Comparision Of National Cultural Dimensions Cultural Studies Essay

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If we analyze about the cultures in Singapore by using the lens of 5-D Model, Singapore is a multicultures country with Chinesse ethnicity around 77%, India ethnicity is around 6%, Malay ethnicity is around 15% and the rest is expatriates is around 2%, based on this data we can find the point of view by using the model in order to know about the culture in Singapore which is relative culture to other cultures in the world. In the other hand, if we analyze about the culture in Pakistan by using the lens of 5-D Model, we can see also the good of point of view about the Pakistani culture relative to other cultures in the world.

Power Distance (Comparison between Singapore and Pakistan)

Singapore [1] 

This dimension is related to the fact that all of individuals is different in society. It show that the attitude of the cultures relate to inequalities among the peoples. Power distance is defined as the how strong the less powerful member of community and organization in the country try to expect and receive the power is distributed to all peoples.

Singapore get the high score in this dimension is about 74. The culture in Singapore is influenced by Confucian background (from China) and they are usually have a approaching based on the syncretic of religion and one of the dominant approach in Singapore. One of the key principles about the Confucian's values is about the stability in the society, it based on the unequal relationships among peoples. Confucius divided five basic relationships: leader and subject, father and son, brother and sister, husband and wife, senior and junior, and also their friends, this relationships is based on the mutual relationship and their obligation each other [2] . In term of this dimension, we can see the highest point of PDI as a consequence.

Power is a centre of position and the managers depend on their leader and the rules. Based on this term, the employees hope that they know about their job description. The controlling is expected in formal attitude from their manager. Indirect communication and source of information should be selective. We also can see the highest point of PDI in term of government with the five shared values.

b. Pakistan [3] 

This dimension is related to the fact that all individuals in society are not the same, it reveals cultural attitudes towards inequality among us. Power distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed evenly.

Pakistan is 55 score and they are a hierarchical society, It means that the hierarchical order could be accepted by many peoples in many places and no need to require further justification. The inherent inequality could be found in the hierarchy of the organization, centralization popular, the follower hope to know about the information that they have to do, and the ideal leader is wise autocrat.

Individualism (Comparison between Singapore and Pakistan)

a. Singapore

The fundamental issue was managed by this dimension to maintain the level of interdependence among its members. There is a relation whether the personal image is reflected in definition to "I" or "We". In term of individualist society, many peoples try to maintain theirselves and their family directly. In collectivist societies, our personal the own in the group who take care of them in exchange for loyalty. Singapore is in 20 score in collective society, it means that "We" are the important one, people who involve to the group (family, clan or organization of society) and they keep it each other in term of exchange of loyalty, Based on this case, we can see that the second key principles of Confucianism: family is a prototype of all the social organization [4] , one person is not as an one personal but he is as a family member. The children should learn how to control theirselves, to find the solution of their individuality so that they can maintain the harmony in family. They can get the harmony if all the peoples can keep the dignity, prestige, self respect and the relations of social. Communication is indirect and the group harmony and they should maintain it and avoid the open conflict.

b. Pakistan

The fundamental issues was managed by this dimension and it concern about the lever of interdependence of society to control the condition among members. There is a relation whether the personal image is reflected in definition to "I" or "We". In term of individualist society, many peoples try to maintain theirselves and their family directly. In collectivist societies, our personal the own in the group who take care of them in exchange for loyalty. Pakistan is in 14 score and considered as a collective society. It show in long-term commitment and close to the members of group, they also explain dan define that family and extended family. The loyality in term of policy of collective culture is the important thing and other social regulations [5] . The society influence the strong relationship where everyone responsible for all members in its group. In term of collectivist societies the violating cause to shame and even they can lose their face, the relationship between the employer and employee is always in term of moral and family condition, the recruiting and promotion is about the decision making in that group and management group.

Masculinity / Femininity (Comparison between Singapore and Pakistan)

a. Singapore

A high score of this dimension shows that the society will be driven by the competition, achievement, and success, based on this dimension the success is determined by the winner in a value system that started in the school and continue during the process of organization. The low score of feminine means that dimension still show the dominant values in society that maintance the relation with many peoples and the quality of life. The feminine society is about the one of quality of life is the sign of success value and out from the box of unsatisfied zone. The fundamental problems is about how to motivate peoples to be the best (masculine) or like what you do (feminine) [6] .

Singapore is in 48 score position and stay in middle of the scale however still in feminine position. It means that the soft aspects of culture for example take a common perception, consensus and also sympathies. Being simple an humble is very important one, because it can avoid the conflict especially in term of job and consensus. We can see the feminine aspect in government area and defined the five shared values.

b. Pakistan

A high score of this dimension shows that the society will be driven by the competition, achievement, and success, based on this dimension the success is determined by the winner in a value system that started in the school and continue during the process of organization. The low score of feminine means that dimension still show the dominant values in society that maintance the relation with many peoples and the quality of life. The feminine society is about the one of quality of life is the sign of success value and out from the box of unsatisfied zone. The fundamental problems is about how to motivate peoples to be the best (masculine) or like what you do (feminine).

Pakistan poses in 50 score in this dimension, it means that the society is masculine. In the masculine country, people live to go to work, the manager is expected to be the decision maker and assertive, the manager should emphasize the equity, the competition of work performance and the conflict should be solved as soon as possible [7] .

Uncertainty Avoidance (Comparison between Singapore and Pakistan)

Singapore  

The dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance has to do by using society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it apprehension and diverse cultures have learnt to deal with this apprehension in diverse ways.  Based on this dimension, we can see that how far the members of a culture will feel threatened by vague or unknown conditions and have produced beliefs and institutions that try to stay away from these is reflected in the UAI score. [8] 

Singapore poses in 8 scores on this dimension and It shows the scores is very low on this dimension. As we know that in Singapore, many peoples tolerate to many rules, It conditions do not show about their need however for structure but because of high PDI. Singaporean peoples describe their society as a "Fine Country". It means that we can get a fine for everything".

b. Pakistan

The dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance has to do by using society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it apprehension and diverse cultures have learnt to deal with this apprehension in diverse ways.  Based on this dimension, we can see that how far the members of a culture will feel threatened by vague or unknown conditions and have produced beliefs and institutions that try to stay away from these is reflected in the UAI score.

Pakistan poses in 70 scores on this dimension and it shows a high preference for avoiding uncertainty. Many countries show the high uncertainty avoidence maintain inflexible codes of belief and behaviour and are prejudiced of anarchic behaviour and ideas. Based on these cultures we can see that there is an emotional requirement for the rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is so important and similar with money, people have an inner support to be busy and work hard, exactitude and promptness are the norm, improvement may be resisted, safety is an important component in individual motivation [9] .

Long Term Orientation (Comparison between Singapore and Pakistan)

Singapore

The dimension of long term orientation is very related to the Confucius' Thought and can be translated as dealing with society's exploration for kindness, the dimension show us how far we can see the society reflect the pragmatic for the future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view. [10] 

Singapore poses 48 scores in term of this dimension, and poses in the middle. However Singapore shows the cultural qualities supporting long term investment for example sustained efforts, perseverance, slow results, thrift; being sparse with resources, ordering the coordination of relationship by status and having a sense of shame (we can see again the Thought of Confucian). Singapore has also become one of the five dragons with an massive economic success.

In the other hand, western peoples have been seeking some facts and realities that the Singaporean people are determining the kindness and the way that you want to do. They are always trying to keep their choice and open minded as there are many ways to skin a cat. Western peoples believe that if A is right, B must be wrong, and then as we know that people from East and Southeast Asian region countries look at about both A and B that combined to produce the superior things. This mindset give them the opportunity for a more pragmatic approach in term of business.

Pakistan

The dimension of long term orientation dimension is very related to the Confucius' Thought and can be translated as dealing with society's search for the kindness, the dimension show us how far we can see the society reflect the pragmatic for the future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view [11] There is no score available for Pakistan on this dimension

Finally, based on the explanation above we can take the conclusion that Singapore is leading about Power Distance and Individualism than Pakistan. However for Masculinity and Uncertainty Avoidance Pakistan is on the top, and in the last dimension Pakistan has no score than Singapore.

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