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Name of the book: The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1845, Chapter of the book: The Great Towns
The passage provided in question explains the magnificent impression produced by Woolwich which is a district in south London, England. London is the capital of England and is a leading global city with finest educational institutes, huge shopping malls, art and entertainment hubs, efficient healthcare and transport system, which attracts tourists and immigrants from all over the world. Friedrich Engels observes the high-rise development and considers the River Thames at Woolwich to be one of the attractive features of the city where hundreds of steamers can be seen shooting one after the other.
Engels explains how someone might not think about the class differences that exist because they might be lost in the scenic beauty of the place. Class differences exist because of the capitalist system where bourgeoisie possess the ownership of the means of production and the large number of proletariats who do not have money to buy even food and die due to starvation. The working class are the proletariats, who contribute towards building the tall buildings and the beautiful skyscrapers but they are the marginalized groups who are given nothing else but lives of misery and destitution. Engels describes the squalid conditions in which the working class lived unlike the luxuries experienced by the bourgeoisie. He also mentions of the immigrants coming from Ireland to find work in big cities such as Manchester, Liverpool and London and this creates over crowdedness. Homeless spend their nights in parks and refugee camps. This is the time when industrialization began in England and an increasing friction was seen between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The social war is fought between the bourgeoisie and proletariat where bourgeoisie consume the products produced by the proletariats, who are not reciprocated for their contribution. The economic and the social oppression faced by the working class were torturing. Working class also involves the illegal immigrants that are willing to work on low wages for their survival which affects the whole working class in general and thus this class is left in the doldrums of poverty and their situation worsens. Engels also mentions that the bourgeoisie were unaware of the pathetic living condition of the working class as they never visited these places. Edinburgh was segregated into two towns, New town where rich people lived and the Old Town where poor lived. This discrimination was also visible in the poor working conditions in the factories, unhygienic living quarters, malnutrition and starvation. The exploitation of the proletariats at the hands of the bourgeoisie and the indifference and alienation felt by the working class towards them deviates them and makes them more despondent.
Author: Walter Benjamin
Title of the reading: Paris, capital of the 19th Century
The author talks about the modern city which has institutions that function for the city and serves for its betterment. The many aspects associated with the urban life, change the representation of cities compared to the rural life and also transforms the lives of people who live in urban setting. The author mentions culture to be represented in cities through museums, exhibitions and monuments. Culture is related to economy as tourists and immigrants are attracted to the cities because of the cultures and spend money to eat and shop, which goes to make a certain area more desirable and attractive.
Commodity fetishism is .â€œThey are residues of a dream-worldâ€Â. The urban renewal and urban agglomeration in the form of museums, photography, exhibition centres is the characteristic of modernity. Millions of people visit these places of interest because of their historical importance. The author mentions capitalism as an economic system of production and consumption which is a feature of modernity. The capitalist system creates opportunities for people. He mentions the increase in the production of goods and the arcades of Paris and the shopping spaces which accommodate the commodities and facilitate the consumers. These arcades built in the nineteenth century, made the city life more attractive. Commodities are produced by humans and consumed by humans themselves to satisfy their needs. This fetishism attracts the men to the objects they produced themselves. The increasing change in fashion and changing demands need space for the goods to be exhibited. The construction of railways facilitated the expansion of architecture. People consume because of their capacity of the purchasing power. Consumer culture is everyday experience. Architecture and visual arts are form of commercial products attracting people from all over the world to visit the place. This consumer culture represents the accumulation of wealth and the material satisfaction of those who consume the products of the market. This consumption behaviour is attracted because of the variety of products coming into the market. Modern life maintains the independence of an individual. Countries represent their developed market commodities in the world to attract. Arcades or shopping malls that were early centre of consumerism. Advertising, dream city, fashion capitalism shaped urban space. New technology and techniques such as photography came to empower the world. Fetish behaviour is actually assigning the power to certain objects where the objects began to dominate us when we become dependent on them and believe as those objects really possessing the supremacy .world exhibitions have become places of worship.
Author: Cynthia Enloe
Title of the reading: Nationalism and Masculinity
Name of the Book (from which the reading is taken): Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics
Women are actually sacrificing their luxuries to promote global politics. They sacrifice to save their marriage and households. Women in their political struggle had to face many obstacles because of the male domination. The author argues that nationalist movements provide women with the opportunity to show their skills and to contribute to national politics. Cynthia Enloe
(1990, p. 45) observes that â€˜nationalism has typically sprung from masculinized memory, masculinized humiliation and masculinized hopeâ€™. She explains how the women are degraded by giving them the minor roles in nationalist movement whereas they can contribute a lot from their perspectives to the national politics. Institutions of the state are dominated by men. Enloe argues that women have to remain patient until the nationalist goal is achieved. Many nationalists have realized the importance and respect for women and have urged women to participate actively in nationalist movements not to support their interests but to support men. Men have confined them to the roles of a girlfriend, wife, sister or a mother. Women and men have not considered equal and women who wanted equality were told that the time was not right for the action and Enloe also mentions that women must wait to solve the nationalist goals and then consider the roles of nationalist women as empowering. One of the examples given in the recommended reading of the unequal gender roles is the appreciation and praise that women receive from men because of their contribution to the nationalist movements. Men involved in the nationalist movements with these women compliment them because of raising their children as well as contributing towards the global politics. But these women who work hard to secure a better future face a strong opposition from their husbands as their husbands often accuse them of neglecting the household chores, allegations like have other sexual partners and not giving attention towards children. Benjamin argues how the men feel like losing their control and authority over their women when their women participate enthusiastically in the politics. Husbands are seen beating their wives to stop them from getting involved in the nationalist movements. Women that stay at home and do not get involved in the nationalist movements do not know what their husbands do outside home. Women before getting involved in the nationalist movements do not even imagine of the criticism they have to face at the hands of the men. But later they realized that they had to put an end to the male opposition to demonstrate their abilities and capabilities to the fullest. This perceived division of labour hinders the women to and the en. Widely accepted set of established norms and the social construction of gender differences hinder the women to show their talents and repress their thoughts. Workplace and politics is not thought of as the area for women and career making and professional advancement is deemed only for the men. Gender stereotypes associated create an expected behaviour from men and women. To act in considered widely acceptable behaviour. Women work more than men but still are paid less the division of labour seen in the workplace and the unpaid work done by women in the homes represents male domination and their power enforced on women.