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Culture and sub-culture are the important aspects and it may have a vital influence on the changes of this materialistic world. There will be a lot of cultures of consequences which are most relevant to the Cross Cultural Management. To harmonize all these elements into a single one ,it is not possible but being a human one must understand at least about their state, Nation, Organization, Region or the Wold.
The word culture was derived from the Latin term ' cultura' which means that inhabit or worship, which resulted later in the elaborated sense culture as human action (Berthon 1993). But some other sense in ancient period the term had more connectivity with the social concepts such as refinement of the mind taste and manners on the basis of superior education and upbringing. It has also described in the intellectual side of civilization especially in German term. Another point of view is that before the second worlds war the term culture used to indicate widely to support arguments based on social and racial superiority of a few groups over others. Some the other elements which related to the culture are..
- Common values and beliefs
- Common attitudes and behaviour
- Common norms and symbols
- Customs and rituals
- Assumption and perception
- Etiquette and Patters.
Mainly there are two type of approaches towards the managerial and organisational settings. They are ; Divergence and Convergence.
In the divergence it tell us that we should learn the cultures by examine others behaviour from Different countries . For example the management is different in Scandhavania than in US, Uk, Germany and Asia .
In convergence it tell us that it is not necessary to understand the cross cultural management from different countries because of the development of technology, structure and global aspects or orientation of different industries. From this point of view we can consider that culture has a great influence or impact on management across cultures.
Cultures in a theoretical view point Maruyama (1980, 1982, 1984) according to this view culture has two thought that is Western thought and Eastern thought that can be differentiated or characterized by different categories, distinctions and separateness. But whereas Eastern thought is related with continuity and connectedness.
A study of Kroeber (1985) says that there are 160 definitions alone which describes about culture even though mostly the accepted one is Meads (1951) anthropological definition, "culture is a body of learned behaviour, a collection of belief, habits and traditions shared by group of people and successively learned by people who enter the society." Another writer whose name is Hofstede(1991) and who says culture " to apply national norms to a specific group of individuals would be to perpetrate the ' reserve ecological fallacy'. Cross cultural training significantly increase the ability of a malty- cultural team perform a set of program successfully. The employees or colleagues from various firms communicate with different customers around the world therefore aiming a international business is very important to expand in many other countries. GeertHofstede
Describe culture as " the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." Mead (1951) goes on to suggest that culture "is learned, not inherited." If it is true then we should not learn the old instead of that we can learn the new culture. Hafstede's work mainly describes about different between the national cultures. According to him and his co-workers the national cultures have five definitions, these five theories are called long term orientation.
Building a Culture Across Borders
Heller and Wilperts(1981) bothof them study explain salient differences in the behaviour of managers from different countries which they concluded in five methods they are ;
- Manager's own decision without explanation
- Managers own decision with explanation
- Prior consultation with subordinates before making decision.
- Joined decision making with employees.
- Delegating responsibility for making the decision to employees.
According to Susan and Nancy, on a political map of every country's boundaries between countries as seem as forever. It means the political map of whole country does not have any change they all keep their distance as it is. Whereas when examine the competitive map of financial and industrial activity those boundaries have large distinguishes between the countries everywhere. Especially it differentiate the distance between the developed and undeveloped countries. The central point of global integration or change of today is that increased technology. This rapid growth of technology is not only changing the transnational economic integration but also it changes the fundamental nature of the relations between the nations and firms or industries. The changes in the economic growth which resulted to get knowledge and also it become a need for the global human resource management. Thus by the expanded development in the technological intensity of many industries and economical growth both can be characterised by the environment of the present and future economy.
A view of Anthropologists bout Managing Across Cultures;
According to the Anthropological point of view many people are very closely mingles from different countries. Also from different countries, people work and study together with their colleagues but anthropologists say that people from England, India, Dutch, Japanese or German are fixed national cultures and the will not help us for much more collaboration. Their opinion is large firms don't have faith in the multivalve models, instead of that they utilize their international experience and knowledge to train their managers and employees.
A research on management quality;
Research management liturgical people divided the country into two, in their language it called masculine and feminine country. They say that masculine country mainly planning about internal operations whereas feminine especially looking for customer relations. Gang and Ma (2005) their study brought various importance in management systems, leadership and style, within the national cultures there will have three type of organizations that is foreign owned, joint venture, Chinese owned and operated firms. They say that on the basis of quality management research Hofstede did a very little study. So one great consequences contribution on management quality is Krosolid (1999) who says that the development of quality management has two way they are deterministic school and continues improvement school but again he says that these two schools will vary according to the national cultures.
It is very significant that accumulating a scientific knowledge to the understand the quality of management across national cultures. Through this one can able learn how to transfer best quality management practices from country to another. Also culture dimensions evaluate the individual quality practices, quality priorities and quality performance.
Managing across cultures in global organizations
When we think about global organisation or global business there must be having a variety of employees from many countries because the developing technologies have tempted a large number of employers to do focus on inter nationality. At this kind of circumstances the decision making will be mainly from headquarters and after that it will transfer to other national branches or international branches. Here different culture and language speaking people will pass through, therefore in this situation Susan says that there are three elements are important. They are; (1) Ignoring cultural differences, that is business is business. The second one is minimizing cultural differences that is efficient and effective threats and problems. The third one is utilizing distinct opportunities that is when we get the chance to expand global opportunity, utilize it as much as possible to spread wide.
Culture have many impact on management and organisations throughout the nations and between the nations, so that the management scholars have to emphasis what theory will work, where and how much it can adapt from other cultures. We have seen that the study of culture expanded because of the development of technology and international finance which arranged a way to managers and others give interest to learn more about other culture. I conclude with my own point in the field Managing Across Cultures; As a international manager one must be accumulated or he / she should have thorough knowledge at least to speak and read international language. Therefore without language it is unthinkable to survive in any other country other than his nation. Other important thing is that body language. It has a distinct role in managing across cultures because many people from various parts express their feelings through their body language. And the third one as a manager it is necessary one must learn different culture so that he can be a successful manager in his organisation. Above all there is some other points also include with this that is decision making, humanity, personality and patients all these are lead an advantage to all type of managers whether it is national or international.
Managing Across Cultures (issues and perspectives)
By Pat Joynt and Malcolm Warner
Article type - research paper
Authors: Vecchi School of Business, Trinity Collage, Bublin, Irland.
Louis Brennam, School of Business, trinity collage Dublin, Irland.
A over view of anthropologist on Cross Cultural Managemen
28 February 2009
Managing Across Cultures
Author: Susan C. Schncirder and Jean-Louis Barsoux
First published 1997
Second Edition 2003