………………………. 17

3.2 The annotation of cultural proper noun……………………….…...18

3.3 Analogy of culture…………………………………………….….…....20

3.4 Appropriate to Chinese characteristic culture information….….21

Conclusion……………………………………………………………………....22

Bibliography… ………………………………………………….… ………….. .23

The History and Development of Corpus-Based Translation Studies

Introduction

With the rapid development of tourism industry in China, China's accession to the WTO, and the convening of the Shanghai World Expo, as well as a growing number of major international events held in China, the management and services for the tourism industry has been posed new challenges in.Over the past 20 years, with the increasing importance of tourism in the world's economic development , tourism became one of the important pillar industry of the economy.With the increase in cultural exchange among countries, an increasing number of foreigners are eager to visit China.Then follow one of the issues is the issue of tourism promotion.With the Olympic Games and Shanghai World Expo successfully held in China, tourism has an unprecedented development. China is a country with multi-cultural and complex geographical environment which are great appeal to foreign visitors. Tourism has been one of the most dynamic and fastest-growing industries. Tourism provides opportunities for people from different countries to know each other and communicate with each other. Tourism translation is a kind of cross-language and cross-cultural communication.The translation of tourism materials, whose main function is to impart information and to attract customers,is a form of cross-border and trans-cultural tourism promotion and the carrier of culture, Translation of tourist texts in various forms, involving large amount of knowledge, is closely linked to socio-cultural background. Between the cultures of East and West there is an obvious contrast,which is reflected in the geographical environment, social customs, religion, historical allusions, and so on.These differences can be reflected in their respective languages from different aspects and hinder and influence the understanding and expressions for semantic in the process of English-Chinese translation.So in English-Chinese translation we must take into account the cultural differences, try to understand the culture of the original term and give a proper semantic description,then translate accurately. It is a major problems in tourism translation that how to communicate travel information to visitors effectively, while preserving the traditional Chinese culture.It is very necessary to take appropriate translation strategies and methods to deal with cultural differences in tourism English.This article Illustrates the influence of the Differences Between Chinese and Western Culture on Tour Cross-Cultural Communication from the way of thinking, historical allusions and customs, religious traditions, values and aesthetic concepts and geographical environment of the five main areas and analyzes the differences between the East and the West and provides the corresponding strategies to solve the cultural differences.The tourist English involves a lot of cultural differences, which bring much difficulty to the tourist translation. If we cannot deal with the differences probably, the tourism activities will encounter many barriers. This article analyzes the differences between the East and the West and provides the corresponding strategies to solve the cultural differences.

Chapter One The effects of cultural factors on translation of tourist

American linguist, translation theorist Eugene Albert Nida said :"translation is measured from the semantics of the style in the middle of target language equivalent of the best and most natural reproduction of the original information."(Nada.E.A.&Charles R.Taber,1979:53)The Nida definition reflects the views he advocated at two levels of semantic and stylistic equivalent of translation, but did not mention the cultural reproduction.The so-called culture, refers to an overall pattern in a community with a unique system of beliefs, practices, and objectives and design.So we must pay attention to the background of two different languages.The culture factors includes living environment, historical development, moral values, customs and beliefs and so on. The inheritance and dissemination of culture is finished by language.The translation transforms one kind of language culture into another,which means that translation depend on culture.So the translation of language is the translation of culture actually.I will Illustrate the influence of the Differences Between Chinese and Western Culture on Tour Cross-Cultural Communication from the way of thinking, historical allusions and customs, religious traditions, values and aesthetic concepts and geographical environment of the five main areas and analyzes the differences between the East and the West and provides the corresponding strategies to solve the cultural differences.

1.1 Effect of mode of thinking

Translation is a representation or recreation in one language of what is written or said in another language.It is a bilingual effort.As a certain language is a reflection of thoughts of a people,differences in thinking are bound to exist between different languages.To explore the distinctions of mode of thinking reflected in English and Chinese will greatly facilitate the translation between the two languages.The different ways of thinking in English an Chinese is most conspicuously displayed in the so called Phatic languages.The Phatic languages refer to those used for establishing an atmosphere or maintaining social contact rather than for exchanging information or ideas.Greeting,farewells,and comments on the weather serve this purpose.The western mode focuses place great emphasis on analytical,abstract and logical while the Chinese place great emphasis on the holistic,imaginal and intuitive.Analytical thinking involves detachment of the object from its context, a tendency to focus on attributes of the object in order to assign it to categories, and a preference for using rules about the categories to explain and predict the object's behavior. Holistic thinking involves an orientation to the context or field as a whole, including attention to relationships between a focal object and the field, and a preference for explaining and predicting events on the basis of such relationships. Westerners tend to be analytical and pay more attention to the key, or focal objects in a scene - for example, concentration on the woman in the "Mona Lisa", as opposed to the rocks and sky behind her. Chinese, by contrast, tend to be holistic. They look at the whole picture and rely on contextual information when making decisions and judgments about what they see.

1.2 Effect of literary quotation history and customs

Literary quotation of history is a heritage for national culture , which has a distinct cultural identity and a wealth of cultural and historical information and reflects the different historical and cultural characteristics.Of course, the translation must pay more attention to historical allusions and traditional culture, not just stay in the surface of the text.For example,for this sentence,"作为炎黄子孙,还可以去拜谒离西安不远的黄帝陵",we can translate like this"If you are of Chinese descent, you may pay tribute to the tomb of Huang di (Yellow Emperor), first Chinese emperor"。It is seemingly fluent, but it is found its imperfection if we are careful.Because In Chinese legends, Huangdi and yandi were leaders of ancient tribal chief, rather than Emperor.The emperor refers to the name of one of the heads of state of the monarchy.since Chin Dynasty First Emperor Ying Cheng unified six countries,China's feudal monarchy was known as the Emperor.It is not very appropriate to translate"Yellow Emperor" translated as "Yellow Emperor" or "First Chinese Emperor".Customs also influence and restrict the accuracy of the translation.

1.3 Effect of beliefs and traditions

The religious culture is an essential part of traditional human culture.It is a kind of culture formed of the religious consciousness of the nation and religious beliefs .The three major religions of China are Confucianism,Buddhism and Taoism,which have a profound impact for Chinese.In the course of the country's long history,the various religions in China have become part of the traditional Chinese thinking and culture,and manifested in the cultural differences of the different ethnic groups in advocating taboos.we can see the important significance of the effect of religious cultural differences on language differences. Confucianism and Christian, these two different religion and belief fostered the two different cultures, two different interpersonal relationships, two different conceptions of value; all these are embodied in words and different understanding to words. A lot of the idiom the very embodiment of religion In Chinese and English.Buddhism has been over a thousand years in China's history.Chinese Buddhist believe that Buddha dominate the world of belief things,such as "借花献佛"、"é-²æ-¶ä¸çƒ§é¦™ï¼Œä¸´æ-¶æŠ±ä½›è„š".In many Western countries people confesses faith in Christianity,so the people regards Bible as their guiding principles.There are many idioms such as"sell one's birth right for a mess of pottage"are from Bible.Then when we translate,we must learn about the differences in religion culture,and we can make our translation of tourism text more accurate and understandable.

1.4 Effect of moral values and Aesthetic standard

Because different ethnic culture will inevitably bring up people's different values, the translation must take into account the different values of the two sides in order to be understood and accepted each other.England largely depended on horses plowing for her food supplies and the English loves horses.The horse is a symbol of hard work and hard-working in the values of English and American.There is an expression "as strong as a horse"in English.While Chinese loves cattle.So "as strong as a horse"in the English is the same as "as strong as a cattle"in Chinese.In addition,different ethnic culture will inevitably bring up people's different aesthetic.If we do not notice these differences,we will get the translation go by contrary.Because white is the mourning color of death,while red is the traditional color of festive in Chinese view,"Hongshi"symbolizes wedding while "Baishi"means funerals in Chinese culture.But the Westerns fell confused for Chinese "Hongbai Xishi".Most of weddings in western are white,which is a symbol of pure,clean,lightness and happiness.So we should translate the words as weddings and funerals in order to be understood and normal.

1.5 Effect of living environment

Because of the difference of the geographical location of the various ethnic groups, natural conditions and ecological environment,the different regional culture appears.This affects not only the expression of the national language, but also directly affect the people's understanding of the same thing, and semantic associative and emotion, which requires translation more.For example,there is one sentence"功名富贵若长在,汉水亦应西åŒ-流" in Jiang shang yin,by Li Bai,The terrain features of China is that the east is lower and the west is higher.In this poem"西åŒ-流"means that"glory, honor, wealth, and rank, such things are nothing But shadows"and it will never go with the others.This metaphor is based on the special geography of China,which is different from the Western.If we translate it directly,maybe most of the Western can not understand its meaning.And if we translate like this"But sooner could flow backward to is fountainsï¼›This stream,than wealth and honor can remain",we can not express the terrain features of China and neat antithesis But it is easier for foreigners to understand the real meaning because the "flow backward"tells us that it is impossible.

Chapter Two Obstacle of translation caused by cultural differences

Foreign tourists generally read translation texts and listen to introduction from tour guides to understand the wonders of our different view.It is more important for Foreign tourists to fell the special history and culture,not just the enjoy of the eyes and hearts because Culture is the core of the tourism.However different cultural ways of thinking and cultural perspective will cause the inevitable "culture clash",so the difference of culture between China and the Western is a balk to tourism.Cultural barriers is a major problem that can not be avoided in the Chinese-English translation of tourist texts.Fu Wen has pointed out that, all tourism resources in addition to appreciate the value of its natural landscape has also been injected some special ethnic customs and historical and cultural events, with a strong cultural connotations and emotions(å‚…æ-‡,2001 ( 3): 80- 81).The cultural differences has a rather large range of radiation, including people's lifestyles, behavior patterns, ways of thinking, language, history, customs, hierarchy, ethics, aesthetic taste, political and legal, which exist in tourism translation texts all the time.Zhu Yiping has discussed the translation barriers caused by cultural differences in two ways(朱益平,2005 ( 3): 159- 164).One of the difficulty is lexical gaps and vocabulary conflicts caused by cultural the vacancy and cultural conflict. Language is the carrier of culture.Because of the different geographical environment and historical conditions, religion and social customs, without same semantics,there is a corresponding and non-coincident phenomenon in the vocabulary of the two languages,which is,in a other way,we say lexical gaps and vocabulary conflicts caused by cultural the vacancy and cultural conflict,also known as culture-loaded or culture-bound words from Professor Wang Dechun.There are not corresponding words in English for these Chinese words such as "yinyang","bagua","wuxing","qigong","taijiquan","zongzi","yuanxiao"and "jiaozi".Sometimes although there are corresponding words in English for these Chinese words such as "huli","zhu","gou"and"liushu",the associative meaning or implicature is different.Another is caused by differences in rhetoric and textual level.Chinese and English people in long-term social practices have developed different cultures, ways of thinking and aesthetic concepts,reflected in language is difference of the article layout and the rhetorical methods .The Chinese works are filled with magnificent vocabulary, abundant emotion,neat antithesis and beautiful rhythm and a lot of four word phrases.While English pays more attention to form,realism,nous,then English works has neat frame of sentence,meticulous sense of expression, laconic formulation and the intuitionistic style.These textual and rhetorical differences inevitably surface in Chinese and English Tourism stylistic. For accurate translation of tourism text, its quiddity is to take effective measures to overcome these barriers, in order to stimulate the reader's interest, and achieve the ultimate goal of promotion of tourism products and services.

Chapter Three Treatment of Cultural Factors in Translation of tourism text

Translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions." (Toury,1978:200). As this statement implies, translators are permanently faced with the problem of how to treat the cultural aspects implicit in a source text (ST) and of finding the most appropriate technique of successfully conveying these aspects in the target language (TL). These problems may vary in scope depending on the cultural and linguistic gap between the two (or more) languages concerned (Nida,1964:130).From the terms of the text type and function, according to the modern translation theory, travel information is integrated of informative text,expressive text and vocative text as a whole,with information function, aesthetic function and calling function at the same time(Newmark,2001:86-88).The ore of vocative text is "calling on readers to action, to think, to feel".When we translate the text,we prefer to explain it rather than copy it,because the effect of readers is more important than the role of translators in the tourism text.Thus in the process of translation, in order to ensure accurate translations and infect the audience, to achieve the "call" function, the translator can give full play to the advantages of the target language, does not stick to the original expression, and try his best to make the effect of translation text the same with the original language.Because of the differences of culture,translation text should aim at how to communicate travel information to visitors effectively, while preserving the traditional Chinese culture.For the specific treatment of cultural factors in translation,Cao Lingjuan and Jiao Aimei pointed out that translator should take a variety of translation combine the necessary modifications and processing according to the different emphases of travel information.They also put forward the amplification and annotation,analogy and reduction and adjustment.Now,I'll give some my own advices about the treatment of cultural factors in translation of tourism text.

3.1 The amplification of cultural information

Because of the cultural differences and different social environment,it is very difficult for the western readers to understand the translation text with cultural background.Thus we are asked to adjust the information, to amplify some explanation or annotation of cultural background, in order to be understood more wholly.As English readers of the target language readers,lack of relevant cultural background, will be confused by the translation text which is translated directly according to the literal translation literal these sentences, in the course of their language symbols. For example:仙人洞系悬å´-绝壁中之天生石洞,因其形如手,故又名佛手岩。 洞高7ç±³,深逾14 米。内有一石制殿阁--纯阳殿。殿内立纯阳(洞宾) 石雕像。洞深处,有两道泉水沿石而降,这便是《后汉书》记载的千年不竭的"一滴泉"。 æ´žæ-å»ºæœ‰è€å›æŽèƒéª‘牛雕像。景区内还有石松、御碑亭、访仙亭等景观。区内游步道为1 452 米。 (郭建中, 2000:123)  译æ-‡: Immortal's cave is a natural cave in a precipice which looks like a hand of a Buddha and so it is also called the Rock of the hand of the Buddha. The cave is 7 meters high and 14 meters deep. Inside , there is a statue of Lu Dongbin. Two springs flow down from the cracks of the rocks and they are the famous One Drop Springs. Nearby is the Lao Jun Palace, with a statue of Lao Jun on the hand of an ox. In this district , you can also pay a visit to the pine in the rock , the imperial Tablet Pavilion and Fangxian Pavilion. The path going through the district ruins as long as 1452 meters.

In this translation text,Lu Tung-pin and Laojun are the names of mythical characters in Chinese culture, that not be understood by foreigners unless some additional information be added in the translation text. It will be better if we add "seeking the Immortals"after " Fangxian Pavilion". 

3.2 The annotation of cultural proper noun

Foreign tourists,who are very interested in general terms with a strong cultural flavor, alway insist on getting to the bottom of the matter and ask these questions like "What is this","what is that" and "what is the difference",just like the Chinese students learn grammar. It may take some mistakes if the words are not annotated properly when the translation has trouble caused by differences of culture.

Look at the following sentence:"再配上左右两边的ç -雕壁画:'百鸟朝凤'å’Œ'五伦全图',更是美妙绝伦"(国家æ-…游局,2000:89)The original translation of "百鸟朝凤"is "One Hundred Birds Worshiping the Phoenix".According to the Chinese folklore,"百"just a number means one hundred,while"百鸟"means all of birds.So in my opinion the"百鸟"should be translated as "all birds".Besides,in the old legend of China,"Phoenix",a kind of bird,the king in the bird world,is a symbol of lucky and honor,which can be expressed in many Chinese phrases such as "龙凤呈祥"and"凤毛麟角".According to the western legend,"Phoenix"is a kind of bird living in the desert,burning himself every 500 - 600 years and was reborn in the ashes."Phoenix",of course,is also a metaphor for what is very extraordinary,perfect,or beautiful such as perfect man or special thing.So it is very normal for a place named Phoenix City,the capital of State Arizona in the USA.and a TV. station named Phoenix Satellite TV in Hong Kong.Certainly,in order to avoid misunderstandings and explain the differences between the Chinese and English,we had better add a simple annotation and emphasize its implication in China.So generally speaking,the translation text "All Birds Paying Homage to the Phoenix'( Phoenix in Chinese does not refer to "death and resurrection", but a traditional symbol of monarch, as dragon for the emperor or king, phoenix for the empress or queen)"is more proper and entire.

3.3 Analogy of culture

Analogy is also a good way to look for the best point related to the different culture. The analogy is conducive to the elimination of cultural strangeness and then achieve the purpose of communication and cultural transmission quickly and effectively in the process of communication between different culture.Let us compare the two following translation texts for the sentence"形如关云长的青龙偃月刀"(è´¾æ-‡æ³¢,2004:132-136). The first one is "is shaped like the sword in traditional Beijing opera used by Guan Yu, a general of the state of Shu of the Three Kingdoms period";the second one is "shaped like the knife on the Westerner's dinner table".The first one Increased use interpretative translation, the text cumbersome, not seen or do not understand the plot of foreign tourists in Beijing opera about Guan Yu in Casablanca;the second one Western tourists unfamiliar broadsword linked with their cutlery,the processing efforts weak while the contextual effects strengthen.Another example,the"祝融殿"is translated as"the Hall of Zhurong , the Chinese Prometheus" ;the"炎帝神农氏"is translated as"Emperor Yandi , the Chinese Saturn".The two cases of translation, to seize the Chinese Vulcan zhurong and ancient Rome legend people stealing fire hero Plo Michel J, Chinese agriculture civilization ancestor Shennong and ancient Rome myth of the Saturnian similarities, care of the western tourists cognitive environment, because the relevance and contextual effect is outstanding, the pragmalinguistic equivalence was achieved, there are conducive to national culture dissemination. Cultural analogy can greatly stimulate tourist interest. For example, in to Western tourists in Suzhou, because Suzhou is located in the Grande Canale and the Yangtze River confluence of Taihu next, by more than 20 lakes surrounded by, can be called the " Venice of China "

3.4 Appropriate to Chinese characteristic culture information

In the translation of tourist information, delete and change is sometimes necessary.In the process of tourism and cultural translation must take care to target readers thinking pattern and language logic structure, the original structure of language analysis, according to the target language thinking habits were adjusted accordingly.In this case, the translator should consider appropriate amendments to highlight the theme of information, thereby softening stiff propaganda tone

For example, "江岸上彩楼æž-ç«‹, 彩灯高悬, æ-Œæ--飘摇, 呈现出一派å-œæ°”洋洋的节æ-¥åœºé¢ã€‚千姿百态的各式彩龙在江面上游弋,舒展着优美的身姿, 有的摇头摆尾, 风采奕奕; 有的å-·ç«åæ°´, 威风八面"is translated as" High - rise buildings ornamented with colored lanterns and bright banners stand out along the river banks .On the river itself, gaily decorated dragon- shaped boats await their challenge, displaying their individual charms to their hearts ′content. One boat wags its head and tail; another spits fire and sprays water". The "gaily decorated"and "displaying their individual charms to their hearts' content" show us the wonder of the holiday.

Conclusion

This paper is just an attempt in this field. There are still further researches we need to do. For further research, we need to enlarge the culture content, not just religion and belief, but also national consciousness, development and change, custom, environment, etc.

Through such kind of research, we get better understanding about culture education in foreign language teaching. As we know, language is the basic link connecting human beings and the world, is the main way of expressing the thoughts and feelings. The culture behind the language is very important, and we need to study it. If we just learn pronunciation, grammar and words, we can't master the language really. Only when we learn culture behind language, we can really master the language.

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