Culture As Shared And Learned Attitudes Cultural Studies Essay

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In some places culture is defined as a system and process of building and creating an identity of living creatures. In various groups as behavior changes cultures also varies. Beside all changes that occur in living beings, still an identity of human culture remains unchanged. Cultures are developed through beliefs, faith, way of living, practices, art, languages and economy. This cultural growth gave identity to societies such as, Muslims, Christians, Jews and so forth. We come to know what culture an individual belongs to through their beliefs, religion, faith, languages, economy and so forth. Community growth is dependent on the cultural growth. When differences between two societies clash, it leads towards war where the stronger difference overpowers the other and establishes its own culture; through which they broaden its horizons. A real and apparent example can be the spread and globalization of the Western culture almost all over the world. For instance, folks who have grown up in the United States, Canada or other countries and have returned back to their counties; they have played and have been playing an effective role in popularization and globalization of western culture. For instance, almost everyone (youths) wear jeans; the first choice he will make about buying a jeans will be "baggy jeans". Majority of the kids choose baggy jeans because their cousins, returned from abroad, have influenced or convinced them. American army name tags along with chains also come along with these baggy jeans. We do accept that still there are some differences involved in such globalized cultures. These cultures match and are diverse in many aspects. Globalization made these cultures popular but it did not eliminate cultures. Culture, while having its rich diversity, has essential value for development and social cohesion. Cultural diversity and globalization are very much general in their meaning-there are many, good and bad, reasons to think that globalization diminishes/or reinforces cultural diversity.

To develop further these ideas, we need to know what cultural diversity is. Various human societies or cultures in a particular region or all around the world, is known as cultural diversity. Beside all obvious cultural differences that exist among societies, such as traditions, language, dress, there are significant differences in the way people interact and communicate with their environment. The way societies are organized and so forth. Within every culture certain standards and norms are accepted and practiced carefully; such as eye contact, body language in public, personal space distance. In the United States of America for instance, it is believed that while being engaged in normal conversation there should be at least eighteen inches of distance; there should be direct eye contact while talking to another person. In other countries and cultures people might stand more farther or closer, direct eye contact might be viewed as rude, people might stay still and use less body language while talking.

In my understanding cultural diversity makes a country more interesting. For a while lets imagine, if you are a Muslim tourist and you travel to China; where you could only find Chinese food. As a Muslim you are limited to certain types of food and, on the other hand, you do not like Chinese food. What would your stay might be like? Thanks to the diversity of cultures! Yes! Only because of the diversity you can easily find, Italian pasta, Indian spicy food, Arabic delicious food and so forth.

Cultural diversity has one another benefit as well. It makes a country stronger and better enough for competing in the global economy. People from all around the world with diverse cultures bring modern ways of thinking, different languages skills, negotiating skills and creativeness both in solutions for problems and development. By giving shelter to foreigners we also give a chance for new and larger investments. Businesses around the world always look for a competing, secure, emerging and growing market for their investments. No one is perfect; every one learns either way through education, mistakes and/or from each other. For instance, beside national staff in Afghanistan in many NGOs or private companies CEOs, Directors or other employees are foreigners. Many of them are well educated, smart and talented. While working with them we do not only get work experience in that particular field but we also learn from them. We explore their talent everyday and adopt, absorb and learn their skills.

Integration and interaction among the people, governments and companies around the world for the development of the global economy is called globalization. Globalization has direct effect on cultures, environments, economic prosperity and developments and human lives in various societies around the world. Let's explore what is cultural globalization? Traversing of values, attitudes and ideas across and around the national borders is called cultural globalization. This traversing of values, attitudes and ideas leads towards an interaction among people from diverse cultures and nations. Communication technologies and mass media have been playing an effective and active role in cultural globalization. Through news broadcasting channels or websites such as BBC and CNN we get updated events and issues; both from cities and remote areas across the world. For instance, in a few minutes citizen of the United States of America find out that there has been a suicide attack in Baghdad on one of the US-Marine convoy. Making this news international expose and represents a country to foreign lifestyles, practices and ideas.

Pop culture is accepted as one of the best examples of the cultural globalization. For instance, Italian Cappuccino is popular all around the world, Chinese hair styles are popular and practiced almost all over the world, American TV serial 24 has more than millions of viewers and so forth. Keeping all this information in mind; let's try to find out the answer for the question; does globalization diminish or reinforce cultural diversity?

In my understanding there are many reasons why we accept that Globalization diminishes cultural diversity.

Similar life styles are created by developing desired basic materials through assured consumerist cultures by multinational corporation's promotions -- "Coca-Colanization".

Modern institutions have made all basic human practices efficient, conventional, and controllable, for instance the fast spread of the fast food around the globe -"McDonaldization"

The United States of America, widely exercises its hegemonic influences, makes use of and, promotes its habits and values, through media, news, movies and popular culture -"Americanization" (Edwards, Karethy)

Beside all these reasons I believe there are many other reasons as well, which supports that globalization fosters cultural diversity such as;

As mentioned above that globalization brings interaction across nations and boundaries which makes a mix-culture in specific practices and places

Differentiations which are originated in result of various culture flows in various spheres

The spread of images and ideas around the world and integration irritates reactions and resistance --Contestation

Diversity is now recently is known as a global value which is developed though international movements and organization- institutionalization (Edwards, Karethy).

The issue of cultural diversity around the globe has somehow become a world-wide cultural politics which therefore is hard to be developed by evidence and arguments.

In addition, we read that culture is a collection of shared and learned attitudes and practices. Animal and human beings both are attached to a culture. Cultures are both very much different and same as well. Cultures are originated between people of a group but we do understand that cultures diversity also exists; within same members of the group or various cultures. Our identity as human being makes us different from other humans and animals. It is widely believed that globalization to some extents diminishes cultural diversity. People believe it because they think that similar life styles are created, Cultural practices of other countries are adopted and so forth but on the other hand large number of people believe that globalization reinforces cultural diversity. According to them, through globalization global interactions, institutionalization and differentiations are made. We can only brought up and argue ideas but we cannot change one's believes in this regard.

Work Citation:

Adu-Febiri, Francis. Review of Human Factor Studies, Jun2006, Vol. 12 Issue 1, p30-64, 35p; (AN 21835544)

Edwards, Karethy. Journal of Cultural Diversity, Spring2010, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p3-3, 1p; (AN 48874063)

Lynton, Michael. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, 9/4/2007, Vol. 250 Issue 54, pA17, 0p;

(AN 26528099)

McGrory, Kathleen. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2007, Vol. 19 Issue 1/2, p208-210, 3p; (AN 26907082)

Piché, Victor. Labour, Capital & Society, Apr-Nov2004, Vol. 37 Issue 1/2, p210-233, 24p, 1 Chart; (AN 18687704)

Sotshangane, Nkosinathi. Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, Winter2002, Vol. 1 Issue 4, p214-231, 18p; (AN 16700792)

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