Emerging Business In Mauritius Cultural Studies Essay

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In this contemporary Mauritius, where financial wealth is becoming fundamental to possess, Mauritians are very much oriented towards business undertakings. Running a business, properly and smartly, in Mauritius is proving to be very astute. The flexibilities or say the great possibilities of the Mauritian administrative functioning allow one to luxuriate in a business without great complication. Mauritius is a dais of decent exploitation, if you know where to invest. This is where the new generation of businessmen has the upper hand upon the traditional ones.

Emerging businessmen are very selective and strategic in their business choices. The selection of the business to indulge in is very crucial. Recreation can prove to be this particular kind of choice. This thesis will enable us to determine if 'recreation' is a market to invest in.

Certainly, the best business ideas are those that are based on your own recreational activities. It is surely nice to enjoy your form of recreation and maintain a business at the same time. If you are truly passionate about your recreational activity, you surely would find it easier to gain passion for your business. Thus, pursuing a recreation now is more than just a source of entertainment and relaxation.

Many of the greatest business ideas have actually been taken from recreational activities of entrepreneurs. You could turn your favorite recreation into a good business opportunity that would surely generate money.

1.1 Statement of problem

Mauritius is THE emerging 'business platform' of the Indian Ocean. The cultivation of mushrooms is the perfect mirrored image of the so many business institutions cropping up in Mauritius. Almost on a monthly basis we can witness the emergence of new private companies. Phenomenon which, more than obviously, need to be studied upon.

This thesis somehow deals with this occurrence which so inspires Mauritians to take up business occupations. I was not spared from this stimulation either. I had, thus, to research on the implications of the implementations of a business in Mauritius.

1.2 Delimitations

As the title of the thesis points out, the study will not go beyond business executions in Mauritius. These businesses shall also be dealing with recreation solely. The focus further orients towards team building activities and their importance.

1.3 Limitations

Undeniably, the broader a field of study the broader the facts and knowledge gained. This thesis is centered towards recreational business only in Mauritius. A wider area of interest, for example in the States or Australia or even Ireland (places where recreation and team building hold a prominent place), would have brought an extensive spectrum of awareness.

1.4 Hypothesis

This study will lead to have at hand a pool of data of companies dealing with recreation. It also aims at the comprehension of the procedures to engage in to set up a business.

Chapter 2

Review of literature

2.1 Team Building

Team building is a process that develops cooperation and teamwork within a work unit. To constitute an effective team, its members must share a common goal, have respect for each other, and be motivated to use the strengths of each member to achieve their objectives. Current companies stress on that each member of a team plays an integral part in the success of the company.

Through activities known as team building exercises, individuals can practice brainstorming, collaboration, creativity, trust, and feedback. Most team building activities focus on areas such as problem solving, organizational development, and conflict resolution. Participants can also develop leadership, interpersonal, presentation, and negotiation skills.

Many activities, both inside and outside of the workplace, fall under the broad category of team building exercises. Common team building activities include ropes courses, culinary school, or a field day of team games and exercises. Other light-hearted team building activities include radio-controlled car racing and scavenger hunts. Team building programmes around the world are growing phenomena.  It is a common practice for most organisations today to hold team building events at either department level or company level at least once a year.

One of the main reason is that most managers today believe team building events are able to bond organisation members together both horizontally (between subordinates) or vertically (between managers and subordinates). 

However, what is lacking is the understanding of the concept of team building.  As a result, team building events today often end up to become merely a trip to the park, a one night stay at a posh resort or an afternoon of games.  The outcome has left much to be desired unless the concept of team building is well understood which is essential to maximise the benefits for the time spent. Robbins and Coulter (1999) in their book "Management" defines team building as "interaction among members of work teams to learn how each member thinks and works".  Unfortunately, in today's practice, the definition of team building has been misinterpreted.  The key phrase here is "to learn how each member thinks and works". 

2.2 The essence of Team Building

Team building events are meant to take people away from the office and put them in an unfamiliar place.  It is where people are most likely dressed informally and therefore, behave differently.  At these occasions, positions in office are often forgotten and the true self thus appears.  As one participant once said 'we tend to put down our guard and behave differently'.  Not only do we act differently, we say different things too.  The way we act and behave out of the formal work setting is often our more true self.  Team building experiences should help to show our true 'human' nature.  We may start to notice that Director A has a great sense of humour - a real joker.  Or the HR director has a kind of caring soul.  Knowing each others' true attitude and behaviour will often change our perceptions of fellow workers.  The next time you meet Director A along the office corridor, you would probably give him a cheeky smile - a reminder of what happened at the team building event the other day.

Team building events will therefore be more successful when there is a structured programme which will allow specific objectives to be met.  Activities that allow opportunity to reveal the way we think, make decisions and react will create better and further understanding of work mates.  Finally, a team building event that allow each others' attitudes and behaviour to surface creates better relationships in the office.  However, managers are reminded that team building does not just happen in one day or two days, it has to happen in the workplace every day and it takes time.  Managers must promote interaction in the workplace among work mates to learn how each member thinks and works, to allow team building to work.  This might also involve several different training methods including class room training, role plays, profiling tests and many others.  Managers need to contribute to the process rather than being hopeful for the best results from one or two team building events.  Based on the understanding of the principles of team building as cited above, it is hoped that managers will be able to make a better decision when organising team building events.

2.3 Examples of Team Building Activities

Team building is a very important process that will help to ensure a close-knit team. A strong cheer squad becomes one in purpose and desire, Encouragement is very important in team bonding. If team members try to motivate one another, everyone will try harder to accomplish team objectives. Teambuilding games are a fun way to develop cohesiveness. They tear down walls in communications, provide avenues that encourage discussion, and increase productivity. Team building takes time but the end results are well worth the extra time. It is an ongoing process that boosts commitment. Here are some games and exercises to do with your squad to build a unified group. (These are international rules of the games which may be varied if wished so)

Relay Lock Race- Each person selects a partner. They stand back to back and lock arms by the elbows while holding their own stomach with their hands. The coach gives the instruction to get from one side of the gym to the other. Don't give them specific instructions on how to get to the finish line other than they can't let go of their stomachs. This causes creativity and laughter.

Shoe Game - Have everyone take off their shoes and put them in a pile in the middle of the room. Mix the shoes up. Divide the cheerleaders into 2 groups. See which group can find their shoes and put them on first. When they have their shoes on the team done first must sit on the floor.

Truths and a Lie - Each team member writes 2 true facts and one lie on a card. The coach collects the cards and reads them aloud. The rest of the squad tries to guess who it is and which fact is the lie.

Sculpting - Give your squad different supplies such as newspaper, scissors, construction paper, glitter, straws, tape, string, etc. and tell them to create a sculpture that represents their school's spirit. Have them explain the significance. If the school's spirit is low, use this opportunity to discuss how they can improve their school's spirit.

Trust Fall- Cheerleaders sit in a close circle with their legs straight and arms out. One cheerleader stands in the center of the circle. She should have everyone's feet around her ankles. The girl in the center squeezes all her muscles and is very tight. She falls to the side and the other cheerleaders catch her and push her back and forth in the circle. Let all members be the one in the center.

To Be Or Knot To Be - You need an even number of students, ideally no larger than twelve. Form a circle facing each other (the difficulty of the activity increases, the greater the number of students in the group). Students close their eyes and reach across the circle with their right hand to grasp the right hand of another student. They should pretend that they are shaking hands - but hold on! With eyes open, have each student reach across the circle with their left hand and grasp the left hand of a different student. No student should be holding both hands of the same person. Now, without letting go, have the students untangle themselves. The result should be a circle of intertwined circles, or one large circle.

Cheerleader Tic-Tac-Toe- You need nine chairs set up in three rows. Divide the squad into X's and O's. Just like in regular tic-tac-toe, the X's and O's alternate, except they sit in the chairs instead of drawing it out on paper. Ask questions about the rules of football, basketball or any sport. The cheerleaders must raise her hand to answer. If she is right, then she sits in one of the chairs. The first team to get three in a row, diagonally, vertically or horizontally, wins.

Ball of String - While standing in a circle; pass a ball of string from one member to another. The rules are only the person with the string can talk. After everyone has had their turn to speak and share their feelings, there will be a web of string. This web illustrates the interconnected nature of group process. Everything they do and say affects the team. Now toss a balloon in the middle and have them try to keep it. They are not allowed to touch it. This symbolizes "teamwork".

Back to Back- Divide into partners with one person left over in the middle. You need one person to be the "caller". The call will yell directions telling the partners to line up "back to back", "foot to foot", "elbow to elbow", "shoulder to shoulder" and so on. When the caller yells "people to people", everyone must find a new partner. The one left over is now in the middle. This is a form of people musical chairs.

Line Up - Divide the group into 2. Each team will compete against each other to see who can get the challenge done faster. Challenges could be" line up according to birthdays, alphabetically by first name or last name, age, etc. Try the same challenges without talking.

Machinery - Divide the group into teams (3 or more teams). Assign each group to build a certain machine with their own bodies such as a toaster, washing machine, vacuum cleaner, lawn mower, television, etc. Give them time to work it out. Then they build the machine and the other teams guess what it is.

Self-Disclosure Introductions (this is great for new teams) - Ask each team member to state her name and attach an adjective that not only describes a dominant characteristic but also starts with the person's first name. Examples: Serious Susie, Nice Natalie, and Loving Lauren.

Amnesia Game - A participant is identified as suffering from amnesia. That person needs to pretend not to know anything about the past. The rest of the group tells some things that help the amnesia victim to remember and to become the same person as before. The amnesia person can ask questions to gain more insight. Some questions could be " What would I do in a certain case", "What is my favorite saying"

P E E R -O - Make up bingo cards with nothing in the squares. Hand out one to each cheerleader. Every person has a cheerleader sign in a square. Each person can only sign a cheerleader's card once unless you do not have enough cheerleaders to fill all the squares of one bingo card. You want to have a different name in each block. Put all the names in a container. The coach draws out a name and that cheerleader must stand up and tell something about himself or herself. The rest of the cheerleaders block out the name. The first cheerleader to get "bingo" or "peer-o" wins.

Name Crostics - Give a piece of paper to every cheerleader and ask them to write their name in the middle of the paper about a half an inch high. When given the signal, the cheerleaders should move around the room, attaching their names to their name if the letters fit (like a crossword puzzle). The person who is able to attach the most names is the winner.

Human Scavenger Hunt - Divide your cheerleaders into teams. Give each team a list of questions to answer. The first team to finish wins. Examples of questions are

Name 2 people on the cheer squad who has the same first and last initial. Name a group of people on the squad whose ages add up to 46. Who is the person on the squad that lives closest to the high school? Name group of three people who all have different colored eyes. Name 2 people who have a birthday in the same month. When is the coach's birthday? When is the AD's birthday?

All Aboard -Take a large sheet and spread it on the floor. Have all the students stand on the sheet together. Once they have done this fold the sheet to make it smaller. Again, have all the students get on the sheet. Continue this process. Eventually, the sheet will be so small that the students will need to use a great deal of cooperation, teamwork, and ingenuity to get the whole class on the sheet without anyone falling out/off the sheet.

Team Talk - Communication is another key to team unity. Part of communicating is getting to know your teammates, their opinions, concerns and aspirations for the team. Here is a great list of topics to use for learning about each other. Sit in a circle and have a leader ask a question. Allow each team member to answer the question until everyone has participated. Then continue with the next question. When did you first know that you wanted to try out for this team? What do your parents say about you being on the team? Veteran members: What past team member did you most respect and why? New team members: What do you think your most important job is as a first year member? What is one or two words that students in your school use to describe your team? What words do you want them to use? What do you think you'll remember about your team 10 years from now? Veteran members: What one piece of advice would you give to the new members if they want to have the most positive team experience? New members: What help or encouragement do you need from the veterans to be a successful team member?

What one thing can you do consistently to show your dedication to the team?

Minefield - Have group discuss things that are detrimental to functioning as a group. For each characteristic/action, throw an object into the playing space, the "minefield." Have group choose partners. One partner is blindfolded at one end of field. The non-blindfolded partners stand at the opposite end of the field and try to talk their partners through the minefield without running into any of the obstacles.

Human Dragon - Divide your team into 4 teams of 6-8 individuals. You can have odd numbers or vary the length of the "dragon" depending on the skill, size and ability of your athletes. Each team designates the "head" person and the "tail " section of the Human Dragon. All other team members fill in behind the head of the dragon by holding on to the person in front of them at the waist. The goal of the activity is to have the head of each dragon attempt to tag the tail of any other dragon team. Only heads of the dragon can do the tagging because all other team members must remain connected (with two hands) to their teammates. Players attempt to avoid having their team's tail be tagged and skillfully attempt to shield their tail from other dragons on the prowl.

Create A Monster- Make a monster that walks with both hands and feet on the ground. The monster must have one less arm than the number on the squad and one more foot. Once the monster is created, it has to move five feet and make a sound.

Encouragement- Have a piece of paper for every team member on the squad with one name on each page. The team sits in a circle. Everyone has 30 seconds to write one positive thing on each team member's sheet (30 seconds per sheet, then pass them). At the end, each girl goes home with a sheet with many encouraging statements. A variation of this game is to have each team member have her own paper taped to her back.

Toxic River- Everyone is on one side. You measure a space about 5 feet and call it a toxic river. You want the whole squad to cross as fast as they can. They aren't allowed to cross the toxic river without special pair of boots and there is only one pair of boots. Each person can use the boots only once. The boots cannot be tossed over the river. Each person has to personally give the boots to the next person and if they touch the toxic waste without the boots, the team must start over. Hint: Carrying people over is the key.

Human Letters -Divide the squad into groups of 4 to 5 people. The coach calls out a letter. Each group has to spell out the letter on the ground with their bodies. The group to get the letter the fastest, or the most accurate, wins. Keep score.

Rock-Paper-Scissors Tag - Form two groups. During each turn, a team must decide whether they are "rock, paper, or scissors". The teams face each other, and on the count of three shows either rock, paper, scissors. The one who wins chases the other team. If the chased team member gets caught before they reach a designated home base, she becomes part of the other team.

Pass the Body - Every lies on the floor in one straight line with heads together with legs and body extending out to the side. They extend their arms up and a person will lie on top of the hands. Group passes the body down the line.

2.4 Recreation

G.D Burtler defines recreation as "any form of leisure time experience or activity in which an individual engages from choice because of the enjoyment and satisfaction which it brings directly to him".

Recreation is often used in alongside the term leisure. Recreation is any activity in which someone participates voluntarily in his leisure time for pleasure and enjoyment.

While recreation may be defined as those activities which an individual is not compelled to do, but rather which are chosen based upon the establishment of their value as being enjoyable, satisfying, interesting, diverting, or otherwise capable of sustaining pleasure for that individual, the exact method or application of recreation varies greatly from individual to individual.

During recreation you tend to not remember about your problems. You can recreate yourself through recreation making you feel refresh and more able to face life's pressure and stress.

In this contemporary world we are enjoying lot of luxuries provided by the advanced technological development on one hand and facing lot of physical, mental, emotional, social disturbances on the other hand.

Collectively all these factors affect family life, society and nation adversely in the long run. Further the technological advancements in all spheres of life has created lot of free-leisure time after the working hours, at the same time the advancement in recreational gadgets like TV, cable TV, video games, computer games etc have made the child least interested in physical activity resulting in so many physical, mental and emotional problems.

To counter act both the aspects that is the utility of free time-leisure in a constructive way and to make a child physically active in order to allow his growth and development take place proportionally, active recreation activities other than passive ones must become compulsory.

2.5 Broad Aim of recreation

The American Association of Health Physical Education and Recreation states that the aim of this special field 'contributes to the satisfaction of basic human needs for creative self-expression; helps to promote total health, physical, mental, emotional and social; provides an avenue to abundant personal and family living; and develops effective citizenships and vitalizes democracy'.

Graham and Klar (1983) on their sides define the aim of recreation as 'positive emotional response to participation in recreation activity, defined as such by the individual or by a sponsoring agency or organization'.

2.6 Objectives to indulge in recreation

> Personal fulfillment

Recreation recognizes the need of people to become all that they are capable of becoming and contribute towards how that recreation can achieve this goal.

> Democratic Human relation

Recreation recognizes that it has goals that contribute to individual as well as to the democratic society of which they are an integral part.

> Leisure skills and interest

Recreation has the goal of meeting the interest of people developing skills that will provide the incentive, motivation and medium for spending free time in a constructive and worthwhile manner.

> Health and fitness

Recreation recognizes the importance of contributing to reduce mental illness, stress and tension. It also has the foal to have physical activities in the modern society to make people healthy and fit.

Creative expression and aesthetic appreciation

Recreation attempts to provide the environment, leadership, material and motivation where creativity, personal expression and aesthetic appreciation on the part of the participant exist and develops.

> Environment for living in a leisure society

Recreation plays an important role in encouraging such things as preservation of natural resources, construction of playground and recreation centers and awakening the population to an appreciation of aesthetic and cultural values

2.7 Types of recreation

Some of the well-established types of recreation are:

Communitive recreation

Villages, towns and cities sponsor it for their residents. It is controlled ad financed and organizes by the community.

Industrial recreation

It is sponsored, conducted and administrated by the industries and other business established for its own employees.

Therapeutic recreation

It is set up in hospitals; nursing homes and ion other establishments for the benefit of the sick and disabled patients.

Institutional recreation

School and colleges recreation is provided by the concern authorities, boards, universities for the persons who registered with them.

Family recreation

It involves the activities family chooses to engage in during leisure time.

Commercial recreation

It is found in such places as parks, fun cities. It is conducted for gaining profits.

2.8 The need and importance of recreation in modern society

Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child "recognizes the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts." To this end, it states that "parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational, and leisure activity" (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 1989)

Racicot and Marshall (1998) who see Scout help to foster social integration through recreation contributed to the above article: "the purpose of the world organization of the Scout movement is to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, intellectual, social and spiritual potential as individuals, as responsible citizens and as a member of their local, national and international communities."

There are certain fundamental human needs that are required to be satisfied; there are objectives of education that need to be achieved. There are obligations of democratic society that need to be fulfilled. There is price of the technological advancement relished by the modern society that has to be paid; and there are factors-changes which have given rise to the wide spread recognition of the need and importance of recreation in the modern life.

2.8.1 A fundamental human need

Among all the people and stage of history men has found outlets for self-expression and personal development in forms of recreation, which have a striking similarity. Recreation is a common heritage of all people, although its expression takes varied forms. In all lands play is the chief occupation of young children during their active hours.

Through play the child attains growth and experience. It is nature's way of affording outlets to the great biological urge for activity and the means of acquiring skills needed in later life.

In adult life the duties responsibilities of earning a living, earning a family and maintaining a place in human society tend to relegate recreation to a place of minor significance on the margin of life. Yet the urge for recreation is so fundamental and universal that it cannot be suppressed.

2.9 Facets of Recreation

Recreation enfolds numerous facets ranging from emotional, physical, social, psychological to many more.

2.9.1 Recreation and human happiness

Since Greeks time, leaders and even our forefathers recognized happiness as a fundament and worthy objective fore every individual. In fact life would be incomplete without happiness. The great leader of recreation Dr Austin Fox Riggs has highly rightly expressed that "the function of play is to balance life in relation to work, to afford a refreshing contract to responsibility and routine, to keep alive the spirit of adventure and that sense of proportion which prevents taking oneself and one's job to seriously and thus to prevent the death of youth and knock in frequently the premature death of the main himself.

Among the needs for real living, there should be beauty, knowledge and ideals; books, picture and music song, dance, games, travel, adventure and romance, friends, championships and the exchange of minds. Recreation holds its place of importance in modern life because it has afforded and continues to afford opportunities for the attainment of these basic human needs, which provide happiness

2.9.2 Recreation and health

Recreation is carried out in the open air and make use of the fundamental muscles is the best known means of developing and maintain healthy organs for example certain forms of recreation cause increase circulation, greater respiratory activity, better elimination of waist and improve digestion. It contributes to emotional stability by affording rest. It contributes to emotional stability by affording rest, relaxation and creative activity. It also gives tone to the body by a healthy stimulation of the verve center. The value of recreation has been characterized, as an insurance policy against nervous disorders which when collected in middle age, will re-in burst hundred folds. Its contribution lies in its value in preventing illness by contributing to healthy and happy living. Recreation is also used increasingly in the mental rehabilitation of the individuals. People suffering from mental disorder have been found to react quickly to the stimulus of play and music in particularly.

Avedon, Gray and Greben (1974) look to recreation for providing well being, a concept adopted by many now. This idea of "well-being" is not new though. Alexander Pope in his 'Ode to Solitude' nearly three centuries ago, in 1717, came even closer to recreation as a inner experience of well-being:

Blest, who can unconcernedly

Find hours,days and years slide

Soft away, in health of body,

Peace of mind, quiet by day,

Sound sleep by night, study and

Ease, together mixed, sweet


2.9.3 Recreation and character development

Recreation has been characterized as a force of tremendous consequence for the personal character and the national culture. Yet character development is not an objective specially sought by persons engaging in recreation activities, it can be a natural by-product of participation in team games, drama and music which require cooperation, loyalty and team play. Under recreation leaders of integrity and ability, people can be taught respect for rules, fair play, courage, inability to subordinate the selfish interest of the individual to the welfare of the group and a capacity for team play. They also can be given valuable leadership experience.

Recreation not only develops individual quality but strongly influence the growth of social attitudes, which affects the individual as member of a group. Cowie Bonne has so rightly described the "participation in recreation and sports as fostering positive lifestyle choices'. (Cowie Bonne, 2000; Wankel and Sefton, 1994)Healthy child development through sport and recreation: a discussion paper.)

2.9.4 Recreation and crime prevention

Participation in all some recreation helps to build character. It acts as a safety valve for the prevention of crime and delinquency because recreational activities have a strong appeal for children and youth; delinquency is less likely to flourish in communities where opportunities for all some recreation are abundant and attractive.

Children or young people engaged in recreation activities on the playground cannot at the same time be robbing a bank, breaking into a home, involving in a gang rapping or some other crime. It has been shown that youth who participate in appropriate recreation experience less boredom and consequently lower the rates of deviant behavior (McKay, et al., 1996: 285 the impact of recreation on youth in transmission to adulthood: a focus on youth at risk")

The boy who go to the play ground daily or who excels in some other co-curricular activity and the girl who takes part in the composition for the drama play or who is a leader in the nature group are finding outlet for the normal desire for recognition, success and achievement. They have little need to seek such satisfaction in unsocial ways. More delinquency and criminal acts are committed during leisure hours and larger part of the acts is performed in order to get the means for the enjoyment of leisure during recreation time. Recreation promotes respect for authority, often personified by the adult in charge of the recreation program (Dunn, 1996, " An examination of the relationship between athletic ability, Organised team Sport Participation, social satisfaction and Peer-Group Acceptance in Elementary School Children available at httl://www.lin.ca/lin/resource/html/research.htm)

The police officials and prison authorities have testifies from their experiences that much delinquency and crime result from inadequate recreation opportunities. As a result, to avoid such things recreation plays an important role in the life of children, youngsters and adults. Recreation is way to control delinquent behavior in adolescents (Craig, Rusell and Cameron, 1995: 58, Benefits and impact of physical activity for Ontario, available at httl://www.lin.ca/lin/resource/html/benimpac.htm)

2.9.5 Recreation and community solidarity

Many forces in the modern society tend to separate people into distinct and often hostile groups based on differences in their economic status, social position, race, creed, nationality, education or cultural background. Consequently, it grows suspicion, distress and dislike of our fellowman and a lack of neighborliness and unity of interest. Recreation affords a common ground and a common platform where differences may be forgotten in the joy of participation or achievement. Recreation is essentially democratic; all groups and classes share interest and skill in sports, drama or art.

The young boy, girl, man and woman who excel in sports or any other activity is recognized regardless of his cast, color and creed by followers of this activities.

Recreation and morale

Shields and Bredemeier define morale development as 'the evolution of a person's grasp of the interpersonal rights and responsibilities that characterize social life'. (2001: p585) "Morale development and behavior in sport"

In periods of insecurity, depression and unusual strain, man is more than ever in need of activity that brings satisfaction and sense of accomplishment. In different parts of the world, people are facing earthquakes, floods, military invasions and other large-scale disasters, which lead to mental breakdown. During such times the value of recreation as means of building and restraining morale is highly appreciated for example: during World War II recreational activities played vital roles.

Comprehensive program for men and women in the armed forces, leisure time activities for war workers and their families and neighborhood and community program helped to sustain morale on the home front. The recreation services being provided for the armed forces, for the worker in the war industries and for morale of civilians groups are definitely contributing in boosting up the morale and confidence of all these involved. Gretchen Kerr notes that recreational activities practiced within a moderate competition are more likely than high-performance sport to further the morale development. (1996: 293) "The role of sport in preparing youth for adulthood".

Recreation and safety

Adequate provision for recreation especially in the form of playgrounds and swimming pools under the supervision of efficient leadership contribute to the reduction of accidents. Recreation areas that are properly designed and carefully operated are remarkably safe. Recreation departments also contribute to public safety by providing and supervising recreation areas by teaching skills that are essential to safe participation in injury prone recreational activities and by enforcing safety regulations and public recreation areas. In the absence of safe recreation areas, there is no safety in the street recreation at a crowded place, which may cause injuries.

Recreation and Democracy

Democracy and recreation are alike in spirit and each tends to promote and strengthen to the other. Democracy is committed to giving each individual the opportunity to grow fully, express freely and achieve and abundant life. Recreation, which represents activity freely chosen, offers the individual opportunity for genuine satisfaction, creative expression and the development of powers and help in attaining the objectives of democracy. It contributes to the effectiveness of the citizen in the modern democratic state.

Recreation and education

In many respects the objectives, methods and programs of education and recreation are similar but they are not identical. Both seek the fullest development of the individual; but recreation affords immediate satisfaction where as education aims at a more distant goal. The element of compulsion is present in some aspects of education, which is lacking in recreation experiences many activities such as sports, music, drama, or arts are common to both programs, but in education they represent areas in which skills, understanding and appreciation are to be acquired. In the recreation program however the activity serve primarily as a means of using and enjoying skills and interest that have already been acquired. Yet educational growth is a part of every satisfying recreation experience. The training for worthy use of leisure was one of the seven objectives of education. To achieve this objective, recreation provides of education. To achieve this objective, recreation provides opportunity to impart training and activities to use leisure time intelligently in a constructive manner. The early and continuous development of leisure attitude, habits, skills and knowledge leads towards developing and educated judgment about recreation.

The authorized educational institutions have realized that recreation programs afford an excellent medium for carrying on the learning process and for achieving objectives of education. Recreation therefore plays an increasing role in the curriculum of formal education and is the ex-curricular program of an institution.

Recreation and economy

Leaders in business and industry have long realized that the way in which their employers spend their leisure hour's influences effectiveness on the job. In the welfare states of the world hundred of dollars are being spent per year to care for one delinquent where as a playground which may prevent children from becoming delinquent can be operated at an annual cost of only few dollars per child.

From the concluding point of view it is clear from the above facts that recreation and leisure have gained a place of importance in the modern life and have pointed out several ways in which they contribute to an individual, community and nation's welfare.

Jones and Offors (1989) concluded that it is "less expensive to set up such programs" than to pay the eventual social costs (vandalism and police services) of not setting them up. ("Reduction of antisocial behavior in poor children by nonschool skill development," Journal of the child psychology and psychiatry vol.30, No. 5: 737-750)

2. 10 Essential characteristics of recreation

Leisure time - To have recreation the activity must be engaged during once a free time.

Enjoyable - The activity engaged in must not be boring but enjoyable

Satisfaction - The activity provides immediate and direct satisfaction

The individual must choose a recreation activity of his or her own choice

Constructive - It should not be harmful to the participant physically, mentally, emotionally, socially or in any way. It helps one to become a better-integrated individual.

Socially acceptable - the activity should be socially acceptable and individually beneficial to the participants.

Health and fitness - recreation recognizes the importance of contribution to reduce mental illness, stress and tension. It also has the goal to have physical activity in the modern society to make people healthy and fit.

Creative expression and aesthetic appreciation - Recreation attempts to provide the environment leadership material and motivation where creativity, personal expression and aesthetic appreciation on the part of the participant exist and develops.

2. 11. Recreation in and around the home

This area is perhaps the largest and most varied commercial sector as a whole. It ranges from largely sedentary activities such as reading and watching TV to fairly active pursuits such as gardening and homes exercise. Further more home based leisure sector as a whole such as computer gaming is gaining more rapid growth than others.

In contrast to newspaper circulation, book sales have been on the increase in recent years. Sales of books are increasing, suggesting an increase in home reading. Such an increase is likely to be further encouraged by the growth in internet book sales which make buying easy and cheap facilitate such buying through another key area of home based leisure home computing.

Home viewing perhaps the most popular of home based leisure activities has experienced major changes in recent years as a result of introduction of digital technology and non-XX channels. Developments in technology have contributed to the development of a range of electronic games and video games.

Social recreation

Social recreation is an area that tends to be neglected in analysis of leisure activities, which often focus on more formal forms of leisure. Ion fact social recreation and visits to public houses, wine bars, restaurants and establishments such as cinemas, bowling alleys and chains.

Entertainment and arts

Entertainment and arts, this overlaps considerably with other elements of commercial leisure. Much entertainment takes place in pubs venues with karaoke's, with night disco, live bands, televised sports and gaming machines being part of the product mixed in pubs. Further more, cinema and bowling might also be regarded as part of the entertainment sector. In addition many elements of the arts such as museums and heritage attractions are either run or owned by the public or voluntary sector or are subsidized to a very significant extent by the public sector.

Sports and physical recreation

Sport and recreation sector is huge and diverse, but in terms of commercial sector it comprises:

Facilities/Health clubs, gyms, private leisure centers and some individual sports club such as golf and tennis

Products/equipments, clothing/ footwear

Retailing/sports shops and outlets

Passive interest/various forms of media and sports

Often neglected sports sponsorship

Participation in the sports market is shifting away from traditional sports towards fitness activities where the focus is on keeping fit. It is likely that the trend for fitness activities rather than traditional competitive sports is set to continue to rise in the future. Such a trend is good news for the private sector, which has traditionally been the market leader in such fitness activities.

Tourism holiday and informal recreation

Of all the areas of commercial leisure discussed, tourism is perhaps the most obviously commercial, almost in its entity with the exception of a few publicly owned attractions and resources, the vast majority of operations in the tourism and informal recreation areas are commercial concerned such as airlines, tour operators and travel agents. Some are entirely domestic concerns and many are very small operator such as café's and ice cream vendors, overseas holidays catered by travel agents and tour operators-internet facilities for direct booking bar charted flight.

The discussions show that the influence of the commercial sector reaches to varied extents, into all areas of leisure. It is involved in formal partnership with the public sector. For the management and promotion of facilities and supplies equipment clothing and services to both the voluntary and commercial sectors.

Findings and Analysis

On a ladder up to 10 how do you rate the importance of recreation?

Result: As the bar chart clearly shows most of my classmates gave the ratings above 7.

Discussion of findings: The result noticeably shows that these people rate recreation as very important. As a matter of fact they are all student of sports science which reflects their views upon recreational activities.

Do you think recreation is sufficiently recognized in Mauritius?

Result: As the pie chart apparently shows most of my classmates do not see recreation as being sufficiently recognized in Mauritius.

Discussion of findings: The result shows that my fellow colleagues do not perceive enough recognition of recreation on our island. They somehow suggested more recreation activities or even institutions should be available to the general public. I totally agree with this idea which will generate more recreation oriented public.

Do you feel Mauritians should indulge in more recreation activities?

Result: The bar chart clearly shows the obvious wish to have more recreation of these subjects.

Discussion of findings: The need for recreational activities is a common need I share with my colleagues. This is undeniably the need of the new generation and population I see in the near future. We feel recreation opportunities as a necessity we need to satisfy.


After having clearly and profoundly explore most of the facets of recreation and team building I have come to the conclusion that a recreation business, around team building activities, is FEASIBLE in Mauritius.

A good planning around the dependents researched upon in this thesis will help to set up a good business strategy.


Considering the facts, findings and suggestions received throughout I strongly believe that the government of Mauritius shall allocate more importance and opportunities towards recreation.

I propose that the government must give prospect to a recreational business in Mauritius.