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In his essay, he stated six points how to resist the phenomenon of universalization. It can be seen as an advancement of mankind but also a sort of subtle destruction to our tradition cultures and also the ethical and mythical nucleus of mankind. Critical regionalism is an approach to counter this placessness and lack of meaning by using contextual forces to give a sense of place and meaning. He questions, ``how to become modern and to return to sources; how to revive and, dormant civilization and take part in universal civilization``. According to Frampton, the fundamental strategy of critical regionalism is to adopt modern architecture critically for its universal progressive qualities but also have value responses particular to the context. Focusing on the topography, climate, tectonic form rather than the scenography and the tactile sense (example of Alvar Aalto`s Saynatsalo Town hall built in 1952.) rather than the visual aspect. He gave an example of Jorn Utzon`s work, Bagsvaerd church thatâ€™s built in 1976 in one of his six points, `critical regionalism and world culture`. It demonstrates the self-conscious synthesis between universal civilization and world culture.
Vernacular modernism- Heimat, globalization and the built environment
Edited by Maiken Umbach and Bernd Huppauf
Challenging the crisis of modernity
Vernacular modernism challenges the common perception of modern architecture as the example of an internationalism which eliminates local traditions and transforms the globe into meaningless places. It provides essays which discusses various vernaculars within modernist architectural practice, thereby altering our understanding of modernism`s relationship to the past, memory and to specific contexts. The author re-evaluates the difference of place, which we call the vernacular. He conceptualizes the vernacular differently. He argues that space and a sense of place never disappeared during the process of modernization. The notion of the vernacular modernism is not to think of it as a `stable identity` since it is no longer possible through the global age but instead have new ways of `thinking space`. To retain the properties of their spatial origin and at the same time implicate in the abstract reality of the modern world. This perspective of thinking challenges the anti-globalization movements.
Regional architecture and identity- in the age of globalization
Edited by Jamal Al-Qawasmi, Abdesselem Mahmoud and Ali Djerbi
Understanding globalization and its impact on regional architecture and identity
This book examines the issues of cultural identity in architecture in the age of globalization. It focuses on the increasing contradictions between the modernization of regions on the one hand and the cultural identity of these places on the other. It argues that in order for globalization to succeed is on the basis of healthy regionalism. As a result, the role of architecture is to construct various types of cultural identities, to bridge the relationship between regionalism and modernization. To overcome the limitation of constant forms of the past, to how much contemporary urban development this responds to global (economic) conditions then to local ones. Also, another interesting questions arrived in the book was, to what extent regionalism accept other regions traditions and incorporating and integrating the new technological and environmental inventions.
The work of Jorn Utzon is also included within this book, he is considered as an architect who response to both local context and transcultural influences. These examples will demonstrate developments within contemporary regional architecture.
Architectural Regionalism- collected writings on place, identity, modernity and tradition
Edited by Vincent B. Canizaro
The notion of architectural regionalism into the future
The book of architectural regionalism will examine the notion of architectural regionalism for the third millennium of the future rather than just focusing on the history and contemporary. Other than the third millennium it also covers themes such as regionalism and rapid modernization, historicism, regional planning, modernism, critical regionalism. The approach of critical regionalism in this book is to investigate theory and practices of resistance that seeks to establish dialectic between an increasingly globalized civilization and the local tradition found in regions without resorting to nostalgia. The purpose of it is to resist from the physical, cultural and social changes thought to limit the quality of modern life and architecture. Believing that regionalism will re-embed us in the reality and diversity of our local places critically and comfortably. As for the third millennium, the author gave example of `toward a reflexive regionalism`, an architecture born out of awareness and time, rather than designed and delivered as already regional. In this case, it is no longer based on the critical or uncritical replication of regional forms or use of local material, but based on inhabiting and living with a place. Another example is the ``performative regionalism``, it is a model of regionalism that enables culture and life to live in a place that is not fictionalized or formalized.
Design research proposal
For the design proposal, I intend to look at a developing country/ place moving toward modernization with a rich historical background. And ask the question if it is necessary to cause destruction to traditional culture in order to take part in modern civilization or becoming modern and to return to sources while taking part in universal civilization.
For instance, there are lots of places in China that are currently under enormous development. The ever increasing force from the effects of global capitalism, international style architecture and the sense of placelessness will always be problematic to these under developing countries. In the design proposal, I would like to answer how these countries can move forward to universal civilization while being regionalism to resist from dehumanize and placeless architecture.
Design research question
1) A region may develop ideas and also accept ideas from the globalized world to move towards modernization but what is the limit? What is the balance between the traditions and global?
2) What are the constituents of cultural (regional or national) identity? When this question is being asked, it also leads to how and by whom are to answer these questions decided? What are the implications of these decisions having been made?
3) The force of capitalism has resulted in architectural works towards the reduction of building to the maximizing of economic criteria and to the acceptance of normative plans and construction methods. Architecture is reduced to the establishment of an aesthetic skin, packaging/ marketing. Also with the force of mass media, such as competitions, educational practices, internet has made architecture more alike. Is there, in fact, to resist from these forces and have another kind of practice to make an apparent promise of regionalism?