Deconstructivism Architecture In New York Cultural Studies Essay

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Following the fall of the stock markets of the New York in October 1987, in June 1988, the "Deconstructivism Architecture" exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art of New York organized by Philip Johnson and Mark Wigley. There are seven architects chosen for the exhibition are: Frank O. Gehry, Daniel Libeskind, Rem Koolhaas, Peter Eisenman, Zaha Hadid, Bernard Tschumi and Coop Himmelblau. Deconstructivism is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s. It is characterized by the interest of fragmentation, non-rectilinear shapes which serve to distort and dislocate some of the elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. Although some of the seven architects have distanced themselves from the term. Nonetheless, the term has stuck and has now, in fact, come to embrace a general trend within contemporary architecture.

Since transport & communication architecture usually are very big project, they are quite easy to display the change of architectural style from the past. There is an emblematic project- Kansai International Airport by Renzo Piano in Osaka Japan which was designed as a "mega-structure" 1.7km long as the main passenger terminal.

Another architect who is largely famous the works of bridges and train stations is a Spain architect - Santiago Calatrava. Trained as a sculptor, an engineer, and an architect, he synthesizes new technologies and new forms in all his projects, including a memorable bridge in Barcelona and train stations in Zurich and Lyon. His work transcends the traditional boundaries between art and architecture as well as between engineering and architecture. His style has been heralded as bridging the division between structural engineering and architecture.

Tall Building

The high unban density required to make tall buildings economically viable in the most of the big cities. Indeed, the logic behind the tower may often be one related to the ego of its builders. Since the high tech as well as computer's application, high-rise becomes diversification from past with different structural system and façade application. One New York project: The Times Square Builidng by Arquitectonica-an international architecture, interior design and planning corporation headquartered in Miami, Florida. The apparently chaotic appearance of the tower levels was designed by the architects as an echo of the highly commercial and occasionally dangerous wurrounding streets. Arquitectonica is known for sophisticated surface patterning and facade articulation. Arquitectonica's structures are bold in color and graphic in form and the firm has become famous for its signature style, a dramatic, expressive 'high tech' modernism. Another one of the most visible tower will be the Jin Mao Tower designed by SOM (Skidmore, Owings and Merrill). Jin Mao Tower was built on a land area of 24,000 m² and has become an architectural icon of Shanghai. It is making widespread use of computer-aided design. Recalling historic Chinese pagoda forms, Jin Mao has become a model for tower designs throughout China.

Another project: Petronas Towers by Cesar Pelli in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Cesar Pelli Designed these twin 451 m high towers, which are the tallest office buildings in the world. The towers are eighty-eight stories high, and are linked at the forty-first floor by a 58, skybridge.

Museum

Museum is another typical building which can present obviously the tendency of architecture development. Throughout 1980s and into the early 1990s, a wave of the museum construction swept most area of the world. In France, the most visible museum may should be the Grand Louvre by I.M. Pei. in 1983 I.M. Pei was offered the 'Grand Louvre' project by the French government. The glass pyramid is a symbol that defines the entry to the Louvre. Besides creating two large glass covered courtyards to house sculptures, Pei's design also included the excavation of two other courtyards in order to create storage and infrastructure space. Pei's pyramid design was very controversial and 'maybe 90% of the people of Paris were opposed to it at the beginning', although now people have different opinions to it. In fact it is considered one of the

landmarks of paris, together with the Eiffel Tower.

Another visible museum is the Guggenheim Museum by Frank O. Gehry in Bilbao, Spain. Gehry's work mostly belongs to the style of Deconstructivism, which is often referred to as post-structuralist in nature for its ability to go beyond current modalities of structural definition.. Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is one of the Gehry's best-known works.

Another museum which is designed by by SANAA which is a Japanese architect is the Glass Pavilion at the Toledo. The museum conceived as a single one-story volume penetrated by courtyards with sightlines through layers of transparent walls, the visitor's experience will always involve the surrounding greenery. Individually, each space is enclosed in clear glass, resulting in cavity walls that act as buffer zones between different climates; museum exhibition spaces, the glass making hot-shop, and the outdoors.

Sustainable Design

With the development of the world, people are paying increasingly attentions to the environmental problems, in the architecture field, sustainable design has become a popular issue for architects. Sustainable Design is a general term that describes environmentally conscious design techniques in the field of architecture which focus on heating, ventilation and cooling system efficiency.

Commerz Bank Frankfurt Norman Foster 1997

Ken Yeang IBM Tower Malasia, 1992

Other representative works

Greater Columbus Convention center by Peter Eisenman Colunbus, Ohio

Metal siding of various colors was used to emphasize the layering of the strands of the building, which is located closed to the downtown area of the city

D.E. Shaw and company Office by Steven Holl in New York. This project use refracted light to introduce an element of color into the other white envitonment, this space is typically one of the 1990s, sparse, with a reminiscence of the early days of modernism.

Chiat/Day Main Street by Frank O. Gehry in Venice, California. The building is notable for the three different styles used in the main facade on Main Street, particularly the massive sculpture of binoculars that function as both a car and pedestrian entrance.

Yerba Buena Center for the Arts San Francisco, California by Fumihiko Mari

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