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In an increasingly globalized economy,and culture increasingly blend today,enterprises in the international marketing process should pay attention to analysis of the cultual environment,ddentify the differences between different values,to develop cross-marketing strategy accordingly. International matketing activities end,the Chinese enterprises must pay attention to various cultural environment factors.This article focused on the international matketing of cultural differences caused by cultural conflicts and the corresponding solution and pointed out that enterprises can take full advantageof such cultural differences into a new source of competitive advantage as well as cultural factors in international marketing in the specific embodiment of an analysis of cultutal factors on the impact of international marketing and put forward measures to deal with china's enterprises.
Culture ,Intertional marketing ,cross-cultural confict,corresponding measures
International marketing and marketing of the biggest difference is in the domestic market environment differences in the international market. On the international marketing environment is a tremendous impact on international marketing. Cultural environment is the most unique in the international market, most in need of attention. In the past, distance and time is the greatest obstacle to international business, now the distance and time for the World Business organization is not a problem. International business men and women may find them working in a clock multi -cultural environment, skillfully handling methods of communication, social etiquette and core values and many other aspects of the real difference. American political scientists and inventors Benjamin Franklin wrote : " Time is money. " Now busy in the global business people will add one sentence : realize the cultural differences and the sensitivity of it also is earn money.
Consulting those researches, in the article, it mainly narrated what culture and its components, it leads to representation forms of cultural conflict, and enterprises corresponding measures.
â…¡.Culture and Cross-Cultual Confict
â’ˆWhat is Culture?
When traveling in other countries,we often perceive differences in the way people live and work..In the United States dinner is commonly eaten around 6:00 p.m.;in Spain it's nit served until 8:00 or 9:00 p.m..In the United States most people shop in large supermarketonce or twice a week;Itlians tend to shop in smaller local grocery stores nearly every day.Essentially,we are experiencing differences in culture-the set of values,beliefs,rules,and institutions held by a specifit group of people.Culture is a highly complex portrait of a people.It includes everything from high tea in England,to the tropical climate of Barbados,to Mardi Gras in Brazil,to segregation of the sexes in Sandi Arabian schools.
â’‰Component of Culture
Both the actions of nation-states and the prosence of subcultures help define the culture of a group of people.But a people's culturealso includes what they consider beautiful and tasteful ,their underlying beliefs,their traditional habits,and the ways in which they relate to one another and their surrounding. Now take a detailed look at each main component of culture: aesthetics,values and attitudes,manners and customs,social structure,religion,personal communication,education,and physical and material environments.
What a culture considers "good taste" in the arts ( ncluding music,painting,dance,drama,and architecture),the imagery evoked by certain expressions,and the sysmbolism of certain colors is called aesthetics.
Aesthetics are important when a firm considers doing business in another culture.The selection of appropriate colors for advertising,product packaging ,and even work uniforms can enhance chances of success.For example,green is a favorable color in Islam and adorns the national flags of most Islamic nations,including Jordan,Pakistan,and Saudi Arabia.That is why product packaging is often green in these countries---companies want to take advantage of the emotional attachment to the color.Across much of Asia,on the other hand,green is associated with sickness.In Europe,Mexico,and the United States,the color of death and mourning is black;in Japan and most
of Asia,it's white.
Values and Attitudes
Ideas ,beliefs,and customs to which people are emotionally attached are values.values include concepts such as honesty,marital faithfulness,freedom,and responsibility.
Values are important to business because theycultures affect a people's work ethic and desire for material possessions.Whereas certainï¼ˆsay, in Singaporeï¼‰ values hard work and material success,other(in Greece,for example) value leisure and a modest lifestyle.The United kingdom and United States value individual freedom;Japan and South Korea value group consensus.
â‘¶Manners and Customs
When doing business in another culture ,it is important to understand a people's manners and customs.At a minimum,understanding manners and customs helps managers to advoid marking embarrassing mistakes or offending people.In-depth knowledge,meanwhile,improves the ability to negotiate in other cultures.market products effectively ,and manage international operation.
Social structure enbodies a culture's fundamental organization,including its groups and instutions,its system of social positions and their relationship,and the process by which its resources are distributed.Social stucture affects business decisions,including production-site selection,advertising methods,and ultimately the costs of doing business in a country.
Human values often originate form religious beliefs.Different religions take different views of work,savings,and material goods.Understanding why they do so may help us ketplace than companies from certain culture are more competitive in the global marketpalce than companies from other cultures.It also may help us understand why some countries develpo more slowly than others.Knowing how religion affects business practices is especially important in countries with religious government.
People in every culture have a commucation system to convey thoughts,feelings,knowledge,and information through speech,actions,and writing.Understanding a culture's spoken language gives us great insight into why people think and act the way that they do.Understanding a culture's body language helps us avoid sending unintended or embarrassing messages.
Education is crucial for passing on traditions,customs,and values.Each culture educates its young people through schooling, paenting,religious teaching,and group memberships.famliies and othergroups provide informal instruction about customs and how to socialize with others.In most culture,intellectual skills such as reading and mathematics are taught in formal eucational setting.Tow important topics in education are education level and brain drain.
â‘»Physical and Material Environments
The physical environment and material surroundings of a culture heavily influence its development and pace of change.
In international business, culture inevitably affect the decision of the international business activities. Because of various nationalities and religions, languages, history, social and cultural level of all sorts of cultural differences and people's etiquette of the same problem cannot be completely in line. therefore, consciously study and understand the different cultural characteristics, so as to avoid the culture of the Chinese nation to understand other people's behavior is of special significance in international business. Dutch scholars Geert Hofstede a study done in in the 1960s of the 20th century for the first time put forward the " Four cultural factors affecting management " said Culture have a major impact on business behavior factors. Geert Hofstate to the U.S. International Business Machines IBM employees in 40 countries and regions worldwide operations make a survey. On the basis of the 116,000 questionnaire analysis, he found in the work of the various values, between different ethnic groups is chiefly manifested in four aspects of cultural conflict.
Power distance that is the people's tolerance of social equality and inequality, which is in a kind of social system, power is not equality and tolerance between superior and subordinate. Some people tend to accept the hierarchy and its members will take into force, Control Force and the right of descent as a source of power, such as Guatemala and venezuela, the Republic of korea, Japan and other countries. some people cherish equality and equality, and think knowledge and respect as source of power. For example, The United states, Britain, Australia, Finland, The Netherlands, and so on.
The uncertainty avoidance, that is, members of the community on the tolerance of vague or uncertain thing. In different culture for uncertainties have different response . As South korea, japan, colombia, brazil, and so on. They are skeptical about the new idea; and like The United states, Britain, Australia and The Netherlands easily acceptable unconventional ideas and different views, more originality in work.
â‘¶Individualism and Collectirism
Individualism refers to people have the only care about thenselves and their family tendency, and only rely on individual efforts to seek interests for yourself, collectivism refers to people affiliate a collective, mutual care, loyalty, expect from collective getting help, Hofstede found that people in economic developed countries pay more attention to individualism like The United States, Britain, The Netherlands, etc., But Pakistan, Iraq is individualism are weak.
â‘·Mesculinity and Femininity
Masculinity refers to " seek success, money and material " these values leading position in society, under the corresponding femininity is a "caring other people and pay attention to the quality of life, " The values in the leading position in society. In the state of high male, the sign of success is wealth, so that people pursuing income, progress and challenges. In a highly femininity of the country, the sign of success is have a good relationship and living environment, people pay attention to good working environment and employment protection.
â…¢ Companies corresponding measure
Different cultural background, values of consumers, consumption patterns and consumer behavior are different. In activities of international marketing, marketing must understand the culture of target market and home country cultural differences and cultural characteristics of the target countries and adjust product characteristics, so as to better meet the needs of target market and meet the needs of target consumersã€‚
1ï¼ŽThe Cultivation of Cross - Cultural Knowledge and Skills
With the growing international integration process, transnational business activities become increasingly frequent, the cultivation of cross - cultural knowledge and ability becomes increasingly important. We should not only the objective understanding and comprehension of cultural diversity, should also into cross - cultural marketing skills of cross - cultural awareness and foster cultural sensitivity. In this regard, fast moving consumer goods company in the world Baojie Company has set an example for us. The Company encourages overseas staff learning the local language, understanding of the local culture, and keep close contact with consumers and understanding consumer demand. Procter & Gamble for a deeper understanding of Chinese consumers, established complete market survey system in china, Consumer Tracking and communication with consumers a lasting relationship. Baojie Company has also set up a huge database in the Chinese market research department, the views of the consumers just - in - time analysis, feedback to the production department, to produce suitable for Chinese culture, products for the Chinese market. For another example, in the 1980s of the 20th century, Procter and Gamble baby diapers are sold to Japan according to the design of the americans, poor hygroscopicity and that applicable in Japan but also in the United states. But the Japanese parents parents more frequently than the United States to replace baby diapers, Procter and Gamble following the introduction of a more disposable diapers, It is designed to keep the baby dry conditions. Japan home closet space is relatively small, Procter and Gamble also improvement for diaper thinner, This would in a small bags sold, and for Japanese cultural characteristics of diapers achieve great success in the market.
2. In Search of Agreement of International Marketing Point of Different Cultural Activities and Cultural Connotation of the Mining Products
As explained in the above mentioned earlier, although differences exist between different cultural, but the total fusion between different cultures, and with the process of global integration, mutual penetration between different cultures, links more closely, It provides a good opportunity for international marketing and entry points. High - grade wine sales in China is a very good example. These multinational companies to produce wine versed in Chinese culture : For a long time, the Chinese people with power to indicate the level, with the rapid development of the Chinese economy, the community a group of rich quickly, for those with money but not the identity of people, wine is undoubtedly provide an environment in which identify and props. Earlier on 18th century, French social party, Gan Yijiu far beyond the significance of the function and become part of the social elites communication is seen as a microcosm of social life. These smart wine manufacturers keen insight to this combination of Chinese and Western culture and wine promotion, and a major success. Cognac l' or de martel only limited sale price of between .10,000 - 20,000 yuan. In 1994, Martini held in Shanghai to promote quality Gan Yijin Wang Madie Li Er " The Lord Of The Banquet " and a major success. Apart from media and luxury banquet, martini, Â hennessy and other big companies also often elegant art activities, including classical concert tour in the world. With the live in the hearts of the noble culture, people unknowingly between wine and noble culture on the equal sign.
3ï¼ŽInto the Culture of the Target Countries, Eliminate Culture Barriers
If you want to succeed in the international market, a very important point is to integrate the local culture of the target marketing, to eliminate cultural barriers and meet the consumer demands of different cultural backgrounds. This is a simple but to do is not the easy thing. Because the product and organizations access may not be able to ensure that you get the business profit. Baojie Company made a great success in this regard. Its success is that whenever a new product, which will be combined with product features, taking a closer to the name of the characteristics of Chinese culture, will soon remove the barriers caused by cultural differences. Who Rejoice rejoice, head shoulder head & shoulders, Safeguard safeguard, stressed the great zest. Chinese names like BMW cars " BMW ", is not reflected in the Chinese culture, " fragrant car beauty "? Benz cars sold in Hong Kong opened " Benz " This not only reflects a car driven by a function of excellence and meet the Chinese traditional culture " Rule the world, " Scholars thought, but also touches most deep chord in the hearts of Hong Kong people.
4. Carry Forward and Build a Culture with Local Characteristics, Improving Competitiveness in International Marketing Campaign
Michael Porter put forward in the book Competitive Strategy is one of the three major strategic differences, it will not only improve customer loyalty and avoid rival, You can also obtain the excess profit. To be in an invincible position in the international market, We must carry forward and build a strong culture with local characteristics, enhance international competitiveness. For example, " Jin Liu Fu " on its rich cultural connotations : Gold is supreme, six blessing to the United states. Six Fu : the first is longevity, the second said of prosperity, The three said corning, a four said good and cooperation, six said the study. " Jin Liu Fu " spirit and traditional Chinese culture could be called It' s perfection itself. to meet our people look forward to the words of blessing and luck culture, at the celebration, congratulate somebody. on a happy occasion, birthday celebrations and spirits, blessed by friends and at the same time, guidance for " longevity, wealth, health, german, and filial piety " A Better life. So " Jin Liu Fu " is not only a taste of its superior quality, are in the thousands of - year - old sacred Chinese culture. Once consumers in the use of time beyond purely for the purchase of a certain product categories and products established intangible emotional ties, so it became a brand. This kind of relations, including mutual trust, love, but more cultural atmosphere and substantive have a feeling.
In order to successfully enter the world market and consolidate and expand its own position, strong economic strength and correct strategy is of course important, but the cross - cultural awareness of the enterprise in international magic weapon for defeating an indispensable. In the course of international business activities or transnational operation of enterprises, unavoidably encounter caused by cultural environment and cultural barriers. therefore, how to understand and analyse the cultural environment in the country of destination, understanding cultural differences and overcome cultural obstacles to success in our transnational business activities, are all multinational managers at all levels must seriously consider and deal with the problem.
In one words, and as Hall said : " Today more and more people can't just rely on its own cultural model to determine what others will do, He kept contact with strangers and contacts, so he must complete the next step, that is, surpassing his own cultural model. " ï¼ˆEdward Hall,1988ï¼š39ï¼‰Transnational management should inherit and carry forward the Chinese nation's outstanding cultural and its application on transnational management, and efforts should be made to increase his own cross - cultural awareness and meet the challenge of different cultural environment.