In the globalization world communities and places are inter connected. The people ran after the money and loose their identities. In this globalized world humans are committed to live with machines in day to life rather than with their family, community, and place. During these change of new place, and getting involving with the new community the challenges from the external are different from the internal community. In some places and community it is different from the above the external threat causes them to fear them within the community for the better living and life. How places and communities face these challenges and how they are going to be a better place and a good community to work and live is the big question.
Community is the social term, the idea that there exists some organic, cohesive social structure that brings together individuals, households and businesses offers an organizing and supportive frame work for everyday life and the management of change. That such social structure really exist in the form of that popular conceptions would have us believe is contestable.
Place is a product of interconnecting flows of routes rather than the roots. The place is the connection to a rooted and an authentic sense of identity forever challenged by mobility. Place make a critical intervention into the widely held notions of erosion of place through globalization and time space compression.
What is meant by community?
In general notion, community is attractive and it is a good thing.
"Community is a social structure of any size which brings individuals, households, business, etc, supportive for everyday life.
A group which shares common characteristics perceiving itself as distinct from the larger society within which exists is called as community. Some common terms of community are community action, community centre, community spirit, community policing, community forest, and community care, etc.
What is meant by place?
"A product of interconnecting flows of routes rather than roots "is called as place.
(Doreen Massey: A global sense of place)
An area with definite or indefinite boundaries; a portion of space.
A place may be home, street, business, town, city or country, etc.
The various conversations in the readings:
Politicians, religious leaders, the media, the police, social activists tend to use the term positive sense.
Communities can express negative values such as bigotry, intolerance, aggression and violence. (Keller, 1998)
It is not simply enough to assume that communication makes community.
It is virtually impossible to generalize about whether there has or has not been a perceptible decline of community in the English village.
Going to growth is an ambitious strategy put forward by Newcastle upon Tyne city. Council in January 2000 relating to the future development of the west and east ends. ('Going for Growth': Newcastle upon Tyne, England)
Balanced community is a mixture of households of different ages and classes. (St Mary's residents, Oldham)
Community studies had come to be characterized by functionalist methodologies and idealistic analyses that had left the concept indelibly tainted.
If what they called 'secondary' relationships rather than the strong 'primary' relationships often based on kinship.
A feeling of solidarity between people who occupy the common territory, based on strong local network of kinship.
Measuring the individuals as points and relationships as links. (Boal 1969: Impact of community structure in west Belfast)
People will be simultaneously participating in one community as a local network interaction.
Country side Alliance hear the voice of traditional power and privilege, of field sports, farming and landed poverty. A voice which is attempting to change rural Britain.
In Copenhagen, Cupar Street has a mixed community but common violence and threats caused a retreat to the households.
Danish society is remarkably open, anti Semitism is rare and barriers to the inclusion of Jewish community in the society are few.
In general community is a good thing which is viewed as opposite to individualism, which has selfishness and isolation but community is a keywords of co-operation, sharing and loyalty.
Some defined communities express negative values such as violence, aggression and intolerance.(terrorists groups)
Community is not single, it may have many forms and equally their geographies are complex and various - they may be localized, private, imagined or virtual. (ex: international students in CBU)
Community is a contested concept, frequently invoked in a variety of ways by different interest groups.
Defining and measuring community is fraught with difficulty, but the strength of internal interactions is an important dimension.
Many people still associate with particular communities in specific localities, whether they be gang territories in Los Angeles or gay spaces.
Communities are often formed or strengthened in relation to external processes and threats. Homogeneity is often assumed and is an important means by which groups construct themselves and others as different and opposed.
Politicians, religious leaders, the media, the police, social activists, etc, are said to have a positive effect which has the characteristics of cooperation, sharing and loyalty. But some of the above mentioned people turn to be negative and seems to be negative role model to the community. Ex: the politicians in India they use the power to their own welfareness and their desires and forgotten their duties.
The good thing about the social activist and other social groups is opposite to individualism because many contemporary processes encourage a more fragment and individualistic life style.
Communities are people who talk to one another.
Politicians especially talk about a national or even global community and the people feel they belong to that scale but community is our neighbourhood, residential area, and street, part of street or house hold.
Community brings home to the extent to which is rarely a coherent entity that can exist without conflict and speak with one voice. Ex: A Sheffield university student, International students in CBU.
Urbanization, large size, cities tends to have heterogeneity. Mainly in the working class urban areas suggests that the community is alive and it has the characteristics of strong kinship, shopping, leisure activities.
The urban village working communities are largely lacking from middle incoming estates growing through the rapid expansion of owner occupations.
Some theorists argued the idea of attempting to measure the community as fraught and problematic. Ex: Middlesbrough, Newcastle and Durham.
Hillary view on communities as different social structures and different geographies can be conceptualized but liepins view as people will be participating in one community as local network of interaction. In my view both kind of communities exists but community means it has different geographies and various social structures. I argue that liepins view as homogeneity.
Community is to strengthen the people when they feel under some external threat.
The geographical and social communities undermined by uneven economic development through high degree of production, people, cultural internationalization and homogenization.
Various conversations in Reading:
The author of defensible space suggests that the production of gated communities was one way to secure neighbourhoods against the crimes such as prostitution, drug dealing and mugging. Ex: flats, corporate offices, housing boards.
Harvey says that place can be a secure haven in an unpredictable world.
Places don't just exist but they are always and continually being socially constructed by powerful institutional forces in society.
Harvey view that place is a conditional form of permanence in the flow of space and time.
Capital is relatively free to move around the globe at the press of a button. Capital is mobile but place on other hand is fixed.
Capital encourages companies to invest and places have to sell themselves as good places to live, work and invest. Ex: Montreal, London, New York.
The threat to place posed by the global economy makes us more aware of what we value in the places we live and work.
Heidegger sees place as dwelling as the locale of the truth being as the thing that makes humans human. Ex: pre-war in Germany.
Place has become a political symbol for those who want to fight against the power of global capital.
Places do not come with some memories attached as it by nature but rather by its history.
Groups are also doing a lot of physical moving, but who are not in charge of the process.
Economic, political, cultural social relations, each full of power and with internal structures of domination and subordination. EX: Kilburn.
Capital is not a thing, it is a processes and places are processes and place do not have boundaries.
Places do not have single unique identities they are full of internal conflicts. EX: London's Docklands.
A sense of place is an understanding to its character which can only be constructed by linking that place to places.
Cleaners and maids in business class hotels in the developed west are usually poorer migrant women from the less developed world.
Time-space compression has been the sense of anxiety that leads to people looking for a little peace and quiet.
Place is one need for a clear sense of boundaries around a place separating it from the rest of the world.
Boundaries are a key element in Massey's discussion.
Harvey's Guilford is a place that sees itself under threat from difference and seeks to create clear boundaries - literally a wall with monitored gates.
Massey's Kilburn on other hand is a place of radical openness defined by its permeability.
John May's research in stoke Newington found that politics of place should lead to careful about putting all in one.
Harvey pits the idea of place as a secure bounded community against the uncontrolled vectors of spatiality. He observed this from the argument constructed in Baltimore.
According to Guilford place has a name, boundary, social and physical qualities. It has permanence in the mind of urban. The permanence has a wide range of institutions like government, media, and finance in particular.
Place is like space and time, a social construct. A double meaning can be given to a place a) A location within a map. b) An entity of permanence.
Capital is relatively free to move around the globe at the press of the button. Capital is mobile. Place is fixed. This difference between mobile capital and place fixed is fundamental for Harvey.
The permanence of place is a form of investment in fixity.
When places were inhabited by coherent and homogeneous communities is set against the current fragmentation and disruption.
Massey's definition for place is that no more than an accidental coming together of many different ways.
May's engagement with Stoke Newington and its residents provides an example of politics of place in a globalized world.
Transport, communication, and institutional for global capital had conspired to seemingly make places less important. Ex: World Bank, IMF, WTO, etc.
Anti globalization protests were small and unreported until the latter part of the 1990s.
Homogenization a new kind of diversity formed in the western world. Ex: global chains such as MacDonald's, KFC appeared across the world, clothes came around the world, Chinese and Indian ethnic restaurants expanded, and supermarkets were seems to arising all corners of the world.
This period also saw the rise of Islamic fundamentalism such as the success of Taliban in Afghanistan.
The United states in particularly was witnessing a rapid proliferation of gated communities specially managed places to live with extremely tight security.
Harvey sees gated communities are collection of houses with a wall around them and one or two ways in and out. In the case of Guilford the production of gated community would effectively separate a white community from a black community. (Harvey 1996, 292)
Harvey pits the idea of place as 'uncontrolled vectors of spatiality'. He calls place as threatening and secure haven in the unpredictable world.
Harvey's intention is that places don't just exist but they are always and continually being socially constructed by powerful institutional forces in society.
Permanence of place and mobility of capital are always in tension and places constantly have to adapt to conditions beyond their boundaries.
Cities around the world safe and attractive places for people to live and work are called urban renaissance. Ex: Bilbao, Spain, London, Atlanta. Similarly large cultural events like Olympic Games, world cups, world fairs, are used to sell the places to the world audience.
Places are more distinctive and visible and to provide a sense of pride and belonging. Urban areas are cleaned up and marketed as heritage areas. Ex: Diego, Covent Garden, Boston's Faneuil.
Massey view that an idealized notion of an era when places were inhabited by coherent and homogeneous communities is set against the current fragmentation and disruption but the occasional longing of such coherence is nonetheless a sign of the geographical fragmentation, and spatial disruption.
There are also groups doing a lot of physical movements but who are not in charge of the process in the same way. Ex: migrant workers crowding towards Tijuana to US to grab a new life.
The women's sense of place in a mining village the spaces through she normally moves, the meeting places, and connections outside are different from a man's.
A close connection between place and a singular form of identity and desire to show how place is authentically rooted in history.
May's view in places that appreciation of diversity as a picturesque scene that gives those who look on sense of cultural capital. Ex: stoke Newington
Harvey's view in places that sees itself under threat from difference and seeks to create clear boundaries. Ex: Guilford
Massey's Kilburn on other hand is a place of radical openness defined by its permeability. The identity is never fixed and bounded.
Politicians, police, and media are said to have a positive impact in community but their values are negative to the community.
Urbanization of cities brings kinship and they are called as heterogeneity. I would argue that in sub urban and villages have more kinship than comparing to urban cities.
Cities around the world are best place to live and work but living in sub urban gives a different feel, the fresh air, nature are associated in sub urban places. I would say the better place is to live is sub urban areas than to cities. Ex: cape Breton islands.
I would accept the Harvey's view that places are under threat. This is because of the globalization.
I would say that May's view is best approach to places than to Harvey and Massey.
What are the impacts of globalization?
Globalization is a source of opportunities and empowerment. In regarding to places and communities the globalization has changed the life of people. Globalization has done a good to certain communities and it produces negative impacts to certain places. Globalization has a difference between the local peoples how they look at the migration and their competition towards the job and postings in work places.
The impact of globalization on communities is uneven and migration of people is experienced differently among the people. The local community feels the pressure of job security, low pay and loss of jobs. Workers in communities challenge these experiences by campaigning.
The globalization highlights the experience with the local people, communities, social group and individuals, typically globalization brings technology, communication, financial institutions, super markets and make the life of people in the places smother and easy. Globalization brings world products, news, sports, etc to the home without going to the place of birth. This is the general view of the globalization but the impact of globalization to the community and places are unknown behind these view.
Danny Mackinnon investigated the local peoples and communities in Britain. The Danny interviewed the people in three UK communities North- East Lincolnshire, Glashow, and west London (Heathrow). This study examines the experience and response to globalisation of the communities. The report addresses three key areas
The uneven impacts among the local people in the communities
Impacts of globalization in shaping the local labour market
The effects of community relations due to globalization
The term globalisation is understood by academics, politics but the local community is not aware of the term and the impacts of it in everyday lives. Globalisation and its interpretations are fairly at basic level the value of the globalization is limited because the trade union had not decided how the globalization has economically benefited or economically damaged the local community.
(Trades union official, greater Glashow)
The local communities saw globalization as credit crunch, economic recession and international labour market competition. International migration was one of the biggest impacts which affect the local community jobs; West London was attracted by international immigrants from the year 1950. In Lincolnshire the European immigrants entered into the local job market like fishing and less skill local community people have to face the global competition and they were forced to go for low jobs like cleaning pipes in refineries. In Glashow the arrival of asylum seekers as part of the UK governments dispersal programme in the early 2000s created a panic in the disadvantaged working community where they lived.
The key focus is unemployment of the youth in greater Glashow, the young people found hard and difficulty in finding the job for over the previous years. This made the youths to frustration which moved to them to work in low paid, unlike job and the voluntary jobs. This made them to increase the feelings of disempowerment over the jobseekers. The key factor for the three cases is immigrants.
In Glashow local community is put under the threat and they raised their voices through media by saying British jobs for British workers. The young people from Glashow discussed the cheap labour. Polish workers are ready to work for low paid jobs than the local people. In oil refinery in Lindsey the use of foreign workers and low skilled workers were addressed. The use of low skilled Italian workers from the subcontractors made the local people to paid low and loss their jobs. The local worker said that they don't want the inside people so the company kicking the inside people and bringing European workers from contractors because if the inside people works they have to pay euro 10 or 8 and they have to give sick pay. The company don't want to pay for sick or rise of wages for the European worker their wage is euro 5.50 so they can employ 2 persons. (British Asia man, focus group)
In the case of Lindsey the respondents describe Heathrow as an ethnic village. The varieties of peoples working in Heathrow are packaging, catering and transit. Similarly Glashow has a strong social culture for shipbuilding. In Lincolnshire community was less important to local people. The migrant white workers have rival vary with non white workers. Polish whites were treated differently because they have more common towards the non white workers than the white population. Compared to Heathrow the more whiteness was faced along side of Europe.
Multiculturalism is the only key word which bridges the local and immigrants. These reflect the everyday live and now the multicultural is seen as competition and not as threat, people negotiated the word. This why the phrase British jobs for British workers has failed in Lincolnshire because they have trade with north Atlantic Maritimes and fishing industry and workers from Humberside.
Suggestion and Recommendation:
From the theorists of Harvey, Massey, May, and Hillary, i have witnessed that diversification of community formation has weakened the internal ties of geographical communities is questionable and it should never be assumed. Issues of boundaries and connections are still there but they are used in complicated ways by people. Community is a form of social organization which attempts to stimulate and develop community.
In this globalized world we cannot ignore the word globalization. We are directly or indirectly accepted the Globalization. How we are going to develop and community is the question. To answer this we have to accept the global process and from which we have point our identities. We cannot oppose the multiculturalism, but we cannot loss our identity. By adjusting the gaps and forming a platform for our lives and showing a good direction for the future generations can save our places and communities.
The globalization will not benefit every individual place and communities. The globalization has created jobs and made easy way of living but at the same time it has produced a threat to the communities. So understanding the negative and positive impacts of the global processes of globalization and act according is a wiser way to achieve.