Cultural Diversity And Communication Cultural Studies Essay

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The growth of communication as well as transportation technology plus numerous communal plus cultural rebellions over the last decades have been internationalizing the globe into a closely unified community. The volatility plus difficulty of the transform will proceed to augment in the years in front in addition to confront the basic postulations moreover beliefs on which contemporary public have cultured to live by means of. To successfully ride this turbulence of internationalization, citizens of contemporary societies are required to acquire a set of Information moreover skills that account for international communication capability. Just via international communication capability can public as of diverse cultures communicate effectively plus productively in the internationalizing community. (Augé, 1995)

Information as well as skills of international communication capability not just help to transform persons into multicultural persons by fostering multiple cultural identities, however in addition purpose to nurture an consciousness of these manifold identities moreover extend to maintain a multicultural coexistence in order to develop a international civic culture. Consequently, international communication capability is the key to cultivating ability of tolerance in addition to mutual respect for cultural differences, which marks the enlightened international citizenship in diverse levels of prospect human community. (Boisot, 1998)


Two chief trends account for the emergence of internationalization in human community: technology growth along with financial transformation.

Primary, the rapid growth of communication technologies over the past century has basically transformed human community by linking every part of globe into a unified system. The foreword of telegraph in 1844 launched the primary steps of transform on the planet. Followed by the telephone developed by Alexander Graham Bell in 1875, the successful instalment of submarine telephone cable in 1956, the primary (CDIS, 2001)telecommunications satellite in 1960, the fibre optic communications system utilized in 1977, as well as the mainly recent electronic mail systems such as e-mail, bulletin boards, computer conferencing, plus web pages, , plus the growth of transportation technologies, public by means of diverse cultural backgrounds around the globe have been unified locally, regionally, moreover internationally for education, trade, travel, in addition to communal interactions. Technology growth has made internationalization inevitable as well as irreversible. (CDIS, 2001)

Among these communications along with information technologies, internet makes the most significant contribution to the international interconnectivity. By means of the extensive use of systematic computers, internet has blurred the line flanked by mass moreover interpersonal communication plus enables both personal and public messages to flow across national boundaries faster as well as further easily by providing an opportunity for acquainted in addition to unacquainted persons to communicate as of diverse societies on a usual basis. It has been absorbed into our daily activities along with integrated into the routines moreover structure of domestic life. The transformation of physical settings and communal situations due to the usage of internet not just redefines the concepts of space as well as time, however in addition creates a international town square in which public can enjoy the freedom of expressions. Via the process of self-image projection plus reality construction on the internet, our physical being in addition to environment are extended along with novel communities, which bring jointly public of disparate groups, are established. (Augé, 1995)

Second, the innovation of communication and transportation technology has led to a novel landscape of financial globe. Klein, 1999, as of the perspective of management as well as communication, described the process of transformation of trade organizations as the movement as of domestic firms, multi domestic firms, multinational firms, to international firms. A international company demands the ability of transnational dynamics to understand the potential clients' requires all over the globe, plus then quickly transform these worldwide requires into products as well as services in addition to deliver them to the clients in a culturally appropriate as well as acceptable fashion. (Klein, 1999)

The financial shifts to internationalization inevitably transform the contours of the globe of work along with bring in novel consumers, novel corporations, novel Information, moreover novel jobs. Because the novel consumers are spreading throughout the globe that are difficult to be concentrated, the international market represents a great confront on almost every aspect of human community, including technology, management, culture, language, etc. The coming of novel corporations indicates the confrontation to the structure of organization that requires a novel corporate culture to adjust to the novel environment. In other words, a novel way of managing the diverse plus cross-functional employees will become basic tenets for the international trade to survive. The novel Information such as ideas, processes, in addition to information will increasingly become intangible product accompanied by means of the traditional tangible goods. To effectively transfer this novel Information, the process of international trade transactions must be transformed as well as translated into a multiple cultural form. Moreover, the international novel jobs reflect a fragmented workforce in which a novel kind of employment relationship, embedded in cultural diversity, will be developed. Thus, an innovative plan of employees' arrangement and managerial landscape is required to maintain the flexibility for handling the fragmentation of the labour force.

The process of internationalization not just abolishes the limit of space plus time, but in addition extends human community into a international scale. However, it in addition reflects a dilemma, which represents a pulling as well as pushing flanked by local identity plus international diversity, or flanked by a homogenized globe culture in addition to heterogenic local cultures Auge, 1995 called the dialectical contradiction flanked by the two forces "international paradox," dictating the phenomenon that the further internationalized the globe is, the further powerful its smallest players will be. Internationalization then "demands an integration of cultural diversity in the international community, but at the same time in addition reflects public requires developing strong self or cultural identities". How public learn to incorporate diverse cultural identities along with interests as well as to discuss plus co-create cultural identity via communication in order to establish a novel international civic community will decide the prospect of human community. (Augé, 1995)

To summarize, internationalization has broken via the boundaries of space, time, cultural postulations, and the scope, structure, in addition to function of human community. It not just demands novel ways of thinking as well as organization, but in addition opens up "novel imperatives for investigating power linkages flanked by thought plus action, Information plus being, structure and process". These novel imperatives of internationalization demand a novel way of communication in order to reach capability in the process of intercultural interaction. (CDIS, 2001)

Communication Capability:

As the ability of persons to acclimatize to as well as control the setting, "skill" has long been considered as an indispensable quality for human beings to build bridges along with alliances for existing, maintaining, plus extending the life span of the community. As a person trait, capability refers to an internal ability that is not related to personal intellect or education. This internal ability is naturally enhanced in addition to laminated via the promotion of empathy in the process of communalization. It provides the ability to know the changing environment, moreover to establish a sole range of value that forms the basis of structuring the mental state, engineering the process of interaction, and inventing as well as generating behavioural strategies plus skills for the version of the setting. As a state, capability refers to the learning ability that relates effectively to self and others in daily life. It particularly regards the behavioural skills used to formulate and achieve communication goals, collaborate effectively by means of others in the communal system, moreover to adapt appropriately to situational as well as environmental variations. (Boisot, 1998)

Taken jointly, ability can be conceptualized as of three aspects: chief, it is the cognitive ability to appreciate situational plus ecological requirements; subsequent, it is the motivation to exhibit the ability to understand situational in addition to environmental needs; as well as third, it is the efficiency along with suitability for accomplishing precise goals in communication. The three conceptual aspects of capability echo the argument that capability integrates components based on an person's cognitive, affective, plus behavioural abilities. (CDIS, 2001)

In the international communication context, capability further requires persons to be equipped by means of the ability to acknowledge, respect, tolerate, and integrate cultural differences in order to be qualified for enlightened international citizenship. Internationally competent public not just are able to recognize the necessity of developing mindsets moreover skills to face the environmental trends, but in addition to acquire a novel mode of thinking, organization, as well as behaviour by seeing via the eyes, minds, in addition to hearts of public as of diverse cultures. Thus, international communication capability enables persons to search for the vision, shared understanding, plus sense of multiple identities that lead to the unlocking of human potential in the growth of intelligence, Information, and creativity for a peaceful as well as productive community.( Raymond, 2001)

A Model of International Communication Capability:

In order to foster the ability of international communication capability, the primary step is to develop a international mindset, referring to openness to other cultures that facilitates intercultural interactions. International mindset is the foundation of international communication capability. A well-founded international mindset enables persons to envision the coming of a international community, and then execute intercultural communication skills appropriately moreover effectively. It fosters the ability to envisage the transform of the globe trends plus to appoint in the process of regulating the transform, and to drive for a broader picture of background in which diversity as well as cultural differences is valued in addition to balanced. That is, international attitude is the ability to learn to be an international citizen. (Augé, 1995)

In addition to having a international mindset, international communication capability comprises three further dimensions: unfolding the self, mapping the culture, along with aligning the interaction. Figure below shows the four dimensions and components of the model of international communication capability. (Jacobs, 1993)

International Mindset:

As a psychological process, mindset represents patterns of person or group thinking. Via perception plus reasoning process, which is predisposed by culture, mindset is a fixed mental attitude that leads public to see things as well as events as of a specific lens. Mindset, to see things in a particular way, then serves as a cognitive filter via which we look at the globe around us. Because we acquire cognitive filters via learning, which is embedded in the process of communalization and personal experience, the further diverse the personal in addition to cultural background is, the further diverse the mindset would be. Therefore, mindset can be used as a conceptual tool for examining why public look at a specific issue or act in a unique way in solving daily practical problem. (CDIS, 2001)

Even though mindsets often work like self-fulfilling prophecies, the power of human mind cannot be overlooked. Human mind forms public's total belief system that decides whether they accept as true of the globe they live in - verbal and nonverbal, implicit moreover explicit. It creates reality via perception, reasoning, as well as intuitive or spiritual process. The powerful plus empowering implications of human mind have been studied and reported by scholars in diverse disciplines. (Boisot, 1998)

According to Boisot, 1998, international mindset calls for public to broaden in addition to expand their thinking by eliminating those filters one possesses regarding other cultures along with their differences. It equips persons by means of a mental ability to scan the globe in a broad perspective as well as always consciously expect novel trends plus opportunities, so that personal, communal, and organizational objectives can be achieved in a harmonious way. Built on the foundation of openness, international mindset represents the decrease or absence of ethnocentrism in addition to parochialism. Ethnocentric persons tend to tie themselves closely by means of their cultural group members, as well as subjectively apply their cultural beliefs to interpret external stimuli moreover judge others' behaviours. Parochial persons see the globe solely as of their own perspectives devoid of recognizing the diverse ways of living among public of diverse cultures. Himanen, 2001 pointed out that both ethnocentric plus parochial public is incapable of appreciating cultural diversity, one of the key elements of internationalizing community. Holding the perception of "our way is the best way," ethnocentric persons do not consider that cultural diversity will cause problems for persons or organizations. They incline to live in the monocultures cocoon. By believing that "our way is the just way," parochial persons have a strong tendency to deny and ignore the potential impact of cultural diversity. They are often blinded by their own practice and unable to detect the transforms as well as complexity of internationalization trends. (Himanen, 2001)

In contrast to the closed worldview hold by ethnocentric in addition to parochial mindsets, public by means of international mindset are able to foster a synergistic ability via a creative process of combining as well as balancing our own in addition to their ways. Thus, cultural dissimilarities might lead to problems, but they as well provide advantages for nourishing personal in addition to organization growth if we know how to recognize and use them to create positive opportunities. In other words, the openness embedded in international mindset allows transform, improvement, in addition to innovation over time, while facing the impact of cultural differences as well as other trends such as technology growth. (Himanen, 2001)

As the foundation of international communication aptitude, international mindset is closely related to persons' affective, cognitive, along with behavioural abilities. In other words, international attitude forms a cycle of international communication capability in which persons learn to unfold the self via the internal illumination of personal affect or attributes on the way to internationalization, to reach the cognitive consciousness of cultural varieties, plus to develop behavioural skills of international interactions. As a result, persons by means of international mindset possess five personal characteristics:

Primary, they are culturally sensitive. Since internationalization brings public of diverse cultures jointly in every height of communication along with all aspects of life, cross-cultural sensitivity becomes a great confront for public to communicate constructively among one another. Persons by means of international mindset not just have a well-developed ego in addition to positive concept, but in addition possess a sensitive heart regarding cultural diversity. (Himanen, 2001)

Second, they are open. Openness refers to two meanings. Personally, it allows persons to seek continuous improvements in the constantly changing environment that characterizes the process of internationalization. In communication, it concerns nonjudgmental attitude towards culturally diverse counterparts. Jointly, openness demands a strong motivation for perpetual learning to deal by means of cultural differences. (Jacobs, 1993)

Third, they are knowledgeable. Persons by means of international mindset are equipped by means of a drive force that impels them to broaden as well as deepen their perspective in terms of local in addition to international events. Knowing cultural, communal, trade, moreover other similarities in addition to differences ensures a sound action in making decisions, solving conflicts, and riding the wave of internationalization. (Jacobs, 1993)

Fourth, they are critical as well as holistic thinkers. In addition to be knowledgeable in precisely perceiving cultural similarities along with differences, persons by means of international mindset have the aptitude to sort out the difficulty of the changing globe via significant and analytical thinking. They are able to see the globe not just as one, but in addition as an orderly kaleidoscopic many. That is, they have the ability to think deductively in addition to inductively. (Jacobs, 1993)

Ultimately, they are flexible. Persons by means of international mindset tend to show conceptual in addition to behavioural flexibility in the process of international communication. They reveal abilities of accuracy as well as adaptability when attending to diverse information and rapid changing environment. The flexible ability nourishes the person to see the uncertainty caused by the transform of internationalization as an opportunity for moving forward. Moreover, they respond and adjust to the transform efficiently, effectively, along with comfortably by altering and co-occurring verbal as well as nonverbal behavioural choices that mark the complex relationships of interactions in the international communication. (Himanen, 2001)

To summarize, international mindset enables persons to regulate the difficulty, ambiguity, contradiction, in addition to conflict embedded in the turbulent transform of internationalization process. Moreover, it functions to impel persons to drive for a broad perspective, to motivate persons to learn how to respect in addition to value cultural diversity, to expect persons to balance contradiction moreover conflict inherent in the various demands for international competition as well as cooperation, in addition to propel persons to flow by means of the internationalizing wave as comfortable fish swimming in the ocean. (Patiala, 1997)

Unfolding the Self:

International communication capability requires persons to unfold in addition to expand the personal characteristics, including flexibility, sensitivity, and open-mindedness, along with motivation. As the centrality of the international community, the self must be mobilized to visualize its identity for the establishment of its continuity. Via the extension of personal attributes self-identity begins to build a bridge flanked by the personal as well as communal gap. A connection of me in addition to thou creates a web of meanings shared by the international community. In other words, the ability of unfolding the self is an important way to endorse originality, learning, in addition to innovation in the process of internationalization. Unable to unfold the self to face the confrontation of constant transforms and complexities of the internationalizing community often leads to an unsuccessful ride of the wave of prospect community.

As a co-creator, by means of heaven and earth, of the integrative whole of the universe, this human being, this person, or this self plays the most important as well as basic role in achieving the productive living of internationalizing community. However, in order to fully unfold the potential, this self must be ceaselessly edified, constantly liberated, and moreover perpetually purified. As Linus, 2001 indicated, internationalization is a process in which the two extremes of extensionality in addition to intentionality are increasingly unified. In other words, the two forces of internationalizing along with personalizing are pushing in addition to pulling, adjusting as well as readjusting flanked by each other to search for an integrative and holistic prospect of human community. Thus, losing the self-identity in the shrinking time and space scale of internationalization might form a risky international culture which is reined by chaos in addition to uncertainty. (Linus, 2001)

Since the intrinsic value of the self is in congruence by means of the cosmic order, Linus, 2001 described the self as the combination of prophet, poet, and sage, who is capable of being mutually transmuted by means of the globe to reach the level of ideal as well as authentic existence. Hence, it is evident that the self can deliberately choose to cast everything, including the growth of the person along with other human companions, the frame of human community, in addition to the achievement of value, into the mould of one's intention. (Linus, 2001)


The trend of internationalization, formed by the rapid technology growth in addition to financial transformation, is ceaselessly moving into the human community wave after wave. International interdependence moreover interconnectivity has become a norm of life in the novel millennium. How to nourish a novel human personality as well as life style in order to maintain a multicultural coexistence will decide the prospect destiny of human community. (Himanen, 2001)