Concept of culture includes traditions

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Our culture

The concept of culture includes traditions that tell “what has worked” also considers the way people have learned to look their environment and themselves, and their unexpressed presuppositions about the way the world is and the way people should act.

The most general definition of culture-that culture is the human-made part of the environment- (Herskovits, Cultural Anthropology in 1955).

Analyzing subjective culture means learn how people perceive, categorize, believe, and values entities in their environment. To sum up, we may discover the unique ways in which people in different cultures view their social environment. There several components of subjective culture, many authors refer to these elements as cultural syndromes. We must understand cultural syndrome as a pattern of beliefs, attitudes, self-definitions, norms, and values that are organized around some thesis that can be identified in a society. The following elements are considered as cultural syndromes:

  • Complexity. There several cultures around the world and some are more complex than others.
  • Collectivism. There are several cultures that are organized around one or more collectives, such as the family, the tribe, a religious group, or the country.
  • Tightness. Among different cultures we may see how many norms are imposed, rules, and constraints on social behavior, while others are rather less strict in imposing such constraints.

Although culture models social behavior, this is not the particular most important factor. Biology and ecology are also part in the crucial role.

We have pointed out about the several differences among cultures around the world. For example; in most traditional cultures, modesty and simplicity are much greater virtues than in the West side of the world. Hence, among the non-Western cultures, only the Japanese feel sufficiently sure of themselves to tell anyone: “You are wrong”. Nonetheless, they always do this so politely that most people fail to notice. Other difference that represents an important part among several cultures is between those cultures signalized as individualistic and collectivist. Most of the time individualist think of themselves as totally autonomous, independent of groups, therefore, they believe that is okay to do what they want to do, regardless either of their groups' wishes or common wealth. On the other hand, collectivists tend to see themselves as aspects of a group, such as family, the tribe, the corporation, the organization, the state, the country, and so on; they feel interdependence with the members of this group, and at the same time they are willing to subordinate their personal goals to the goals of the group.

Within collective cultures people are often more concerned about acting appropriately than about doing what they would like to do. As a result, there is less consistency between attitudes and behavior than is probably to be discovered in those individualistic cultures. For the same reason, there many differences between Western thinking and Eastern thinking. For example; many psychologist deal with consistency and as a result we have a thick volume of theories, “cognitive balance”, “cognitive dissonance”, “cognitive congruity”, et. All based on the early Greeks.

Feeling cultural differences

Even though we pointed out the differences between cultures, our scheme is more complicated and difficult to explain mainly by the fact that humans are more similar to one another than they are different (Brown 19991). Ask everyone in our planet and we assure that 99% of people think either everybody is the same or everybody is different. None of this perspective is correct. This jus happen because we are a little bit lazy and is so much easier to have a general view about certain culture.

All humans have food habits, art, myths, religious practices, beliefs, family structures, language, taboos, traditions, and so on. Nonetheless, all of these categories differ on depending about one specific place such as continents and countries.

All through the world, religion reins the life of most people. Nevertheless, the range that this fact varies enormously from one culture to another.

Clarifying Qualifications

  1. Cultures and societies are vast heterogeneous.
  2. Culture focuses on prototypes.
  3. Culture as a label. We should specify relevant categories
  4. Cultures are constantly changing and are highly affected by world events and specific moments. For example; Wars
  5. There is no point to focus in particular characteristics about a culture. Rather, we should learn that there might be a culture that has this characteristics
  6. Travels, commerce, missionaries, mass media, and other sources of change are influences between cultures.

Culture as a result of Ecology

Humans live in greatly diversified physical environments. Ecology reflects to where people live. As a concept Ecology means of the resources, the objects, geology and geography of the environment, and the ways one may make a living and survive. For instance; if there are fish, people may become fishermen.

The Ecology shapes our culture. In short, a simplified way of thinking about culture is to place it between ecology and social behaviors, as follows:

Diversity and Intercultural Relations

Now more than ever in the history of humankind, societies are being mixed as a result of Globalization process.

Diversity may include differences in several aspects such as language, religion, race, sexual orientation, life style, and many others. This part tends to show how interpersonal and collectivism relationships when individuals from different cultures interact.

Advantage and disadvantage of diversity:

  • More creative and likely to reach higher quality decisions.
  • Reduced cohesion (intercultural conflicts and diverse of subjective cultures.

Important factors to deal with diversity

All specialists agree that objective cultural distance is one of the most important variables in order to determine how comfortable people will eventually experience and how they reply to. All of those who have experienced abroad times might feel the same thing: those who see others as similar are attracted to them. In a cosmopolitan environment, people have higher levels of adaptation tend to see easily others from them in language, clothing, traditions, and religion.

World Cup as opportunity of interaction

In many situations there are variations in the opportunities for people to interact. For example, look ourselves and the relationship that we have with our neighbors, we are more likely to interact with them than people who live far apart.

Contact by itself does not improve interpersonal relations (Amir, 1969; Stephan, 1985), but when people perceive each other as similar, contact is rewarding. When contact is rewarding, the number of positive interactions is greater than the number of negative interactions.

World Cup are one of the most important events around the world and as the Olympics makes possible to congregate many different cultures, nationalities, continents, and so on. Therefore, if someone would like to experience being between different cultures this one for sure is such a good opportunity.

Culture Shocks

A cultural shock occurs when people interact with members of a very different culture and experience a loss of control. This usually happens when people cannot understand the behavior of the other culture. Consequently they get confused and develop physical and psychological symptoms. As proper symptoms, we have a combination of following: fear of physical contact with others; absentmindedness, development of mild psychosomatic disorders; insomnia, fatigue; feeling of helplessness; fits of anger; excessive fear of being cheated, robbed, or injured; abuse of alcohol or drugs; homesickness.

The main explanation of culture shock is that most of our behavior is under the control of habits. We react to specific cues and expect others to behave either in the same ways that we act or in ways that we already know. Being in unfamiliar environments sometimes allowed us to see how people behave in ways that we do not understand so we feel that we have lost control. When people experience this they become depressed and helpless.

Complications

In order to understand why members of cultures act toward one or another way they do, we need to understand the history of this relationship

Communication within Culture

All of us are familiar with the specific culture of the people that we communicate with. Nothing less than knowing how this people categorize experience, what associations they can establish, norms, values, and roles. Accuracy implies that both the source and recipient of a message assign the same meaning to it.

Is a fact that we may communicate out each other of habit at the same time we have our own instructions about how to communicate. We follow norms, and our communication depends on our skills and on how we perceive and categorize the recipients of our communication. Are they internal or external? On the other hand our stereotypes also play an important role in communication process.

If we want to know how to improve our communication is previously necessary to indentify our competences. Howell (1982) described four stages of competence:

  1. Unconscious Incompetence. Refers situations where we misinterpret the others' behavior but not aware of it.
  2. Conscious Incompetence. Refers situations where we aware that we misinterpret others' behavior but do not know what to do about it.
  3. Conscious Competence. Refers those situations where we modify our behavior to take into account the fact that we are communicating with a person from another culture.
  4. Unconscious competence. Where the correct communication pattern has become such a part of our habit structure that we no longer have to think about using a different pattern with persons from another culture.

We are clear that languages are not the only way to communicate each other. There are several examples of kind of communication difficulties that occur between cultures. This is another example that we are able to see “in situ” during events as the World Cup.

Main idea of this study is to look how football and it's world cup have change the world and how cultural aspect have modified the view point of different world cups. Football has been the driving force in many changes in the world, it has been bringing people together and unified different nations but it has also been a force that has cause a lot of heart ship and fights.

In this study we are going to write about the world cup in this summer that are held in South-Africa but also to look about the history of football and some events and world cups that have some weight in historical changes.

Football is played all over the world and it is the world favorite team sport and it's world cup is the most anticipated sporting event in the world. World cup is organized every four years and different countries are hoping to be the one how can host the games. It is always the media happening of the year and it's the place where legends are been made and the countries are united under their one national team.

Three years before the world cup there is a series of qualification games where different national teams are competing against with each other. How plays in the national team is chosen by manager or coach of the national team and it is always a speak of a nation because almost everybody have a opinion for the selection. When the national team is playing the country is united and nobody is fighting against each other. There is always different player from different teams but when they are playing in the national team they are all supported by all. There is rivalry against another country and then is not the time for fighting against the neighbor how supports the wrong team.

Inside countries in a national league people supports their own teams and are united for their own hometown, place of birth, favorite player or color of the jersey. It's always hard to say how one starts to support his/hers favorite team but when you choose our team you don't change it, our team is always in our heart or that is the case when you are devoted to your team. That is one thing that makes football a big thing and a great source of happiness for majority of people but it's also the thing where the hooliganism and fights grow.

The World Cup

The first official world cup was played in Uruguay on 1930 and thirteen nations took part of the cup, seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America. The final was a match where the host Uruguay was playing against Argentina and over 93 000 spectators witness Uruguay become a first nation to win the world cup.

In 1934 world cup was held in Italy. Former champion Uruguay didn't participate and with the fascist dictator Mussolini behind the home team, everything was set up for Italy. Many players from the Argentina's national team was drafted to Italy's national team because they had double nationalities.

3rd. World cup was held in France but this was the last world cup for 12 years because of the turmoil all over the world and World war II. After the war countries started to rebuild their country and the next world cup was on 1950 in Brazil. There was missing most of the countries who were affected by the war.

After the world cup held on Brazil the institution of the games has grown and it has influence people all over the world. Great players such as Pele and Maradona have become a household name and the game has change more towards skill and strategy.

(http://www.all-soccer-info.com/FIFA_World_Cup.htm)

Football revolution

In Iran, since the islamic revolution in 1979, women where not allowed to watch football in any form. Islamic leaders thought that football will degenerate morals of the people and lead to rise of western thinking, but because there was a huge support of the sport they couldn't stop the games been played so they just banned womens rights to watch the games.

In Teheran is a worlds biggest stadion called Azadi (freedom) and it holds up to 120 000 people. In every game one can find cleanshaved men with loose clothes and if one look more on details one will know that they are not men at all. These spectaitors are women from the all parts of iranian people, there is lawers, waiters, dauthers and mothers of the leaders of Iran.

After 8 years of total denial on 1987 Irans leader ajatolh Ruhollah Khomeini did give a new fatwa that gave women the right to watch football from television but there was still a strigt rule that denies women's right to go to the stadium.

This helped a lot and for a almost 10 years people where happy, of course some of the spectators on Azadi where still women but there was no turmoil demanding the change.

In 1997 on the last qualify round of the world cup started the change that has been called as ”the football revolution”. Iran was playing their last game against Australia in Melbourne on a match that will decide could Iran go to the World cup for the first time since the Islamic revolution.

Australia was winning until of the last 15 minutes when Iran scored two times and finaly won the match.

The reign of the Islamic leaders started to think different strategies because there was growing demand for the change towards more liberal Iran since of the reelection of the new president Mohammad Khatan only couple of months before. For the first time in history there was a foreign manager on Iran's national team, Brazilian Valdeir Viera and most of the players where playing on different leagues all around Europe and Asia.

The regimes strategy was to order the team to go on a holiday in Dubai for three days before coming back to Iran so they could get the people under control.

After the match, streets of Teheran filled up with dancing and drinking people and the western popular music was played on the streets. People gave up on their Islamic morals and rules and regim was worrying. If the celebrators would only been men the regime could look the other way but in the wealthy parts of Teheran and among the young people there were no differences in sexes. Some of the women took of their hijabi and celebrate without the mandatory scarf that normally covered their head.

On the Teheran's radio regime asked people to stop this celebrations and demand ”our lovely sisters” to go back home and to stay indoors.

When the team returned to Iran there was a big celebration on Azad that the regime had put together. Team was coming to the stadium with a helicopter. The regime had ordered that no women should be allowed inside the stadium. There was thousands of women all over Iran that gathered in front of the stadium and they started to shout ”Are we not part of this nation, we want to celebrate, we are not ants” Police where afraid of violent so they aloud 3 thousand women to special section of the Azad but they were in different part than the men. There were still thousands that were left behind and they started to break the police barriers and force their way to the stadium. ”These lovely sisters” wanted to change the world and the regime had to order the police to stand down and so the celebrations could start and the regime had to stand down.

These things lead on many changes that helped women's rights in Islamic countries and the regime had to change their way of thinking because they didn't want to give the growing turmoil any excuse to chance in to revolution. Now days one can hear on the Azad people chanting”Zindibad Azadi(long live freedom) and one can see people with the old Pershian flag. There has been growing demand for the change towards the nationalism over the Islamic rule.

Analyze of the last football world championships in Germany

The next part of this thesis will analyze the last football world championships in Germany. This world cup touched even people, who were no football fans, because it was everywhere in the media and on the streets. It was almost impossible to escape of these mass phenomena. Maybe it was the first time, which whole Germany had a feeling of coexistence after the Second World War, but more details will follow later.

The executive committee of the football world federation (FIFA) gave in Zurich the 6th July 2000 the world championship to Germany. Because of this decision, there began immense preparations for that in the republic and the federal and state government. These actions had far reaching consequences even for the economics and ethics. Besides the government, there were a few economical companies which were involved in the public support. (Die Fußball WM 2006 in Deutschland und ihre ökonomischen Effekte- translated: The football world championship 2006 in Germany and their economical effects; Author: Stefan Eisele; 2001, Abstract). Because of this firms, the propagation of the event reached besides the sports aspect also social, economical and political areas.

As a platform for these phenomena called Stefan Eisele (2001) the growing interest of visitors and media and besides that a improvement of marketing communication.

Football developed to a mass meeting. With the start of this world championship, it starts also a public viewing hysteria. Everybody wanted to watch the games on central places in big cities. But there were far more visitors than places. So everybody who wanted to visit the game in this place has to be there hours before the game starts. But everybody tries to do the same. This was one instrument, to get the football more brand marked into the heads of the people. They tried to pretend that football is much more important than everybody thought it is. So the worth of the game itself was raised and the result was secondary.

Which were the most important factors for the success of the football world championship?

The football world championship 2006 in Germany was planned by a man who is known to make everything to gold, what he touches. Franz Beckenbauer, a german football legend.

As the Germans are known for their planning, they started calculating the costs and the overall profit for the country, which they expected as 8 Mrd euros. That would be 0,36 % of the GDP in Germany (Sportschau.ard.de// 135 Millionen Überschuss bei WM/ translated: 135 million overage at football world championship/ video form the frist German program)

Because of this calculations, Germany invested 1,38 mrd euro for the upgrading from stadiums. Besides that, they invested 3,7 mrd euro for the infrastructure and 500 mio euro for advance sale of the admission tickets.

But how to measure the effect of the whole event? It is difficult to compare the financial proceeds with the immaterial. The streets for example could be used after the football championship for a long time. But how to measure credits, like the view the world has from Germany? The motto of this event was like “The world should be our guest , because they are our friends”. This motto and the whole games it selves changed definitely the point of view, the world has about Germany, and even the self- perception of the Germans has changed, but more about that later.

Besides that, it is unsure, if there are some following costs or pay-offs. Will the gastronomy in Germany profit a long time? Maybe the foreigners liked Germany so much, that they will visit it more often in the future? Or they will by some fan articles, because they were becoming fans from German football teams?

One other positive effect is, that there were created 50 000 more jobs during the games and some of them are still remained.

Against that, the German institute for economical research (Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung) said, that the effect for the economical situation in Germany is almost the same as before. The spending form foreigners in the country were only 500 mio euro and therefore not relevant for an economical effect. (www.Stern.de : Wachstum wie lange nicht mehr// translation: growth as it didn't happen for a long time)

One important factor for the success of the football World Championship were the medias. The committee tried to sell the rights of live broadcasting and the broadcast agencies tried to build packages where they wanted to sell not only a football game, but a football experience. They delivered background information about the players, and talked about their private live to increase the target group. For the telestations it was important, to make football to an experience for the whole family and win especially the women as new customers.

Over all there reported 14 000 media agents all over the world in 205 different countries.

Because Germany reaches the half finale, this game achieved the highest broadcasting rate ever in Germany, excepted screenings under 15 minutes. More than 31 mio people watched the game, even if 10 mio people haven't watched the game from their own television.

Because there were not enough places in the stadiums for all people who wanted to watch the game there, the FIFA decided to implement public viewings in the big cities. They organized big screens for example at the market places, to show the games there.

Besides that, all cities got the right, to organize their own public viewing without paying taxes or some other fees for the live broadcasting. (Handelsblatt 29.6.2006, German economic newspaper, interview with Rober Idte)

What happened in Germany during the last football world cup?

Problems at the championships

According to Maik Eckardt (Fußballnationaltrainer Jürgen Klinsmann auf dem Weg zur Fußball WM 2006- seine Arbeit im Fokus der Presse// Translation: Football National trainer Jürgen Klinsmann on the way to the football championship 2006- his work in focus of the press; 2007; publisher: GRIN) existed also problems. One of them was, that politicians made a difference between football stadiums in western and eastern Germany, while they discussed the places for the games, which were splitted over complete Germany. Even the unification of the country 15 years ago, there are still differences. Normally the politicians try to avoid discussions about them, but in order to choose the best stadiums to represent Germany they criticized the quality of the ones in eastern Germany. Until then, they tried to deemphasize the problems, but with the discussions they evoke the differences once again.

Self- perception of the Germans and change

After the Second World War, Germany worked hard to work off the history and got a lot of efforts to change the mind of racism. A lot of years, Germany tried to work at international relationships, gave much money to Israel because of the holocaust and tried to fight against everything which had to do with the Nazis. For a long time, it was unimaginable, to wear clothes with the German colors or put a German flag out of the window. Everybody was afraid to be called a Nazi and nobody wanted to have s.th. in common with the old history of the Third Empire. But Germany lost one thing in that times: their national pride. They had no feeling of being one nation because nobody wanted to talk about the nation. It was like a kind of forbidden topic.

The politics tried to create one country which could be proud of their selves, but even they are afraid to get put in the corner of racism.

What the politics didn't change in years, the football was able to change in four weeks. It gave the Germans a platform to be a fan of the own country without being considered as a Nazi and without being against other cultures. That it could happen so fast, it was a merit of the media and the professional skills of the organization team. They showed the population that sport can change a habit and point of view really quickly, It is an instrument that speaks all languages in the world, because everybody can understand. Inside the game, there are no cultural borders. The rules are for everybody the same and the best players will win, it doesn't matter if they are black or white. (“Zeit” German newspaper/ Angst vor der Nation: translated: Fear form the nation; 19.6.2006/ Author: Jürgen Grönig)

The change of the opinion from other countries to Germany was changing as well. Especially the fact, that exotic teams were welcomed with open arms, changed fundamentally the opinion about Germans in other countries. This change was really obvious in England, because after the football championships, they changed the schedules in school. German history was taught before only until 1945, but now there is as well a part which consider the time after 1945. The result is the number of German courses is increasing.

2002 World Cup started a new chapter in the history of football evolution, because it was the first time that FIFA decided to award the tournament to Asian hosts and to more than a single nation.

Thus the 2002 World Cup had great influences both at the global level and at the states level. This part will discuss the political and economic influences on world football and the broader diplomatic implications this event exerts on the East Asian region.

The periphery on centre stage

A particularly intriguing aspect of governance in world football concerns centre-periphery relationships that structure the allocation of power and wealth in late capitalist societies. Though not explicitly relating sport to globalization, Rowe claimed that sport must fulfill three preconditions in order to be successful as a product: it must have a popular base within communities; it must have a reliable governing body; and it must demonstrate itself to be attractive to the commercial trinity of sponsors, advertisers, and television (Rowe, 1995, p.114). Even on a domestic level, these requirements are bound to evoke tensions between civil, commercial, and governmental actors who are involved in the production/consumption cycle of sport. Yet under the current neo-liberal influences of global capital accumulation and transnational marketing strategies, sport has become inextricably linked to agents, structures and processes of global capitalism (Wright, 1999).

This is the first time in history that FIFA has allowed the Finals to be played away in the football world periphery. Although the official FIFA emblem of two footballs imprinted with the map of the world depicts the Far East close to the centre where the two balls intersect, there can be no doubt that Asia is peripheral in terms of football power.

The Asian continent is home to a third of the world's population, and members of the Asian Football Confederation (AFC), UEFA's counterpart in this region, account for more than 40 per cent of the “Big Count”'s football players. But in 2002 only two Asian teams were able to qualify together with the host nations, compared to thirteen fixed places for European nations with only half the number of, more or less, regular football players. There was a chance for Iran to go east in 2002 as the fifth Asian team, but it failed to qualify in the play-off against Ireland which became the fourteenth UEFA team.

Asia's peripheral position is further expressed in terms of the number of football officials, professional players and achievements at previous World Cup finals. South Korea, which has a football population of 0.5 million (including 5,000 female players and 410 professionals), is heading for its straight fourth consecutive performance, but for Japan, which has 3.3 million players (20,000 women and 1,120 professionals), it is only their second appearance in the “Theatre of the Great”. While Saudi Arabia travelled to the USA in 1994 and to France in 1998, China (7.2 million players, 40,000 women and 1,748 professionals) was making its debut at the 2002 World Cup finals. However history has yet to record an Asian team reaching the second stage of football's most prestigious tournament.

Basically football in China, Japan and Korea share a similar fate inherited from Europe's colonial past. The peripheral position of football in East Asia is due to the history of the world and its geopolitical structuration a century ago. In each of these countries football is in keen competition with other mass sports, but it hardly vies for the first rank. In China, football is supposedly the fourth or fifth most popular sport. In Korea and Japan, professional football is overshadowed by the overwhelming popular support for baseball and for the traditional wrestling sports of ssireum and sumō. Contrary to the Western experience, sports did not evolve gradually out of familiar folk traditions. Lumped together in the cultural backpack of Western foreigners, modern sports were imported during the latter half of the 19th century, at a time when the geopolitics of imperialism had a rather downgrading impact on national consciousness in the Far East.

However, the 2002 World Cup broke this unbalanced allocation of power. It was used as a catalyst for creating popular harmony, system stability and promoting neo-liberal hegemony in the world. This great sports event is no longer monopolized by the western countries. On the contrary, it has become a real global sharing event.

Enhancement of the bilateral relation between Japan and South Korea

Japan and the Republic of Korea have been going through a painful process of reconciliation since World War II. But with the momentum created by the FIFA World Cup and the high popularity of Korean pop culture in Japan, the trend shifted and the two countries seem to be enjoying a more amicable relationship.

Though the 2002 Cup did not mark modernity for either already-modern country, the Cup's success was in no small part a function of the fact that it was hosted by two of the more advanced, market-savvy, globalized, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, open-society countries in Asia. For the Japan-South Korea relations, although the World Cup soccer matches overshadowed important, but quiet, efforts at resuming bilateral security dialogue. However, the impact of the World Cup and sports diplomacy on their relations is not to be underestimated. In fact, this unprecedented decision provoked the formation of a fragile alliance between the two East Asian states and their people whose relationship is still deeply tainted by memories of the Japanese annexation of the Korean peninsula in 1910 and the colonial oppression during great parts of the first half of the 20th century.

The overall impact of Seoul and Tokyo's co-hosting of the event will be discussed at length below. What deserves mention here as a tangible positive externality of the matches was the signing of an extradition treaty between the two countries. Long overdue, but directly a function of the increased travel anticipated for the matches, the treaty requires both countries to extradite any nationals involved in serious criminal activity (i.e., carrying a prison sentence of more than one year).

The co-hosting of World Cup matches also spurred the Japan-ROK security re-engagement. It was recalled that much of the interaction between Seoul and Tokyo on political-military issues suffered as a result of the history textbook and Yasukuni Shrine controversies in 2001. Only in the last quarter or two had relations in this aspect been returning to normal. Meetings between Japan Defense Agency head Nakatani Gen and ROK Prime Minister Lee Han-dong and National Defense Minister Kim Dong-shin on April 20, 2002, continued this path to normalcy. Japanese officials explained a set of Japanese bills on military emergencies submitted to the Diet for approval to which Defense Minister Kim responded with understanding and gratitude. The two sides also agreed to continue sharing intelligence to ensure an incident-free World Cup. Most important, there was explicit recognition of a need to restore their fledgling military dialogue suspended in 2001, and in this vein, the two defense ministers agreed in principle to resume defense exchanges and to hold a second joint navy search and rescue drill in the coming September.

For the Japan-South Korea relations, although the World Cup soccer matches overshadowed important, but quiet, efforts at resuming bilateral security dialogue, this co-hosting sports event not only gave the games a luster not easily tarnished, but it also is a lasting image for Japan-South Korea cooperation.

Influence on the development of South Korea

If the main purpose of the Seoul Olympics was to showcase economic and technological achievements to a world audience and, at the same time, bridge the cleavages between conservative and progressive political blocs within their own population, the aim of hosting the World Cup was more economic-related. In March 2001, the Korean Ministry of Finance and Economy promised to develop a multi-facetted strategy to maximise the economic impact of the World Cup. The state-run Korean Development Institute predicted the creation of 350,000 jobs and an additional industrial output of US$ 8.82 billion, with a 22 per cent share going to the construction sector. However, with the kick-off approaching, forecasts have got gloomier. According to the private Samsung Economic Research Institute, the World Cup would not generate the economic benefits that the Seoul Olympics did in 1988, unless there was a dramatic recovery in the global economy.

Although the outcome of the World Cup was not as good as expected, the long-term benefits it brought should not be ignored, especially regarding to the tourism industry. The impacts of this World Cup are as follows:

1.Impact on the image improvement as a tourism destination

Brand enhancement

TV ratings:

TV is the wide coverage of the mass media. The preparation and organizing process of large-scale events can always make the host country he world's attention overnight through television. Therefore, the large-scale events are described as a "media feast" because of its huge appeal and potential commercial benefits. During the World Cup, in Korea, 3 / 4 of the family watched the match between the South Korean soccer team and that of Poland. According to NILSON media survey, household ratings of the three TV stations KBS2, MBC, SBS combined reached 74.1%.

Network referred to Rate:

Take the example of Google search engine results, searching "Korea" as the keyword, the related sites reached 1.12 million; "Korea" and "World Cup" at the same time as the keyword, sites amount to 217,000; "Korea", "World Cup", "tourism" for the keyword search up to 42 800 sites. The hosting of the World Cup made the network of reference of South Korea increase considerably. Besides South Korea as a tourist destination had also been mentioned more frequently.

Reputation improvement

Since the World Cup, the national reputation of South Korea had been greatly enhanced. According to the survey conducted by Korea Trade Corporation (KOTRA) of 14157 consumers from 72 countries, it was found that the score of South Korea's national image increased by 1.2 points, compared with the average score of 78.4 points before the World Cup (Korea Tourism from 2001 to 2002 annual report of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Republic of Korea). Meanwhile, South Korea as a tourist destination had also received much praise. According to a survey jointly conducted by Gallup Company, 88.3% of foreign visitors travelling to the 2002 World Cup were satisfied (Yonhap News Agency (Seoul), July 8, 2003). The survey was based on 402 foreign tourists (including 99 Japanese tourists, the United States and Canada, 93 tourists, 85Chinese tourists, 36 French tourists, etc.), of whom, 72.4% of respondents thought that this World Cup was a great success.

Image richness

In addition to travelling abroad for promotion of the Korea World Cup, South Korea, also organized a large number of festivals and other activities to promote the Korean traditions and popular cultures.

Each host city had about 20 minutes before the game for some activities in purpose of the propaganda of the host city's culture as well as the celebration of the first match. For example, the folk fighting game "high" as the theme of the show in the World Cup Stadium in Gwangju and the fashion shows in Daegu. Among these activities, the “Banner Art Festival 2002 (2002 Flag Art Festival)” in Seoul, "FIFA World Cup, and cultural activities" in Suwon, "cultural space" in Ulsan and, "the First Game Eve Celebration" in Gwangju, Incheon and other host cities were designated as FIFA official cultural activities, which presented to the world the Korean culture of great originality and excellence.

2.Impact on the support system

Improvement of the service standard

In order to attract more people, South Korea proposed to provide a lot of the visa facilitation during the World Cup. For instance, South Korea implemented the "ticket visa” with a three month multiple entry validation for Chinese tourists. In addition, language barriers are considered to be the biggest obstacle for foreign tourists, so 950 translators were recruited from May onwards in Seoul, who scattered in hotels, travel agencies, shopping centers and other places to help solve the language problem. The Government also trained a total number of 2,904 temporary travel guides, distributed at the Tourist Information Centre, Royal Palace, museums and other places. South Korea had established a very positive image among World Cup visitors by providing services of high quality.

Improvement of tourism infrastructure

Accommodation:

accommodation during the World Cup could be divided into two parts: one part was the traditional hotels specifically for tourists; the other was temporary opened for temporary residence. The accommodation in South Korea during the World Cup was characterized by great variety, including tourist hotels (star hotels), training centers, home stay, camping, tent village, dormitories and youth hostels, etc. Many of these facilities (such as campgrounds) now have become the break points for travelers in Korea. The construction and development of these accommodation facilities not only expanded the capacity of local tourists' reception, but also largely promoted the diversification as a tourism destination.

Transport:

in terms of air transport, South Korea took several measures, such as extending the time and opening more routes. For example,, South Korea increased the popular routes of flights between Seoul and Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou for Chinese visitors. In addition, South Korea also decided to increase the maritime transport between South Korea and China and changed part of cargo ships (Dalian, Weihai, and Shanghai) into luxury yachts.

Influence on the development of Japan

Influences on Japan are quite similar compared to those on South Korea, concerning tourism development, image building and support system. However, we discovered some differences in the impact on Japan's economic development.

1.Impact on the economic development

During the period before the 2002 World Cup, Japan has been facing a serious national economic recession for years. Voices have come out that “will the 2002 World Cup save Japan's economy” within Japan and all over the world. Impact studies by respected economic research institutes predict a dramatic boost to GDP in both countries. Many media and economic institutions had made some forecast before the event. Here are some statistics quoted:

Not least among these is the hope that the World Cup will produce a substantial economic boost to economies that have struggled over the past decade to maintain the astonishing rates of growth they achieved from the 1960s to the 1980s. Economic studies of the likely economic impact of the 2002 World Cup have been produced by respected economic forecasters in both countries.

The Dentsu Institute in Japan has forecast that the Japanese share of World Cup will generate a combined total of ¥1,400 billion (around $11 billion) to produce a long term boost to the economy of ¥3,300 billion ($26 billion). This is the amount by which they predict Japanese GDP will increase above the level expected without the World Cup. It is equivalent to an increase in GDP of six tenths of one percent. Considering that Japanese economic growth has averaged only 1.1% per year over the last decade, this represents an enormous boost from the playing of 32 football matches.

The final result didn't disappoint the Japanese people. There are statistics, such as those recorded by Dentsu and the Institute for Social Engineering Inc. which report healthy economic benefits associated with the event.

Baade and Math(2004) report that the economic impact of the Japan/Korea World Cup has not been surpassed by any other World Cup on record. The official report published by JAWOC, the Japan Organizing Committee for the FIFA 2002 World Cup, stated that the surplus from the event available to JAWOC would be JPY 5.48 billion. There were certainly enough funds for them to build a new headquarters and museum in central Tokyo.

2.Reflections on the Success of Co-hosting the World Cup

FIFA's decision to share the finals has put responsibility on the two nations to successfully co-host, establishing a rule for co-operation, even if the uniqueness of co-hosting has meant rewriting the hosting rules.

Although there were some problems concerning the judges, generally speaking, the 2002 Korean/Japan World Cup is a big success. And it has left us some precious experiences to learn for the future World Cup hosting. In addition to the enforcement of the bilateral relationship between South Korea and Japan, it has aroused the passion and excitement of Asian people for World Cup and football itself. Just as FIFA's President Joseph S. Blatter said, the World Cup is "Making the game better, and taking it to the world." And by taking it to every corner of each continent of the world, football, is gradually gathering people together, making the world a better place as a family.

References:

Viccor D. Cha (2002): Japan-Korea Realtions: The World Cup and Sports Diplomacy,

Asahi Shinbun (1998): Nagano struggles with money-losing Olympic venues

Chang Yun-Shik (2001): “Two faces of Korean nationalism and South Korean democracy”, in Whang Soon-He (ed.) Nationalism, sports, and body culture in the 20th century. Tsukuba: Tsukuba University, Institute of Social Sciences, pp. 69-82.

Croft, Jane and Ben Hunt (2001): “Axa terminates insurance for 2002 World Cup”, Financial Times 12 October 2001 (online: http://news.ft.com)

Hargreaves, John (1986): Sport, power and culture, Cambridge, Blackwell Publishers

Himmer, Alastair (2001): “FIFA gives thumbs-up to Japan's World Cup venues”, Yahoo! Sports Singapore (Online http://uk.sports.yahoo.com/011108/80/ceuoq.html)

Koh Byung-Chul (2001): “Sports and politics in the two Koreas”, in Whang Soon-He (ed.): Nationalism, sports, and body culture in the 20th century. Tsukuba: Tsukuba University, Institute of Social Sciences, pp. 85-94.

Lee Hong-Goo (2001) "The effect of 2002 FIFA World Cup event on the development of local community", in Koh Eunha et al. (eds.): Sociology of Sport and New Global Order: Bridging Perspectives and Crossing Boundaries. Proceedings of the 1st World Congress of Sociology of Sport, Seoul July 20-24, Seoul: Organizing Committee for the 1st WorldCongress of Sociology of Sport, pp. 195-200.

Manzenreiter, Wolfram (1999): "Some considerations on the institutionalization of modern sport in Japan", Romanian Journal of Japanese Studies (online version: http://www.opensys.ro/rjjs/manzenreiter/).

Nogawa Haruo and Maeda Hiroko (1999): “The Japanese dream: soccer culture towards the new millennium”, in Gary Armstrong and Richard Giulianotti (eds.) Football cultures and identities, Houndmills: MacMillan

Park Yoon-Bae (2001): “Construction sector enjoying largest benefit from 2002 World Cup boom”, Korea Times, 4 June 2001.

Green Book of Tourism Research Center of CASS of China, 2003

Japan, Korea and the 2002 World Cup (Paperback), edited by John Horne, Wolfram Manzenreiter

Culture and Social Behavior. Harry C. Triandis. University of Illinois. McGraw-Hill.

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