Chinese culture covers a vast and complex set of achievements in many different areas, including the oldest dating back to 10,000 years, which have emerged in the territory of China, geo-political entity of the oldest modern world. One can indeed consider the current People's Republic of China (which some Chinese offer to link Taiwan, at least culturally), as the direct heir, through the changes of dynasties and political system of the -221 Qin empire founded by Qin Shi Huang. This continuity, which led to the effective dissemination of practices, objects and concepts, gives some elements of Chinese culture a general aspect that transcends regional and historical differences. Examples Confucianism with mandarin system and the design of social and family relationships he scored his mark, and Taoism, the origin of philosophical or metaphysical concepts and religious practices generally adopted name in the Chinese world. The prestige of the Chinese empire has helped spread this common culture in the Far East and Southeast Asia and has also attracted many foreigners who have enriched the Chinese civilization. Other cultural achievements are contrary to a specific region or time. In this regard, how the various fields of Chinese culture have addressed Western influence and modernity in the nineteenth century and continue to respond to globalization.1 is a matter of great interest. The economic development of China challenges the traditions and folk arts, especially in the interior regions. Many forms of culture, such as embroidery or theater, are disappearing.
Physical Activities in China
:Chinese martial arts, popularized under the name of kung fu and Chinese boxes, also referred to as Mandarin or Guoshuwushu, are made up of hundreds of different styles of fighting with bare hands or armed, which have been developed in China over centuries. Their origin is attributed to self-defense needs, hunting activities and military training in ancient China. These martial arts integrated it in their practice different philosophies and concepts, expanding its goals only self-defense towards objectives of physical maintenance and finally as method of self-education. From the twentieth century, these martial arts are influenced by a sporting and competitive approach, leading to the creation of a modern sport competition: wushu.
Many references to concepts and practices of Chinese martial arts can be found in popular culture. Historically, the influence of the arts in the literature from the second and third century BC (wuxia) and artistic performances (Chinese Opera for example) from all over Asia. More recently, this influence has extended to movies, including kung fu, thus reaching a much wider audience and spreading beyond Asia and its ethnic roots.(Leigh)
Chinese architecture, examples of which date back more than 2000 years, is a critical aspect of Chinese culture. There are common characteristics of Chinese architecture, regardless of region or specific destination.
The most important is the emphasis given to the horizontal dimension. In contrast to Western architecture, which tends to emphasize the height and depth of Chinese architecture emphasizes the width of the buildings. Galleries and pavilions in the Forbidden City, for example, have rather low ceilings compared to Western princely residences, but their appearance suggests the vast nature of imperial China. This of course does not apply to pagodas, which in any case are relatively rare.
Another important feature is its emphasis on symmetry, which denotes a sense of grandeur that applies to everything from palaces to farmhouses. The gardens are a notable exception, as they are also asymmetrical as possible. As in Chinese paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create a constant flow, to let the viewer wander and enjoy the garden without constraint, as in nature itself.(Scobell)
Cooking and Gastronomy:
Chinese cuisine is one of the most renowned in the world. It is both related to the company, philosophy and medicine. It distinguishes cai, cooked and by extension all that accompanies cereals, vegetables fan. The yin, feminine, soft and wet so refreshing foods are vegetables and fruits. Food yang, male, fried, spicy or meat products have a warming effect. A meal must not only harmonize the taste, but also strike a balance between the cold and warm colors and consistencies.
Chinese literature has a special place in the history of mankind, since the cult dedicated to the things written in China and the uniqueness of Chinese characters, which have their origins in divination rites and radically different from phonetic systems used in most other languages.
Then prose develops, with works also known as Journey to the West in the sixteenth century, or the family novel Hong Lou Meng that can be translated as The Dream of Red Mansions in the eighteenth century.
Chinese literature and is shocked to scale hitherto unknown in its history following the fall of the Qing dynasty and the end of classical literary culture, vehemently claimed by the movement of May 4, 1919.
The works to philosophical have an important place in Chinese literature, especially during the Zhou Dynasty, with the Confucian "classics" or the Taoist classics, then it is poetry that is becoming more and more important with climax during the Tang Dynasty.(Johnson)
Sociology in China
A first point to emphasize to characterize Chinese sociology, is the question of generations. We must not forget that China is relatively new sociology as sociology had completely disappeared from China and it is reborn in the early 1980s in an open, intellectual expansion, reflection climate, but in a climate of suspicion again. At the time, objectively, sociology was more objecting. She posed more problems to the authorities at the present time, when she intervened less in the political field itself. People who participated in the revival of sociology experienced the Cultural Revolution. They were sent to the countryside as part of the return movement campaigns (Xinxiang). It is therefore self-taught, people who read, who have always been passionate about ideas and what was happening in society. They do not read books of sociology, since by definition it does not exist, but rather the books of philosophy or literature related to social issues - whatever they could find in the 1970s, when censorship was absolutely radical, and where we could not access the books in foreign languages. These people enjoyed in the late 1970s for some early 1980s for others, the reopening of universities and the opportunity to participate in the entrance examination to the university. They were often part of a relatively high class. They were son of teachers, journalists, managers, workers - high status at the time. They started their higher at a relatively advanced age studies with practical experience of life. They all suffered, are highly politicized and started doing sociology in a critical mindset in the sense that it was to understand what happened and what was going on then, but also contribute the creation of a new Chinese company which forms in the early 80s were difficult to define.(Croll)
The Historical Trajectory:
Thus, the Chinese sociology is a science today considered useful for understanding social problems. Researchers, experts in social problems, are consulted when a problem arises and they have become accustomed to challenge the leaders on a number of issues they consider vital for the future of China. They are still protesting but in a context that is quite different. In the 1980s, they were out of power, considered suspect. Since the mid-1990s, they protest inside the system itself, taking themselves involved in political struggles that exist between central and local authorities, between the police administration and management of the economy, between the administration of social and foreign trade administration etc.. They are now part of the political and intellectual struggles. Today, we are witnessing an explosion of sociology in the sense that more and more universities are creating departments of sociology, including industrial and technological universities. All areas are heavily affected. This comes in social psychologists, social protection, among others, at the time of recruitment. These sociologists involved in newspapers, government seminars. They are extremely present and it is comparable to what happened in France in 1960, 1970, and the very important role of sociologists as social engineers.(Hockx)
The respect their elders, love their children and treat their fellow citizens in a good manner. In general Chinese people are reserve and humble despite of their good hold on different physical activities such as martial arts and other activities. Chines people are really proud about their civilized society. This makes them different from other countries and has leas them to a good and powerful country of the world.
The human race has strived through different challenges of life and faced them bravely and this takes a lot of time. China is also one of the countries who has faced different challenged and overcome them. They have transformed from a traditional society to a modern society and has become a rich and civilized strong country.