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The research is Quantitative in nature. The population size is 500.We take the sample size of 150 by using Stratified Random Sampling method. Questionnaire is the data collecting tool in this research.
Celebrity, Non - Celebrity, Perception, Advertisement, Consumer, Endorser
A celebrity endorser is one who is recognized by the people (can be an actor, sport figure or from the world of entertainment) for his/her best performance in their particular field. (Mecracken, 1989; Friedman & friedman, 1979). The advertisers use celebrity recognition by hiring them in different advertisements due to their attributes like credibility, extraordinary lifestyle, special skills, popularity, status symbol, attractiveness, glamour, capability & recall value. The main objective of celebrity endorsement is to create publicity and attention of brand. (Schlech,2003; Biswas, Hussain & O'Donnell, 2009).Doss said that in older time the consumers do not persuaded by celebrity endorsement. Advertising is the source of communication between provider and recipients and it also gives the information about the innovative technology which stimulates demands and markets for new and existing services. (Edwards et al)
Advertising with celebrity is more effective because consumers associate brand with their favorite celebrity due to his attractive and likeable qualities. (Atkins & Block, 1983). Assael (1984) argue that the impact of celebrity advertising on consumer's perception has an emblematic connection with aspirational reference group. It is observed that celebrity endorsement represent the products which are high profitable products and highly used by the customers .(Clark & Horstman , 2003).In advertising the celebrity endorser has positive effect to transfer the positive brand image and determining the consumer response toward endorsed products.(Trippietat,1994). Lafferty and Goldsmith (1999) postulated that when the perception of commercial credibility is high than consumers purchase intention is high and they are more likely to purchase a product. It is found that the negative information about a celebrity lowered down the consumer perception of associated product. (Till and Shimp,1998). Celebrity and non celebrity advertisement both have affect on perception of the consumer. The educated consumers have become more critical of the advertisement. They take the meaning from writing in a multiple different ways so the advertiser should present truth in their images, they should not mislead the consumer, They should consider Ethics in their advertisement, because the consumers interprets the visual ads according to visual field and visual world. Human brain processes the visual images in the way that effects the emotions of the consumer and they interprets as reality because consumers first respond emotionally before they can think them though.(Katherine Sullivan)
Mohan research shows that the Non-Celebrity execution in advertisement scores higher in some particular products such as cosmetics because there is no credibility of celebrities, while they are also using these products or not. According to Atkin & Block (1983) the product type has intervening impact on the effectiveness of using celebrities as spokespersons.
Every year a huge amount spent on celebrity endorsement contracts. Celebrities play an imperative role for the advertising diligence and to promote the products (Daneshvary and Schwer 2000, Kambitsis et al.2002, Mistry 2006). The swift growth in communication technologies has increased the number of celebrities. Celebrities are people who recognized by the public and appear in advertisement on the behalf of this reorganization (McCracken 1989, p.310). Advertisement is the process of acquiring and mainly of purchasing promotion. The advertisers belief that, if advertising message conveyed by celebrities provide a higher degree of petition, concentration, increase the exorability of the communication and may provide a positive and significant effect on brand than non-celebrities. (Cooper, 1984).The effect of advertisements on consumers with celebrity spokespersons is greater than those with non-celebrities (Atkin and Block, 1983). Individuals associate the endorsed brand with celebrity personal qualities of attractiveness, likeability, status, and plausibility. (Atkin & Block 1983; Nelson 1974).
"A celebrity is a person who has a prominent profile and commands a great degree of public fascination and influence in day-to-day" . The phrase is identical with wealth (commonly denoted as a person with prominence and luck), command great popularity, peculiarity in a scrupulous field, and is easily known to the general public. Attractiveness, extraordinary lifestyle & special skills are some attributes of the celebrities through which they enjoy a high degree of public awareness and it is generally said that the celebrities differ in their social norms from belonging social group. It is true for special form of celebrities like actors , models ,sports stars ,entertainers ,singers etc. (Schlecht ,2003) . A celebrity advertisement is associated with following factors; source of credibility ,attractiveness ,knowledge , trustworthiness and appearance .When these factors are present in a celebrity the advertisement is an effective advertisement.(Mohan k. Menon) .The impact of celebrity credibility on the consumer perception & intentions to purchase shows that only the "experts" had significance influence on consumer's perception. There is a direct correlation between believability and advertisement effectiveness.(Kamins, Brand ,Hoeke & Moe 1989).The people like more their favorite celebrity when they viewed them as experts and spokespersons in the some product advertisement with good physical appearance . And this positive feelings transfer from celebrity to that advertised brand (Buhr ,Simpson & Pryor1987). Celebrity used in the advertisement should be consistent with the right brand to the right level for the right purpose at a right place, s features and images should match with the image of the celebrity. There is greater competition and it is difficult create image of the product in the mind of the consumer and to get the consumer attention. They create acceptance for the products in the mind of the consumer, celebrity are used as a tool to create attention into the advertising message in a mess media environment, popular image with exact product image will increase the consumer attention result in greater brand recall, it will increase the reputation of the company, as well as the consumer awareness of ad and make more memorable. (Zafar, Q.U.A., & Rafique.M.)
"People who are unknown to the world. Everyone at school is non-celebrity". ByÂ Kellnik ReoÂ Jul 25, 2008Â .Celebrities are different from non-celebrities how? It is explained by McCracken that the non - celebrities are just transferring the message with their age , gender and social status while the celebrities are conveying the message in a meaningful way which is more effective .Because the celebrities has already established a meaning outside the advertising world. Non -Celebrity persons has no surprising attributes as the celebrity person contains .Now a days the trend of non - celebrity advertising is increasing because the negative effect of celebrity endorsement is damaging the brand image. So, non -celebrities persons are using in advertisements to avoid the negative effect of celebrity endorsement (Prieler, Kohlbacher, Hagiwara & Arima 2010). The empirical result shows that the non famous endorser creates more favorable attitudes towards advertising, brand and intent to purchase that those created by a celebrity. The non - celebrity persuasion credibility has much positive impact on the consumer perception and it is more appropriate toward consumer attitude of purchase. ( Gaied & Rached,2010)
Consumer actions and reactions always on the basis of their perception which is usually not formed on the objective reality. It made by the advertisement. Reality for every individual is completely a personal phenomenon which is base on individual needs, experiences, values and wants. Perception is the process, through which a person selects, organizes and understand stimuli into a significant and a rational picture of the globe. It defines "how we see the world around us".
This framework explore the relationship between celebrity advertisements, non - celebrity advertisement and consumer perception.
Non Celebrity Advertisement
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
The consumer perception is dependent variable which is greatly influenced by independent variables celebrity and non-celebrity advertisement. Celebrity advertisement has positive impact on consumer perception because celebrity has more credibility in conveying a meaningful message and people admire them. Sometimes celebrity endorsement damage the brand image in consumer mind due to his/her personal scandals. Non-celebrity endorsement is used to nullify the negative effect of celebrity endorsement. The pragmatic results show that non famous endorser craft more auspicious approach towards publicity, brand and intention to purchase as compared to famous endorser. So, non-celebrity advertisement has positive impact on consumer perception.
H1: There is a positive and significant relationship among celebrity advertisement and consumer perception.
H2: There is a positive and significant relationship among non-celebrity advertisement and consumer perception.