Cultural Differences In Post Merger Change Processes Cultural Studies Essay

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Before writing an essay/thesis or an article there must be understood what the research should be about. In this research seminar I, the note will be on the qualitative research as the quantitative research. The research paper that are used for this essay are "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" (R. Chakrabarti, S. Gupta-Mukherjee, N. Jayaraman, 2009) and "Constructions of Cultural Differences in Post-Merger Change Processes: A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" (E. Vaara, 2000). The main questions for this essay are: "When do we use qualitative research or quantitative research?" and "Why do researchers use this kind of method?" To answer these questions the theory of 'Research methods for business students' (Saunders et all, 2009) and 'Mythological fit in management field research' (Edmonson & McManus, 2007) will be.

The two articles "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" and "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" will be discussed with the theory from table 4.1 in the book "Research methods for business students (Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill, 2009). The theory of philosophy of the research consist three forms of philosophy, namely positivism, realism, interpretivism and pragmatism. There are 4 key terms where the three forms can be filled in: ontology, epistemology, axiology and relevance to business research.

The first article "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" belongs to the form "Realism". This can be explained in the following criteria. The first key term, ontology, belongs to the "Interpretivism", because there are different actors who argues that cultural distances does improve the performance by providing and acquiring divers routines that are embedded in the national culture. This can be socially constructed by the event-study methodology and the Hofstede metric of cultural distance between the countries and the target firms (R. Chakrabarti, S. Gupta-Mukherjee, N. Jayaraman). The second key term, epistemology, belongs to "Realism". The reason is that this article contains credible data and facts. After the research design the authors assume that their findings can be applied in every situation. The third key term, axiology, belongs to "Realism". The research is value laden. There have been used of Hofstede which the researcher is biased by the world view and the experiences that are gained which is applied in the research. The data collection techniques are highly constructed. The result must be value laden. The fourth key term, relevance to business research. This case is also "Realism". A specific methods must be chosen to fit the subject matter. Hereby, the actors used the SDC Platinum mergers & Acquisition database and Data Stream stock market indices. The actors used data that are highlighted for the quantitative research. It can be said that this case is based on quantitative research.

The second article, "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" belongs to the form "Positivism". This can be explained by the following criteria. The first key term, ontology, belongs to the "Positivism", this is because the actor sees it as an objective and independent of social actors. The characteristic of the social constructionist is that the focus of the actors interpretation or constructions of cultures (Eero Vaara). The second key term, epistemology, belongs to "Positivism", because it focus on causality and law. During the interview it is mentioned that cultural conceptions were influenced by the socio-political dynamics of the integration projects (Eero Vaara). The third key term, axiology, is also positivism. Reason for this is because there a little emphasis on the research, which makes this research value-free. The fourth key term, can be placed in the "Interpretivism". There are small samples and this article is more qualitative research than quantitative research.

The overall conclusion for this theory can be said that there are differences by using the theory of philosophy for the two articles. The first article is a quantitative research with "Realism" as philosophy theory, although the first key term belongs to the "Interpretivism". The second article is a qualitative research with "Positivism" as philosophy theory.

The research approaches contains two forms of research approaches, which are deduction emphasizes and induction emphasizes. If we combine the deduction approaches and induction approaches with qualitative research and quantitative research, then it can be mentioned that the qualitative research has an induction emphasis and quantitative research has a deductive emphasis. To apply these emphasis to the articles the "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" and "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases". It can be pointed that "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" fits in the deduction emphasis, because this case consist of quantitative data. The "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" fits in the induction emphasis, because this case emphasize the understanding of cultural differences.

The first article "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" has been substantiated by the model of Hofstede and using statistical data. However, in this paper there are no theory substantiated. The conclusion in this first article is based on the previous research. This is a mature research. In the second article "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" is already mentioned that it is new and not much information has been available. However, this actor is able to find new information. Though, these new information that are found is not enough and more researchers are needed. This suggestive theory is also mentioned in the second article: "A logical step further would be to examine how, for example, cognitive and affective mechanisms are entwined or operate together (Fineman, 1996). It would be particularly interesting to see how emotions are turned into specific cognitions". This suggestive theory/propositions are nascent research.

All the methodological fit in the field research has been discussed and applied in these two articles, "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" and "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases". The conclusion is that the first article "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" has a good methodological fit, because it is all mature research. The second article "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" is also good methodological fit, because it is all nascent research.

The two articles that has been tested by the theory of Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill & Edmonson and McManus can be concluded that it is well written. The article "Mars-Venus marriages: Culture and cross-border M&A" is referred as quantitative research and "A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Cases" is referred as qualitative research. These two articles gives a good example of which researchers should be used when you start to do your own research. The criteria for a qualitative research are new field research and constructs. This is because there no prior work done and there is also no statistical data available to analyze. The criteria for quantitative research is testing and supporting the theories. Reason for this is that it is theoretical based and the statistical data are available to test the hypothesis.

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