Cross Culture Communication For Effective Leadership Cultural Studies Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Diversity management is a strategy used to nurture and sustain a positive work environment. Usually starting with Human Resources and managed by professional managers and monitoring, an effective diversity management program will promote recognition and respect for individual differences found among a group of employees. Diversity management is a strategy to promote awareness, validation and implementation of diversity in organizations and institutions. Managing diversity is based on the idea that diversity opens up other ways of perception, thought and action and thereby enriches the life of the community. People are difference in age, social class and country, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental abilities as well as religious beliefs. Diversity management is a management process to develop a comprehensive work environment for all employees. It encourages managers to enable, empower and influence employees to achieve their potential. It ensures that the system of organizations, policies and practices do not benefit more than other groups. The idea of inclusiveness is central management of diversity and address workplace behaviors and understanding differences while focusing on the culture of an organization. Managing diversity in the workplace to help organizations better serve our customers and their customers because they acquire a better understanding of their needs. If the manager does not care and the skillful treatment that will easily lead to conflicts between employers and employers, men and women, region, color, etc…



Although the world has made great progress in the fight to combat discrimination at work, but the situation of gender inequality in income and other forms of discrimination still another increase in the office workers and is becoming a major concern in society. Discrimination not only on gender, race, age, color, sexual orientation, familial, places it against the disabled, while the world is approaching half a billion people in working age disabled. This situation is hindering efforts to mobilize the potential of everyone in the global economy today. Discrimination is a common problem with minority groups and provides a number of characteristics deemed to be detrimental. It is seen that attitude to disabled people and groups that make them increasingly more difficult to get a normal life. Disabled people applying for jobs more difficult because businesses are often worried about their appearance, ability to work though the education level of people with disabilities have more than ordinary people, they are not considered key and hold high positions in the company. In working, the women always suffer more than the men such as low salary, early retirement or the women are often the superior of sexual harassment in the workplace. Everyone and businesses need to eliminate prejudice and deal fairly with women, children, or the people are not the same religion, color. I think the countries and humanitarian organizations link together that compile discrimination law with mark protect them and punish those who cause injury or harm another person. Construction terms through legislation and other appropriate measures, including sanctions in cases of necessity, to prohibit all discrimination against women.

Stereotypes and preconceptions:


The term stereotype is from development of traditional printing in the pass. It is a frame for in mass printing. In relationship, stereotypes can be determined as categories when people are confronted with something unfamiliar or complex. For instance, when we urgently need information about potatoes market, we have to organize the information into categories such as producers, market shares, commercial users (by types, by size), retail market segments, prices, potato supplier, etc… and international company will meet the same issue when they want to expand their market into new country. They have to do research about culture of the local market. For people and culture, prototype (mental representations) term is more accuracy; it is based on different characteristics which are not fixed and rigid like printing stereotypes. For examples:

"Latin American business people talk about their families, often before getting down to business"

"Japanese negotiators use silence a lot more than Europeans do"

"French often perceive Americans as being tough in business and arrogant and the British as insincere"

Stereotypes contain both cognitive function and emotional function of self-defense against a difference that creates anxiety. It means that people will stick with their own values and transfer onto foreigners to change their opinions rather than change their own values to adapt with foreigners' values. Furthermore, stereotypes usually protect the self rather than know more about the other people or share the information with the others. In cross-cultural, the problem of stereotypes is "getting to know the other", that problem exist when an international company expand their market, they didn't do deep research about the local market so that they couldn't adapt with the local cultural working styles and local consuming behaviors, besides that they need to share their information with local workers. All local cultural elements are existed and can't be changed easily.

Geertz emphasizes the relations of culture to moral imagination: what is seen as mere barbarly by one culture is experienced as wholly normal by another. Implicitly researchers always compare and confront their own views to the foreign reality they are observing. This is why traditional international management research is unknowingly comparative.


Preconceptions have great effects to cross-cultural communication. First of all, everybody has their own preconceptions and preconceptions are the key to understand one culture. Culture engenders preconceptions in each individual inside the culture and each person will have different preconception which are shown by different behavior patterns. In cross-cultural communication, each person will have different preconceptions and they have to learn which is right or wrong because not all of preconceptions lead to successful cross-cultural communication with different specific culture. Prejudices and stereotypes are preconceptions.

People who use stereotypes make reality fit their preconceptions. A story that illustrates this is that of a patient who goes to a psychiatrist because he believes he is dead. The psychiatrist asks the patient if dead men bleed, and the patient answers that they do not. The psychiatrist then pricks the patient's finger and draws blood. The patient responds, "well, imagine that, dead men do bleed."

People usually want to see what they expect to see; furthermore, people prefer negotiating the conflicts with preconceptions, stereotypes or prejudices toward people. For examples, in a group of two people from two cultures, they will try to communicate each other and this will encourage them perceive each other rather than as being a unique person. Preconceptions have both negative and positive sides, but the significant problem of intercultural communication is that preconceptions usually lie outside of awareness. The evidence provided by anthropologists, sociologists, psychologist, and others that culture will make the national traits. National characteristics were summarized in a good humor in Italian restaurant. "Heaven is where the police are British, the chefs Italian, the mechanics German, the lovers French, and it is all organized by the Swiss. Hell is where the police are German, the chefs British, the mechanics French, the lovers Swiss, and it is all organized by the Italians." The reasons for these national identities:

People of culture have the similar early experiences.

Basing on these experiences, people will have similar personality

Experiences of individuals and personality characteristics and values differ from culture to culture.

Because there is a wide range of individual differences in one culture, all of the people in that culture will have the same behavior. The differences of behaviors can be identified in many level of difference.

Examples: Wal-Mart expand market in Germany

Prototypes and Preconceptions

The Wal-Mart culture based on people relationship and German culture based on task. After Sam's death in 1992, Wal-Mart bought 21 stores of Wertkauf hypermarket chain in December 1997 and 74 stores of Interpar hypermarket chain in January 1998. Hypermarket is European discount retailers which sell food and non-food and Wal-Mart own 95 stores of the hypermarket. There are a clear difference between US culture and Germany culture. In business service, most of the retailers in US are always focus on good service to customers and keep good relationship with customers, but Germany service base on task. Retailer clerks just want to finish their task and they always save smile toward customers and this lead to poor service culture in Germany. Entering Germany market, Wal-Mart wanted to do better service in Germany retailers (as Germans say that Germany is a Service Wuste, it means a desert as far as service is concerned) or Germany is described as the "ultimate nonservice culture". As culture of Wal-Mart, retailer clerks are trained to smile with the customers and good welcome with customers like Japanese culture. And German male customers misunderstand it, they thought retailer clerks flirted with them and felt that they are offensive. Beside these conflicts of culture, Germans don't want foreigners handle their food when Wal-Mart start applying good customer service like grocery baggers (as German customers feel offensive and don't want other people touch their food). With complete different services of Wal-Mart, German customers had a negative impression with Wal-Mart. Furthermore, in German culture, they don't want their leader is a foreigner. The first president of Wal-Mart in Germany is an American, he doesn't speak German and understand German merchandising, Ron Tiarks, as Ron Tiarks said "The customers will be our guides as we build on Wertkauf's many strength and begin introducing Wal-Mart's culture, traditions, and support". And American president of Wal-Mart was changed by German Kay Hafiner.

In brief, what Sam Walton thought when apply the new service culture to make German business service better was mostly fail. Because different cultures have different way of business service, even in between employees, they are not allowed flirting or dating and increased working hours. These policies make German employees angry and considered these policies affect their privacy.


In German culture, German don't like foreigners are their leaders and they don't have a restrictive workplace environment. Once Wal-Mart entering, the executive is an American. First of all American executive doesn't understand much about German culture and the way employee work and even he can't speak German. So that German employees need a German manager who can communicate and understand what they need. Even when Wal-Mart change American manger to a local manager, Wal-Mart didn't do deep researches about German culture. When Wal-Mart closed Wertkauf headquarters to move to Interpar, their German manager didn't expect the relocation of workplace and quit their job. As Wal-Mart had done a bad image to customers, it was difficult for them to recover and make negative image to German. Besides that, German people don't like the other people touch their food before they eat, and they feel offended about that. The German consumers prefer buying fresh meat at butchers rather than buy meat Wal-Mart. In generally, US products are not welcome in German market. The differences of business service and culture between German and Wal-Mart is insurmountable. As Wal-Mart did many change to bring up the business, but it was late. Expanding business in Germany and expanding business in other areas are different as Wal-Mart was successful.


In conclusion, manage diversity is not always easy to implement this process through efficiency. Because everybody has way think and conceive difference, they can like this people and do not like other people. Gender imbalance occurs inevitably will lead to many social implications. Men rate more than women rate, many men will lose a husband, situation of trafficking in women, children, prostitutes, etc... will break out. Must propagate value and role of women in the family, society, as well as the human mind, regardless of male or female.