Differences Of Gender In PR Cultural Studies Essay

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My study is to find out the differences and the affects of the characteristic holding by the men and women, because these are playing an important role for both of them in chances of influence how to get the job in the future and the future of the PR field.

2Female characteristics seem to be more positively contribute to female as having better chance compare with the male. That is because according to Smith research, female have better communication skills than the male and perceiving them as better in building relationship and network (Smith 2005, cited in Yeomans 2007).

1.1 Research Problem

There're three facets of the research problem.

RP 1: Femininity PR agency will more easy to get attention and the project from the industries.

Females are more attractive and can gain more attention from the people because of their appearance . Instead of the male who are more opinionated and make people antipathy.

RP 2: Majority of the PR Practitioner is female.

The HR Department would like to hire female as their PR Practitioner, that is female has more motivated now a day and do not focus more on family like previous one.

RP 3: People will more likely to make conversation with female compare to male.

It's because female characteristic is more soft and attractive, people will more get involve and enjoy the moment with them. This is how the human being, it seems like a wall when male talking with the female. However, that's just like a muslin when the female wants to communicate with the male or female.

1.2 Assumption

1) The more female practitioner in good looking, the more convince power to persuade people and also higher chances to get the job.

2) There are more than 60% are female practitioners in PR firm.

3) Female in PR field will more easy to get the job compare to the male.

4) Male Public Relations Practitioner will be taken over by female PRP.

1.3 Research Objective

RO 1: To determine the public perception towards the existence of femininity PR


People would like to make deal with female, it's because the communication skill of female is better than male.

RO 2: To determine the reasons of femininity PR agency will be more superiority than

normal PR agency.

The characteristic of female holding is more attractive than the male.

RO 3: To find out the characteristic and sense holding by the female compare with the


It will be like beautiful, talkative, kind and attractive that female characteristic holding by the female.

1.4 Terminology and Definition

Public Relations: Public Relations is a distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual relationship, understanding, acceptance and cooperation between organization.

Role of Public Relations: Four roles of Public Relations models which are expert prescriber, the most experienced and authority on PR and its inherent problem. Second is communication facilitator, responsible for relationship building as well as communicator between the organization and its public. Third is problem -solving process facilitator, the strategic management position involved in organization problem solving in any situation including crisis; the last is the communication technician, lower level role who responsible for producing communication materials such as press release, media invite, flyers and more. (Broom and Dozier, 1986)

Public Relations Power: According to Coombs & Holladay (2007), PR involves mutually-influential relationships and power can be characterizing the connection between organization and stakeholder. The power is able to get someone to do something.

Femininity: The trait of behaving in ways considered typical for female qualities that are considered to be typical of women, for example the quality of being gentle and delicate. It's also defining the womanly temperament.

Superiority: It's a quality of being superior that holding a sense which is being better than other and going beyond than usual limits.

Majority: It's consisting more or more than half of the set's elements and it's a greater number or amount that candidate exceed those for all other candidates.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Feminization in PR Industry

3Toth et al. have found out that current profession's demographic consists of 70% women and 30 % of men which reflected a steady increase of women entering PR since the 1980s (Toth et al. 2001 cited in Smith 2005). As the result shows that PR industry has become a "feminized" profession with the majority being of practitioners. For example, the Pi (pronounced Pie) PR agency in Malaysia, which is media consultancy company focusing on ICT industry. There team from Pi PR consists are whole female which are Judy Wong, Lynn Lee and Lee Ting Ting (Founder and Director).

2.1.1 High Position of Feminization in PR Industry

4Founder and director of Pi PR (Lee Ting Ting) has had more than 12 years of working experience in the IT line with a myriad of experience. Besides 6 years of IT journalism for local mainstreams, she ran a successful PR agency catering to technology companies for 3 years, with the final 3 years was spent working for IT vendors in the capacities out of the usual marketing communication-type roles. She is good in Sales, Presales and Project Management. According Brown (1998), public relations was less respected than other similar professions such as journalism, and therefore easier for women to enter and get ahead.

2.1.2 The Characteristic of Feminization

According to Aldoory, women majority are attracted to the creative aspects of public relations such as writing (Aldoory 2001 cited in Smith 2005). [5] Besides that, Van Ruler & De Lange also found out that majority of women communication tasks are performed exclusively (Ruler V & Lange D 2003). In addition, [6] Rea (2002) states that PR values communication and organizational skills which are characteristics thought to be connected and associated with women-one of the reasons why more women are entering this field.According to Larissa Grunig (2001), Dozier (1988) and Rakow (1989), women would introduce characteristics such as collaboration, sensitivity towards audiences, and better two-way communication. Several theories suggesting reasons why women enter public relations have been put forwards. These include the desire to write and attraction to the creative aspects of public relations. Besides that, Grunig et al. (2001) argue that public relations is an industry founded on feminist values, such as honesty, justice, and sensitivity, which enhance the symmetrical communication patterns of public relations. Furthermore, the two way symmetrical model of public relations requires resolving conflict and building relationships, which they indicate are intrinsically 'feminine' values.

7In addition, Heath,Roberts and Coombs, Timothy (2006) also have mentioned that public relations agencies are thriving in the city today. Besides that, women are making up 47.5% of Bangalore and they are also making their presence felt in all professions if compare with male.

2.2 Female and Male Affects

According to Aldoory (2001) cited in Smith (2005), women take up PR because they anomy the creative aspects of public relations such as writing. As such, because of these feminine characteristics that highly value creativity and communication, women end up at the bottom of the hierarchy level. When communication is perceived to be specialized work, more women than men are hired to do it. Men on the other hand, are less likely to perform communications work exclusively (van Ruler & de Lange 2003). Besides that, according to Fitch & Third (2010), argue that women migh prefer "an undemanding job", seen as "lack of ambition" and might "avoid kind of competition necessary for career advancement" It is also possible that women may have bigger responsibility such as caring for family causing them to choose "safer job" rather than risk them for those which will allow them to seek promotions due to having "low seft-esteem" and "lack of confidence".

2.2.1 Body Image and Body Satisfaction

8According to Cash (2004), body image is a complex, multifaceted construct that refers to one's perceptual dispositions toward the physical self including evaluative (affective), cognitive, and behavioral components. [9] The other researcher Grogan (1999) also defined that body image as a person's perceptions, thoughts, and feelings about him or her body and as "subjective and open to change through social influence". [10] In other hand, according to Thompson et al, 1999), body dissatisfaction is a common experience in people around the world. It often refers to the subjective component of how satisfied or dissatisfied individuals are with their body.

2.2.2 Differences Gender In Body Satisfaction

11According to McCabe & Ricciardelli (2001) that defined literatures constantly demonstrate that female is socialized to strive for a thin body. For women physical attractiveness represents useful tool in assisting them to stay competent in the society. [12] Finding from the previous studies, that came out the conclusion which is female are dissatisfied with their body and commonly have desire for thinner bodies. In contrast, men's body image concerns were considerable less when compare to the women lead to the labeling of body dissatisfaction. In addition, women were more likely than men to describe themselves fat, diet excessively, weigh themselves more frequently and report more eating disturbances (Cash & Brown 1989).

2.3 Role of Public Relations

According to Dozier (1984), there are three roles which are according to Steyn (203), there are strategist, the manager and also the PR technician. Each of them plays a different role in an organization. A strategic role is at the top management level which is also called as the macro level.

They conduct environmental scanning to gather information on stakeholders, publics and issues from the environment. In this role, they are using the mirror function to scan and monitor relevant environmental development/issue and anticipate their consequences for the organizations policies and strategies.

In addition, According to Broom (1982, cited in Dozier 1992), there are four roles of PR, which is expert prescriber role, communication facilitator, problem solving process facilitator and also the communication technician.

2.3.1 Role of Public Relations (Expert Prescriber Role)

13According to Cutlip & Center (1991), the first role of the role of PR is expert prescriber which was identified in the practitioner literature as the informed practitioner. In this role, it is like a doctor-patient relationship where the expert prescribes and the management obeys. The practitioner occupying the role of exert prescriber operates as the authority on both PR problems and their solutions. The client or management is generally content to leave PR in the hands of the "expert" and to assume a relatively passive role.

2.3.2 Role of Public Relations (Communication Facilitator)

According to Dozier (1992), communication facilitator role is to "go-between", concerns process, the quality and quantity of information flow between management and the public. Besides that, [14] Piekos & Einisidel (1989) have define that communication technician provide their organization or client with the specialized skilled needed to carry out PR programs. These practitioners are usually hired on the basis of communications and journalistic skill such as writing, editing and working with the media.

2.3.3 Role of Public Relations (Problem Solving Process Facilitator)

The next role of PR is Problem Solving Process Facilitator, regarding to Dozier, PR in this role will help the management systematically thinking thought organizational communication and relations problems to solutions. This role stand in contrast to the expert prescribers as expert prescriber leads to passive management involvement to olve problems in a step-by-step manner.

2.3.4 Role of Public Relations (Communication Technician)

The last of the role of PR is the communication technician. It's the role to provide those mandated communication services. According to Dozier (1992), it is a dominant coalition that makes strategic decisions, specifying organizational actions and designating the communications directed at publics about such actions. That emphasis is in maintaining a continuous flow of two-way communication. A person in this role is also concerned with removing barriers to keep channels of communication open.

2.3.5 Power of the Task

15Power is defined as the capacity to affect the organizational outcomes such as policy making, decision making and more ( Mintzberg, 1983, p.4, cited in O'Neil). [16] The main reason for PR excellence in an organization is to ensure the PR practitioners, especially senior practitioners or the head of communication function enact into organization's strategy management knowledge and engages in managerial work with the support from colleagues who are skilled in traditional craft work (Yeo & Sriramesh, 2006, p.422).

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.1 Design Research

What is the reaction when a person talking with the stranger? The mystical way is how, why and what their reaction when during the conversation.

Person FemaleWhen starting my work, I would like to separate to 3 parts. First, I would want to get the opinion from the public about the when they starting make a conversation with the stranger.

Stranger M/F

From This Side

Person Male

From the framework A, I want to know which one is more convincing and effective.

Person FemaleSecond, that is about the how the industries make the decision to choose the PR agency.



From This Side

Person Female

From the framework B, I want to find out what type of criteria makes the industries to choose the PR agency and the perception from the PR agency.

Third, that is to conclude the framework A and B to get out its possible the male PRP will be taken over by female PRP from the opinion of the public and the industries.

3.2.0 Development

In this research, I have adopted non-probability sampling and this is implemented two methods which are [17] purposive sampling and also the [18] snowball sampling. Purposive sampling is selecting sample with a purpose in mind and targeted at a specific group. For my studies, I will use the methods as below to reach my target audience and complete my research. In another hand, snowball sampling as identified those meeting with the criteria and asking them to recommend those who meets my criteria.

3.2.1 Questionnaire

19The questionnaire is a document that can be used to guide about what questions can to be asked for respondents in what order, sometimes lists the alternative responses that can be acceptable. For this research, I will totally be using questionnaire to be my research method to reach my objective. My questionnaire will be the self administered questionnaire and [20] Self administered questionnaire is about the respondent will complete the questionnaire by his or her own self and no need any guidance from the researcher. Therefore, it will be spread out as two methods. The first one is using soft copy through the Internet to reach the respondent, the other one will be using hard copy as face to face to be given to the respondent.

The questionnaire will have three sections. The first part will be the demographic information from the respondent and the information about their personality. The second part will be the public opinion towards the Public Relations Practitioner and last part will be their assumption towards the female professional and also the future. Questionnaire can easy for me to get the accurate data and do the report and analysis. With the questionnaire, that can be a black and white document like the evidence for my research.

Total will have only 15 questions for the questionnaire. The first part about the demographic will only have 7 questions and second part 5 questions and that will be combined with the third part that will be only 3 questions. It's to ensure the respondent to get boring when fill in the questionnaire. Thus, questionnaire will be using the simple way and its yes and no questionnaire as the example on the appendixes (Figure 1).

Question 1 and 2 is about their status, which is wants to know their gender and also the level of education. It's to measure the respondent whether he or she is educated or not. From the question 3, it's to measure the respondent is the caring person and kind or not. Question 4 and 5 is to measure the respondent is the socialize person or anti social. Question 6 and 7 is want to know the action and the mentally of the respondent. Furthermore, starting from question 8 until question 9 is about the materialistic, attractive things that more holding by the female that can attract the respondent or not and the question 10 is about the manners of the respondent. Question 11 until 12 is their perception towards the job of PR Practitioner. Question 13 until 15 is their opinion towards female PR Practitioner.

3.3 Execute

3.3.1 Distribute Questionnaire

In the executive part, that mean I need to say what I need to do first. As the result, the questionnaire will be target only 150 audiences, these are including 75 are males, and another 75 are females. From that 150 sets questionnaire, 100 will be spread out in College or University around Klang Valley and the other 50 sets will be spread out for the outsider.

From that 100 sets questionnaire, I will more focus on the lecturer, staff and the student from the PR field and the others 50 sets will be more focus on the person who have working experience and if possible he or she will be from PR field.

From here, I will start to distribute my questionnaire in week 14 and get the feedback during the week also. It will separate for 4 days, 2 days is for inside the college and another 2 days will be in LRT station of Wangsa Maju and the Taman Melati and the shopping mall of Festival City to get my respondent.

The time will be arranged as two shifts, one is 11 am until 2 pm which is lunch times and another one will be 5 pm until 7 pm which is the time of after work.

Each respondent will be given out 10 to 20 minutes to fill up the questionnaire and I will prepare 10 of the blue color pen for the respondent to fill up the questionnaire and they will give back the questionnaire on the spot also.

Before send out the questionnaire, I will introduce myself first and telling the purpose and then only give out the questionnaire to the respondent.

3.4 Analysis

In the questionnaire part I will link the entire question and come out the potential analysis. I will combine the Section I, II and III from the questionnaire to make a story.

The first story will start begin with (male/female) who have (low/high) educated will more (socialize/snit social). Therefore, they are (willing/not willing) to accept new thing and feel (convenience/nervous) when talking with the stranger. In conclusion, it will come out with type of personality will be more common in the society.

The second story is people who are (materialistic/non-materialistic) will get (easy/hard) to get attraction from other people or they will more looking for inside (good/bad) to judge the person. Therefore, their perception towards PRP is (professional/not very familiar/not exciting) in the society. In addition , materialistic, good looking, caring and polite are the characteristics holding by the femininity.

The third story will be people might think PRP is (only/not rely) the job for (female/male). However, they still hope the field and the job will be (more/less) (female/male) inside.

From the story, I will focus on how they saying, what they saying and also what they did not saying also then only come out the final story base on these 3 stories.

In the conclusion, I also will be able to find out why in this research and how it will be if happening continuously.

3.5 Reporting

I will use table and some chart to do the reporting. The first table will be show about the demographic information of the people. It will tell out what type of the people are more existed in the society. Furthermore, I will come out the bar chart that showing the comparison of perception for the male and female with high educated. That is because the chart can show the figure and more easy to understand. Words cannot be explaining everything, but if combine with the picture, that will be more attractive and easy to understand.

The second is pie chart that is reporting about the opinion of the public towards the PR Practitioner and its base on the 11th question from the questionnaire. It's important because that data can show the current opinion from the public towards the professional of the PR Practitioner.

The last is using bar chart that is the comparison of the perception and argument about male and female towards the future trend for the job of PR Practitioner will be taken over by the femininity.

To conclude all my data, I expected more of the respondents will be preferred that femininity take over the job of PR Practitioner, it's because female will be more attractive and goo looking than the male and they are more professional and responsibilities.