Category Of Consumer Culture Cultural Studies Essay

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The behavior of animals, insects, birds, the system is programmed instincts: it is given on the nature of the installation, as well as what to eat, how to survive, how to nest when and where to go, etc. In the human system instincts faded, although the researchers argue about whether and to what extent. They operate at the level of basic needs, but the latter is closely woven into the life of society, became an imposed on them. The role that naturally carry instincts in human society does culture. Its main function - programming of life, groups and social institutions. Long-term programming - this is essentially a question about the meaning of human life in general and the particular individual, the sense suschestvoanie society, the state, the church, etc. Short-term programming - this activity, the criteria for selecting and evaluating a short period of time

G.Simmel (1996, v.2) singled out the objective and subjective culture. Objective culture - it's all the time domain of culture: customs, knowledge, art, religion, social organizations, etc.Subjective culture - is the process of improving individuals assimilate and develop objective culture. objective culture - is supra-individual reality created by the mass of people. They are making a contribution to the culture, forming a kind of "bank" in which each individual is "taking credit" for their development. Different people - different in shape and volume of loans. The process of integrating the individual culture of the company is usually called socialization . Live in a society does not mean its own culture. In every society there is a so-called "high culture" created and consumed by the cultural elite: philosophy, science, art complex, complicated theology, theoretical ethics, etc. Most members of society and can not and does not want to absorb this culture. Each one takes from the "bank culture" is that, first of all it is available, and, secondly, that he needs. What is available to residents of the capital, the farmer is not available from a remote village. What needs to be an artist, too turner. And vice versa.

Culture is often divided into material and spiritual, taking as osnovuklassifikatsii of cultural objects. However, this division takes away from the essence of the phenomenon of culture, the main function of which - programming of human activity. Material objects (houses, cars, food, clothes, plants, etc.) are the culture, to the extent to which they define the direction, scope and form of human activity. Culture - is the core of human experience. Those facilities are not included in the practice of the fall crops. Abandoned in the forest an ancient temple, which no one visits is not an object of culture.

Cultural objects are included in the lives of different people, that is, into a subjective culture to varying degrees and in different forms. The same church for some people - a monument inspiring and exciting of their ancient culture, for others - "landmark", which should be photographed, although it is not clear what people admire here, for the third - is an element of the landscape, such as hills and rock: it have to be unlocked, turning from the straight path and spending the extra time and effort. Before us is the same material object, but as a cultural object, he has an entirely different meaning. Cultural objects do not exist by themselves. They are real to the extent to which their people learn.

The same applies to objects of spiritual culture: values, norms, and works of art. They can exist as cultural monuments, a kind of "black boxes": people who create them, put them in some sort of escaped from us - in full or in part sense. The objects of contemporary culture they exist to the extent and in the manner in which they program, ie guide, structure, limit, and so stimulate activities of people. Norma, written on paper, and no one has to be taken into account any relation to culture has not. Culture exists only in practice.

Culture as a vital program consists of a number of large blocks. Culture - it is always a creative process, always opening new. True, it takes place on the creativity rzynh levels. Some individuals, contribute to the objective culture, opening new horizons for humanity. They do this simultaneously with the discovery and development of the world for themselves. He was trying to get herself and the society, but it has opened what has become a novelty for others. This objective culture creators: famous artists, writers, inventors, reformers, architects etc.Other individuals do not bring anything new to objective culture, they just participate in its reproduction, following its values, norms, using her tongue. But the development of their culture too is creative: they were taken from objective culture that adequately their practical needs, they adapt to the specific conditions of a selected etc. And in the process of the cultural achievements of individuals is the development of mass culture: something dies as irrelevant, something radically changes smysls (creators put one meaning, and consumers have opened an entirely different), somewhere in the secondary becomes very important, and that that the creators seemed topical becomes archaic into oblivion.

Culture - is, first, a set of relatively stable ideas and views about the desired form of social order and human behavior (norms and values), shared by the majority of members of the society (socio-cultural field macro level) and accepted by them as a guide to action. Second, a set of symbolic forms of communication (language). Third, the culture - it is a relatively stable form of practice due to these representations, that is, the organic unity of ideas and actions. This is an automatic or semi-automatic actions performed without thinking and appeals to the bank of ideas and concepts of values ​​and norms. Therefore, the visible part of the culture seen as stable, mass forms of human behavior. Perfect same components (ideas about values ​​and norms) act as factors affecting the formation of behavior. "High culture" (science, philosophy, symphonic music, art museums, etc.) is often not a mass, but is based on the authority of social institutions, especially the state. This is a minority culture, but it is supported by the government and other social institutions as a factor in the development of culture in the society as a whole.

In other words, culture - it's the atmosphere of the sociocultural field macro level (society, ethnic group, etc.), individuals impose certain forms of behavior, desires, and ways to meet the universal (human) needs. In the fields of macro-culture acts as a program specifying the common vectors aspirations of individuals and institutions within the field. Individuals often internalize the culture of his field, with his mother's milk, and then by choice, following your taste somehow behave very similarly.

Culture programs all human activity. Therefore there is a culture of working, living, economic, hudozhdestvennaya, political, sexual, family culture, etc. One of its variants is the culture of consumption. It is one of the most important, since There is no one who has not been touched by it. culture of consumption - is the dominant functioning program of community members of all consumer goods. It includes all of the above described components of culture: understanding of consumer values ​​and norms that regulate the consumption society sanctions the violation of or compliance with consumer rules, language as a set of rules of interpretation of consumer acts, sustained automatic consumer practices (free habits). Consumer culture also includes an objective and a subjective component, that is supra-individual reality (the space of cultural opportunities) and the development of these capabilities at the level of individuals and groups.

On the surface of consumption acts as a process of free individual choice. Everyone thinks his head. However, supra-individual nature of consumer culture can be easily detected when moving from country to country, when the culture erupts in the form of a widespread or dominant flavors in food (cuisine), architecture, clothing, cosmetics, organization of leisure time, alcohol, etc. Everyone chooses himself, but for some reason is very similar to the neighbor. It is similar in terms of desire, and in terms of forms and methods of addressing them.

Ideas and concepts that make up the culture of consumption, but can be called sustainable. In fact, they are in a constant process of change and reproduction. Culture - is a non-stop process. The presence in this process relatively stable core remains stable for more or less long period of history, creates the illusion of stability. In fact, this is just the core of the rapidly speeding comet. Culture is basically shared by the majority of society (demographic or social) or the elite, which has sufficient resources to impose their tastes as a manifestation of the "true" culture. Dynamics of consumption culture manifests itself in rapid succession tastes, fashion, set consumable goods and services, in the form of their presentation and interpretation ("beautiful" becomes "ugly" and vice versa, "prestigious" - in "old-fashioned", etc.).

One of the manifestations of culture is the structure of the goods consumed in the same market. There is a culture of consumption of housing, clothing, food, cars, etc. Alcohol or similar to him on to the substance and fluid consumption across the board. However, the structure of the different cultures are very different. Thus, the country is isolated from the vodka, wine, beer cultures.

Tab.: Wine consumption in different countries

Countries

Number of liters per capita per year

Luxembourg

63

France

60

Spain

59

Portugal

56

Argentina

41

Spain

38

Greece

32

USA

7

Russia

5

(AiF. 2003. â„- 44: 19).

Consumer culture - supraindividual reality, but it is happening people, both directly and through social institutions - government, business, churches, etc. Thus, in many countries, the culture of consumption varies considerably. For example, the country has traditionally been skandinaskie countries "vodka" culture. However, as a result of targeted actions and states and businesses here in the second half of the 20th century dramatically increased the share of beer and wine, while reducing the consumption of alcoholic beverages. In post-Soviet Russia sharply rising share of beer. Especially noticeable shifts in favor beer culture among the youth.

Consumer culture - is the dominant (by mass or reliance on the power of social institutions), the program of consumer behavior. However, this category is not enough to explain the phenomenon of consumption. "Culture" - too large-scale category. Culture manifests itself in more concrete forms of subcultures.

Subculture - a subsystem of culture, which includes the set of stable specific forms of interaction inherent in a social group, a layer or set of people united on other grounds (eg, in the generality of lifestyle). One of the most important manifestations of the subculture are the consumption patterns that are typical for the age, occupational, regional groups, as well as groups of people united by a common idea, interest (such as tourism, fishing), taste (for example, a shared love for a particular music genre, style, etc.). On the consumer culture of a society can only speak to describe the most common, its surface characteristics. A more detailed inspection processes of consumption, we can see that the dominant program is divided into a lot of specialized programs tailored to the tastes and wallet to the opportunities and health. Are there many similarities in consumer behavior teen and old, rich and poor, men and women?

Culture and subculture are concrete historical character. A set of universal elements of culture (the so-called "universal values ​​and norms") is very limited and very abstract. When we turn to consumption, the universal elements to isolate it is very difficult. Try to do this by comparing the consumption of primitive man, the troubled care mammoths in another forest, and the modern Russian, the concern about the increase in prices as a result of the dollar.

Culture and the border.

The boundary of the sociocultural field is constructed using the tools of culture. On the border is a quantitative and qualitative change in the basic characteristics of culture: the norms, values, practices and forms of communication. In some cases, a radical change in others - shift in its structure, the quantitative changes. The boundary divides "us" and "them." The perception of the border may be different. In some cases it is described through the category distinction: we eat well, and they are different, they dress differently than we do, but it's a matter of taste and tradition. In other cases, the boundary is stratified by describing it in terms of ethnocentrism. My culture (or subculture) is perceived as "normal", "high", etc., and the other to test against it as "strange", "funny", "low", etc.

Define culture or subculture can only compare it with other crops, ie in determining the emphasis is on the differences, even if not openly proclaimed. Because of a particular culture or subculture - it's a non-stop process, then grab its essential characteristics - the problem is very problematic. Try, for example, to determine what the Russian culture from its beginning to the present day! Its content is in the process of constant change, but the same is a boundary that separates from other cultures: Russian culture - it may Tatar, German, and so no. The individual, who turned on the cultural frontier, identifies himself by attributing to a particular cultural field, which at the same time means emphasizing their alienation from a neighboring field. His identity is developed in consumer practices, transforming the border into something real and observable. It is through this practical identity ("I belong to a group or type of X, not Y, Z, etc.") of the mass of individuals constructed boundaries between very different social communities as a macro - and micro level.

The structure of the culture.

Culture is a complex structure. Consider its main components. 

1. value - is the result of evaluating the agent (subject) relative quality of several objects in terms of their own and adopted as their own social interests. Evaluation occurs in two main scales: use value (useful?) And exchange value (which is more expensive than what you can barter for other things more?). In the things themselves have no value. It occurs only as a result of the evaluation, that is, contact the acting agent (individual, group, organization) with the object. Thus, the oil has a value only for people who have learned to make from it kerosene or gasoline. Value always appears in the context of a certain human practices. Thus, the ruble - is of value only in Russia and in other countries it as a means of payment will not be accepted, and many can not even be exchanged for local currency, hence there is the cost of the cost of paper.

Use and exchange value are closely intertwined. Valuable that useful. Same values ​​to address the needs of people directly, others indirectly diamond that I would never be used as a decoration, is useful as a means of payment. Value placed on the scale with which people evaluate, compare the action, things, other people and themselves. Vladimir Mayakovsky wrote,"Scarce the son went to his father and asked, pipsqueak," What is good and what is bad? " evaluating something as "bad", we automatically oppose it something something "good." Values ​​always appear as the scale on which there is the opposite poles: it is very valuable, valuable, somewhat valuable, does not cost anything (trash), antivalue (harmful, dangerous). In many cases, the value may have monetary value. When we say that a thing has value X, we will have in a particular place value scale.

With the scale of values ​​people structuring the world around him, laying out the objects and phenomena by their values, that is utility. As a result, there is a kind of consciousness as the mental structure of the classifier. In our practice people, faced with the need of assessment, using this scale of values, describing the actual real people, their actions, things like very valuable or as completely useless. As a result, the construction of social reality with the help of this mental structure - the scale of values. Specifically, it is shown that some of the objects, people (dangerous, unnecessary) are trying to distance themselves. So, is relocated from areas congested industry or criminals. Here falling housing prices, hence the migration begins.Qualities that are highly valued (ie, are useful for the appraiser) are rewarded relatively high quality, which are assessed as dangerous or useless, on the contrary, lead to punishment or, at best, a lack of interest. However, any money is counted only in the context of specific social and cultural relations, in another context, it can have a very different assessment. So, vodka - a valuable beverage among drinkers, but completely useless among nondrinkers. In militant temperance it is anti-values. Thing valuable because of its fashionability today, in five to seven years would cause ridicule, becoming a symbol of old-fashioned.

Changing social practices leading to a change in value, so they are specifically historical character due time. In addition, within one society the same time, there are different sub-cultures, which may have different, and sometimes conflicting values. In addition, to the extent to meet the needs of the value of the goods falls, satisfying her. There are individual and social values.They may be the same and significantly diverge. What is valuable to me (from my point of view) can be harmful to the people around me. Also, my understanding of the value may be illusory (bought as a valuable remedy fraud quack).

2. Standards - these are the rules, patterns of behavior, imposed culture. Category rules apply to objects of consumption: goods and services. That is the norm appears in two forms: the norm for myself and the norm for others (social expectations). Standards layered.

Ideals - is the norm, that delight, entice, but not achievable. Ideals set a course of action, but do not suggest that people should reach them. A similar role is played by the light: go north - does not mean to get to the North Pole. In Christianity, this ideal serves Christ. It ideal for the Christians, but in the traditional Christian churches in achieving human identity with this ideal is impossible. Rare in the modern world, people who seek to follow and consumer practices. In consumption may play the role of the ideal fairy-tale characters, get incredible wealth and unlimited vozmozhnot not only meet their needs, but the most outlandish whims. At this level we find the perfect product. It does not exist in reality, but this representation, given a vector of consumer desires and searches.

Samples - is the recommended behaviors that are difficult to achieve, but with due diligence, character and abilities are real. The samples are the saints, heroes, "stars", etc. If one does not reach the level of the sample, no one will judge. In consumption, such specimens are the Star Model, show business, fashion representatives of a very wealthy population. Their consumer experience is real, but its repetition is available to few. Product sample - is the best available in the product market. Often this function is performed by the most prestigious brands of products. Product sample is real, but is not available to everyone.

There are minimum acceptable behaviors and result in either approval or condemnation, as well as models of unacceptable behavior , which describe such actions, which are considered a given culture as criminal, immoral, etc. The same applies to the level of the minimum product quality. It is perceived by some to the following formula: "Well, if nothing else you have not, then we can take it" . At this level, the rate may acquire the status of a standard - the models are fixed by law, regulations, ethics. Considered as a breach of the standard deviation nedopustmaya. Each field has its own socio-cultural standards, going beyond that is fraught with isolation, exclusion from the group. Different fields - different standards. While some segments of the population to the revolutionary, religious, and family gatherings allow the consumption of alcohol to the extent that the presence of a human face to guess if a developed imagination, the other layers of people assume this pozvolivschy excess risk next time to stay without an invitation. Goods coming below the standard, defined as marriage.

3. language - it is a means of communication using symbols understood by all belonging to this culture people. English culture is not limited to ordinary language, supported by a sound, it includes non-verbal (non-verbal) sign language, special signals, as language can act and the various elements of consumption (for example, the style of clothing). Elements of language are the signs, symbols, rules of their connection. English only valid within a given culture or subculture, is it he can not be or poorly understood [1] . The use of a language is a tool for consumer identity construction: using codes subculture X denotes an individual of belonging to its carrier.

4. Sanctions - a reaction carriers of the culture or subculture in the degree of compliance with cultural norms. Sanctions give standards of consumer culture forced. Penalties are divided into positive ("carrot" observe cultural norms) and negative ("sticks" to break them.) They appear in the form of admiration, envy, ridicule, verbal and even physical abuse. Be "like everyone else" - comfortable, be "black sheep" - often dangerous. And individuals, focusing on the taste, can not ignore the culture and sub-culture of their environment. Otherwise, enjoy the consumer will turn bitter disappointment. Allocation of above listed items can only for analytical purposes. In reality, they are intertwined and exist in an indivisible unity. Any rule contains a more or less pronounced element of assessment, serves as a symbol, a sign, which recognizes "his - strangers," "cultural - uncultured" with sanctions for deviating from the value-normative standard. Another layer of culture - informative. 

(a) The right - is the norm of conduct embodying the law. Usually, the law is limited to describing the model of unacceptable behavior, which in this case is either a crime or an offense.Many countries have laws governing the rights of consumers and describing the violation trading and manufacturing organizations for which they are punished. Violation of the law involves punishment power of the state. Law - is the norm, which are guaranteed by the state and therefore has a direct coercive nature: one meeting these standards voluntarily, others are forced by physical force.

The laws of many countries to some extent regulate consumption, forming beyond what is permitted for both sellers and buyers. In those countries, where an active fight against smoking is banned in public buildings (offices, schools, etc.). Moreover, a ban on smoking in places fixed by law, the violation is punished. Often strictly regulated standards sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Thus, a severe punishment in all countries of the world there for driving while intoxicated, for appearing as such in public places.

Law has become part of the culture just by being woven into everyday life, becoming a legal culture. The law that is not enforced, there is a social phenomenon. The individual, faced with a legal rule, decides whether to follow it or ignore it. This decision is largely due to the process of self-identification. If I define myself as a law-abiding citizen, he is guilty of the proposed State legislation, not particularly penetrating in its rationality. For example, in some European countries (Estonia, Denmark, to a lesser extent - Germany, etc.) you can see pedestrians standing on an empty road in anticipation of the green light. If I define myself as a critically thinking individual who lives his mind and does not need to state care, I miss the legislative and administrative provisions in the light of its rationality, leading to neglect of many of them.

(B) The moral - is a set of rules of conduct governing the most important principles of human behavior in relation to each other [2] . The so-called "golden rule of morality" says: "Do unto others as you would like to do unto you" . Morality requires that the individual in the process of consumption has always had in mind the impact of their actions on other people's lives. For example, one can turn the holiday hassle for others (neighbors). Violation of moral norms is called immoral behavior, offenders - immoral people. Major sanctions against violators are general condemnation, isolation.

"The concept of" morality " - wrote the classic liberalism A.Hayek - only makes sense when contrasted her impulsive, unreflective behavior, on the one hand, and rational calculation, which aims to get well-defined results, on the other " (Hayek 1992: 26) . For example, you fucking hot, but you go dressed, because you learned moral rules do not allow to lose her clothes in the street. These standards, in this case as inhibit impulse to refresh yourself and lose a reasonable proposal that creates a body overheating. Moral standards cause us not to take it to the store without paying, even if we are out of sight of the seller. The man who mastered the moral norm of "Thou shalt not steal", the officer does not sit in a box, and under the crust of the brain.

Morality in action, the actual behavior of people with the moral standards of morality becomes, through the mechanisms of conscious actions of individuals who identify themselves as moral criteria. If I define myself as a highly moral man, I live according to the moral standards of my social and cultural fields, and if in my set of self-identifications that option is not present, then I look at the moral standards only under the threat of strong negative sanctions.

(C) Customs - is the norm of everyday life, passed down from generation to generation. The main feature is the custom of his succession. The tradition is based on the argument: "It has always been done, so did our ancestors" . F.Hayek wrote that "custom and tradition are between instinct and reason - in a logical, chronological and temporal sense" (Hayek 1992: 44).

Forms of consumption, passed on from generation to generation, becoming a habit. This category refers to cuisine, some items of clothing (pants as a symbol of belonging to the male sex, skirt - as a symbol of femininity). Adherence to tradition precedes identity. If I define myself as a member of that group, then I look at her habits or out of respect for him, either out of fear of being left out of it. If I define myself as an outsider, there is no reason to live according to the customs of another, except for those cases where a guest ("live with wolves - by wolf howl", "do not go into someone else as the Romans").

(D) Religion - a collection of myths, norms and values ​​that people attribute a divine origin. The argument in favor of religious norms is usually a link to the holy book (the Koran, the Bible, etc.). For violation of religious norms expected two kinds of negative sanctions: punishment in the next world (for example, getting into hell) or excommunication, censure by the clergy or co-religionists. Religious norms often include regulation of food intake (the list of forbidden foods, fasting, etc.), the use of clothing. Acceptance of religious norms preceded religious identity. Only a person who considers himself a Muslim, listen to the instructions of the Quran as to what you can consume, and what not.

(E) Fashion - characterized by its variability, its source is the reference (reference) group. On the mechanisms of its action, it is very similar to the custom, but unlike the latter, its value is not traditional, not the authority of ancestors, and modernity, sometimes turning into momentary. Fashion also operates through mechanisms of self-identification. Following the fashion, I construct my identity fashionable person, that is, modern and has a set of exclusive characters. Ignoring the demands of fashion, I construct a different identity: a man who is a stranger to short-term fluctuations in tastes imposed by advertising.

Consumer socialization.

Humans are not born they are in the process of development of culture, including consumer, their societies and sub-cultures of the group. In the process, the core of the individual animal is socialized, zagonyatetsya the framework adopted in this field of social and cultural norms, values, communication. This process of assimilation of consumer culture and subculture called socialization of consumers. It begins in early childhood. That is when a child is taught "how to" eat, drink, talk, dress, and that "edible", and what is not, and "decent", and that "indecent", etc. Starting from infancy, consumer socialization is completed only in the cemetery. After leaving the hospital, the child learns to live with the products offered by the company (toys, baby food, etc.), and on the end of his life he learns to die (drugs, doctors, "miracle" devices and services of traditional healers).

If in a traditional society could a child learn the basics of consumer culture, learn how to use all the basic commodities, but now those days are history. World of commodities rapidly updated. Who in this country in the 1980s. know how to use a computer? Internet? Computer games? A digital camera? Diapers? Mobile phone? Countless drugs flooding our market?Microwaves? Scanners? Copiers? Banking cards? VCRs? The list of new just one decade is huge. To introduce these products into their lives, they have to learn to use it. And the process of updating our product world is not facing the prospect of stopping.

Traditionally understood as a process of socialization of the society of individuals imposing their culture. But rather look at the life around us, to make sure that this understanding is very far from the reality. Socialization - is a creative process in which the individual chooses from the proposed cultural range that suits him, and obrasyvaet unnecessary. Socialization becomes individualized form. As a result, in the same environment different people, takes on a very different cultural background, become members of different consumer types. The market imposes on us beer, vodka, and drugs. But this does not mean that all are attached to this culture. Lots of people, lives next door to the library and the theater, never go there without looking. In the process of socialization of the cultural program of the environment selectively absorbed and probabilistic manner. Have a chance does not mean the inevitability of its use.

Tastes, preferences, likes and dislikes of the world's consumption can not always be explained by factors that are observed in the present. Often, the key to understanding today's consumer behavior can be found only in childhood, or at least pretty far past the person. Consumer socialization agents are the family, school, advertising, instructions to sell products, special textbooks (for car, computer users and some of its programs, consumer cosmetics, etc.), consumer magazines (for men, women, consumers, photo, vehicles , fishermen, gardeners, amateur cooking, etc.).

Popular culture.

One of the most important phenomena of the industrial society is becoming popular culture. Her appearance is made possible by a real revolution in the development of the mass media (the emergence of radio, television, mass film, available at a price of newspapers, magazines and books. Technique made possible the mass culture. However, this phenomenon is not reducible to the culture, put on stream.

Another key characteristic of mass culture - its commercial orientation. This culture is transformed into a commodity, like food, clothing, etc. Popular culture - it cultures are produced for sale thread. Therefore, it gives rise to specific evaluation criteria: valued that makes a profit, the higher the income, the higher the value of the work. In other words, the culture in this space refuses internal criteria, giving himself entirely to the judgment of the market.

This implies the mass consumer, the artist whose taste dictates how and what to do. Market turns culture into the sphere of the mass market dominance, ie not overly endowed with a refined taste and no-education. Mass proposal generated mass production and modern media, is intertwined with the massive demand. Offer of cultural plants creates demand (do not want what is not), and the massive demand dictates the contents of the proposal. There is a circle which is difficult and pointless to seek a beginning.

Did the Soviet popular culture? In the full sense of the word, of course not. There was a massive cultural offer generated by modern means of mass communication. However, consumers are in a purely passive role in choosing the narrow framework of the proposal, to form the will and taste of the ruling elite. Numerous copies produced newspaper articles about the score of virtual reality, where reigned not subside lift working people, striving to meet the next congress, the plenum, the anniversary of the unprecedented victories in labor competition, in this reality, shed tears of workers from the world of decaying capitalism, here sounded very long calls CPSU holiday and party leaders to talk in a language that no one ever talked out of the stands. With a minimum weight of newspapers consume information: normal style - reading only the last page (culture and sports news, satires). Similarly, the TV worked, people are going to have a screen to view rare films, news, and sports scores. Numerous copies produced works of the classics of Marxism-Leninism, we read a very narrow range of social scientists, and very selectively - in preparing students for seminars and exams. Circulations in the hundreds of thousands of Soviet authors published, credible party. And read them, because there was no choice. Thus, the proposal did not meet the massive counter-mass demand.

Only with the lifting of censorship and the emergence of private producers of cultural products of the hunt for the customer, based on the desire to offer him any bait that can only prividetsya in the most secret fantasies. Pornography, thriller, action, soaps flooded the market and met mutual customers. There arose one of the most profitable businesses where profit goes to the one who managed to catch the consumer, offering him a bright and colorful pictures of his fantasies and fears

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