Black Diamonds And Traditions Cultural Studies Essay

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Are successful black people, referred to as Black Diamonds, playing a significant role in promoting tribal customs and values, such as Ubuntu, to the black youth born after 1990?

"In fact, the reason many rich people are rich is not because of desire but because of fear. They actually think that money can eliminate that fear of not having money, of not being poor, so they amass tons of it only to find out the fear gets worse (Kiyosaki & Letcher, 2000)." This from the well-known self-help book, Rich Dad, Poor Dad, prompted me to research the topic of new money, particularly with regards to Black Diamonds in South Africa.

The term black Diamond have been coined to describe the lifestyles of many South African people, especially the upper middle-class group, who have worked their way from nothing to something, thus being seen as having new money because they have not always had the access to the wealth they now possess; whether from being an entrepreneur or living out a passion in the media industry. Many Black Diamonds have also benefitted from BEE /BBBEE and tribal networking within the career field.

The term Black Diamond refers to any Black person who has come from modest beginnings to having accumulated wealth in a successful career. Many Black Diamonds, such as Patrice Motsepe and Tokyo Sexwale can be labelled as having positive influences on the youth, while others like Kenny Kunene can be seen as having a negative influence on the youth.

With this in mind, I am curious to find out if most Black Diamonds still see it as an important to practise or still want to subscribe to tribal customs taught to them by their elders or if the westernised lifestyle has made them sacrifice some of their beliefs and customs. Many Black Diamonds could play a significant role in encouraging the black youth to flourish in terms of education and having a future; they could also play that same role in promoting tribal customs and beliefs to the black youth born after 1990.

There are many stories in the media of immorality, for example, drug and alcohol abuse, within the Black Diamond group. These behaviours, which have been seen as taboo by the traditional customs of the various tribal communities in South Africa, have now been sidelined and replaced with the norms of an urbanised lifestyle.

With this research task, I aim to explore the following; how the positive and negative influences of Black Diamonds, as portrayed in the media, can affect us black youth, get a better view of the black youth, especially those born after 1990 and their opinion about having to continue with tribal customs, like Ubuntu, in this new westernised society and to study the lifestyles of the Black Diamond group to see if their lifestyles are being greatly influenced by the westernised society.

Review of Literature

The content of the online article, The Mysterious Majority, is based on the consumer habits of South African people, especially those of black people who seem to be emerging in terms of wealth. This new group, mostly upper-middle class, is known as the Black Diamonds. They are being scrutinised for their lavish spending habits and their contribution to the consumer market. One of the aims of the research is to study the habits of the Black Diamond group and see if their lifestyles are being greatly influenced by the westernised lifestyles.

The article also makes a valid point in saying that it is not really known who would qualify as a Black Diamond and why they have this label placed upon them. It is suggested that one of the reasons why there is such a stereotype is because of the Black Diamonds group's wealth and lifestyle (Graeme Addison, 2007). A standard definition of a Black Diamond is given in an article, SA's 'Black diamonds' grow by 30% in a year. The definition states that this group of black South Africans is categorised according to their wealth and suitable occupations (i.e. where they earn R7000 or more). The black South Africans in this group are "well-educated" and "credit-worthy" and are able to buy and own their assets, e.g. vehicles and homes.

The Black Diamond group holds a third of South Africa's buying power. It is suggested that this group is only superior because of their emerging economic power; nothing is mentioned about their superiority in any tribal customs and values like Ubuntu.

When saying that a black South African is living like a Black Diamond, it can be seen that a void is created between maintaining a lifestyle that they have become accustomed to, because of the new money that they have acquired, versus the lifestyles of the more grounded and once-cherished tribal culture. This may be an indication that it is not easy to have a balance between the two lifestyles when you are a Black Diamond. Despite many black people still moving up in terms of wealth, there are still increasing unemployment rates among black people in South Africa. The few that are succeeding are flourishing while over the millions are unemployed and impoverished (Le Roux, 2007).

The infamous Kenny Kunene is known for his controversial lifestyle. Based on his lifestyle, as portrayed in the media, Kenny can be viewed as a negative influence to the black youth; he spent six years in jail for fraud. From the episode, KK, the sushi king¸ one can question whether he still practises tribal customs as a new-found business man or if he has succumbed to the ways of someone who has new money and is not afraid of spending it lavishly.

In the episode, KK, the sushi king, Kunene was not shy to give his view on the Black Diamond term. He says that there is a certain mentality that when a black person becomes successful, a title must be given to that person for their hard work and success. In turn, this is suggesting that black people are meant to be poor or less fortunate and when they have made it, they deserve a title but not necessarily the recognition that they deserve (Summers, 2011).

In the article, Young, Black and Wasted, a growing problem among black South Africans is explored. Drug-abuse, especially of cocaine, has become 'accepted' into the lifestyles of Black Diamonds. Black people that fall into this category of hard partying, drug and alcohol abuse, find themselves at a crossroads because they seem to have forgotten the morals and values that have been taught to them from either their parents and more specifically from their African culture. They have succumbed to the lifestyle that appears to be glitzy because of all the money that they have, it is not a problem for them to spend it on this lifestyle of substance abuse and the money actually creates a perfect image that blocks out everything else that they may have learnt over the years when accumulating that money- even before that, when they did not have that money (Mogoatlhe, 2011).

In the article, Can Money Buy You Class?, the basic term of new money and old money is explored and how many people, who fall under the new money category, tend to spend more than actually save their money, leading to debt. Middle class people, particularly Black Diamonds will do anything to maintain an extravagant lifestyle because it has become such an important factor in their lives (Motloung, 2011).

3rd Degree recently had an episode on Izikhotane, teenagers who dress in expensive clothes and indulge in expensive alcohol; some of the teenagers are not even 18 yet and come from struggling homes. The teenagers can spend up to R900 on an outfit and in the episode on 3rd Degree; one member of the "Skhotane" group actually tore money up in front of an onlooker. The Skhotanes mentioned that their role models were Black Diamonds like Kenny Kunene and Khanyi Mbau; while they criticised black people with degrees because they "struggle like everyone else" and thus won't consider them as role models. The most frightening thing about this growing trend among township teenagers is that many teenagers have committed suicide due to the fact that they could not keep up with the trends and demands of being a Skhotane.

The similarities between Can Money Buy You Class? and this source is how the Black Diamond group and this group of teenagers, who come from struggling homes, tend to make it a priority to maintain an extravagant lifestyle no matter what the financial circumstances. The Skhotanes make up a small fraction of the black youth that is not practising the custom of Ubuntu and other tribal customs; instead they have succumbed to spending their parents' money to buy expensive clothes and doing things like burning money in front of onlookers. (WordPress.com, 2012)

Tokyo Sexwale is a former Robben Island prisoner that has become an established businessman and politician. He is seen as a positive role model and symbol for many Black people, especially the youth. Sexwale is one of the wealthiest men in South Africa and has even hosted the South African version of Donald Trump's The Apprentice.

In his younger days, he served as a member of Steve Biko's Black Consciousness movement and he later joined the African National Congress' armed wing. In 1975, Sexwale went into exile to the, then, Soviet Union and underwent military training. A year later, he was convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the government on returning to South Africa; he was sentenced to eighteen years imprisonment on Robben Island. Since being released in 1990, Sexwale has been 43rd in a list of top 100 great South Africans, back in 2004, and he won 2001's "best name in the world" prize (Guardian News, 2012). Tokyo Sexwale can be labelled as a positive Black Diamond because he has managed to show Ubuntu, throughout the years, in his work and the way he has given back to the black communities; as depicted in the online article, Sexwale hands over rental houses, he has been involved in many projects, one being handing over one hundred new houses for rental in Tlokwe in the North West province (Independent Online, 2012). In an online report, Minister Tokyo Sexwale hands over 56 women built houses, Sexwale also contributed to celebrating women's month this year by getting involved in a project that saw over eighty women building fifty-six homes in a community settlement in KZN (GCIS, 2012).

Methodology

Will be using mixed research methods to add value to my research task. These methods include qualitative (secondary) and quantitative (primary) research will be used to meet the aims set out in my research task.

Secondary research:

With the secondary research, sources pertaining to Black Diamonds and their lifestyles were collected and analysed. Many internet, television programme and newspaper sources that gave me an opportunity to create a definition of what a Black Diamond is and to analyse lifestyles of Black Diamonds and how these lifestyles have or have not influenced this group traditionally and ethically. My knowledge of a Black Diamond was restricted to what I have seen in the media and the sources that I chose helped reflect on the possible reasons as to why this stereotype exists and the people that fall into it. Since the topic of Black Diamonds is a current one, the internet, television programmes and newspaper sources were best to be used because they allowed for more analysis and reliable and relevant information to be used during the research; it was also easier to compare the sources because they were more relatable to each other and I could establish information in such a way that could help me reach the aims for the research task.

The information collected helped me design a broad questionnaire where I also included the analysis of a positive and a negative Black Diamond to get a good reflection of the black youth's opinion and to determine whether the positive and/or the negative Black Diamond could be any of the participants' role models. Some of the sources also helped me gain a better perspective of the various reasons for black people, specifically in the Black Diamond group, not keeping to traditional customs and morals in the westernised society. I was able to analyse people's answers in the questionnaire in order get a better understanding of the various aims for the research.

Primary research:

Primary research was done in the form of questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of qualitative, open-ended questions, and quantitative, yes/no questions to gain insight into the black youth's knowledge about specific Black Diamond role-models and their opinions on matters relating to the Black Diamonds' lifestyle in relation to tribal customs and values, specifically Ubuntu. The quantitative questions were used in order to determine if there was a general trend in opinions throughout the questionnaires to see if they could help with my aims for the research. The open-ended questions were merely used to get different opinions and a broadened perspective on the topic in order to enrich the research task and enhance the research done to determine if the aims of the research task could be reached. All the questions in the questionnaire were designed to break-down the focus question into the different sections that needed to be explored in the research being conducted, i.e. the influences of positive and negative Black Diamonds and Black Diamonds in general and the tribal customs and beliefs, specifically Ubuntu, that could or could not play a role in the black youth's, born after 1990, lives.

The sample size chosen was twenty people because it reflected a broader representation and interpretation of results, especially if there were similarities or differences in answers to the opinion-based questions. The demographic was black youth aged 17-25 from public and private high schools and universities in around Pretoria; especially those born after 1990. Participants born after 1990 were specifically chosen because they fall under the post-apartheid generation and their opinion about having to continue with tribal customs (if any) in this new westernised society would be of more relevance in this research task because their answers would be compared to the primary research conducted on the Black Diamond group, born before 1990, and thus the demographic chosen for the questionnaire was best-suited for the aims of the research, being how the positive and negative influences of Black Diamonds, as portrayed in the media, can affect us black youth, to get a better view of the black youth, especially those born after 1990 and their opinion about having to continue with tribal customs, like Ubuntu, in this new westernised society and finally to study the lifestyles of the Black Diamond group to see if their lifestyles are being greatly influenced by the westernised society.

Example of Questionnaire:

Age:

Circle your answer:

Private school /Public school / University:

Are you familiar with the term Black Diamond and what is your understanding of this term?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Do you consider your parents Black Diamonds?

YES

NO

If ticked yes, why?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Have you ever been judged for the way you act as a "coconut" or as ghetto and by whom? How did it make you feel?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

In your household, do you practise any tribal customs and if not, does it bother you that you don't?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

If you do, what tribal customs do you practise and who taught them to you and is carrying them through? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Do you know who Kenny Kunene is?

YES

NO

If ticked yes, what are your views on Kenny Kunene and his lifestyle?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Do you know who Tokyo Sexwale is?

YES

NO

If ticked yes, what are your views on Tokyo Sexwale and his lifestyle?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

With the previous two questions in mind, which lifestyle between Tokyo Sexwale's and Kenny Kunene's appeals more to you and why?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What is your opinion on the way the media perceives the above-mentioned Black Diamonds?

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Processing of Findings

The questionnaire consisted of nine questions and I chose to use two methods in the processing of findings because it consisted of both contextual and quantitative questions. With regards to the quantitative questions, there were only four and I chose to reflect the answers in the form of tables and bar graphs because from the tables and bar graphs, it would be easiest to determine relationships between the different groups in the demographic and see if there are any similarities or differences in the opinions that they have on the questions; a relationship in answers or a general trend could also be established with the table and bar graph. The rest of the questions were contextual questions, thus many opinions had to be analysed and interpreted and I chose to process these opinions in paragraphs in a discursive manner in order to reflect broadly on the different opinions gathered conducted in the research and to process in a way that is suitable to reach the aims of the research.

Questionnaire results:

Are you familiar with the term Black Diamond?

Public school

Private school

University

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

3

3

7

3

3

0

Seven out of ten of the teenagers from private schools were familiar with the term, Black Diamond while only three of the six of the teenagers from public schools were familiar with the term. All three of the university students were familiar with the term Black Diamond.

Do you consider your parents Black Diamonds?

Public school

Private school

University

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

3

3

5

5

1

2

Five out the ten teenagers from private schools considered their parents to be black Diamonds and these five teenagers made up the seven who knew what the term Black Diamond meant. Only three of the six teenagers from public schools considered their parents to be Black Diamonds while one of the three university students answered yes.

Do you know who Kenny Kunene is?

Public school

Private school

University

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

5

1

10

1

3

0

Majority, eighteen out of the twenty people, knew who Kenny Kunene was.

Do you know who Tokyo Sexwale is?

Public school

Private school

University

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

5

1

8

3

3

0

Only four people, out of the twenty asked, did not know who Tokyo Sexwale was.

When analysing the last two graphs, I looked into how a tribal custom, Ubuntu, fits into the example of a negative Black Diamond, Kenny Kunene and a positive Black Diamond, Tokyo Sexwale.

Ubuntu Definition:

Ubuntu is an ancient African term that means humanity and showing humanity unto others. It also means "I am who I am because of who we all are" (Canonical Ltd., 2010) (direct quotation).

When referring back to the sources, KK, the sushi king (Summers, 2011) and the article on Tokyo Sexwale (Guardian News, 2012), the observation can be made that the majority of the respondents knew about Kenny Kunene and Tokyo Sexwale. Many knew of Kunene not because of his tribal customs and beliefs, particularly Ubuntu, but because of his choice of lifestyle, as portrayed in the media. Kunene's lavish lifestyle can be argued as showing little or no signs of Ubuntu - lifestyle of clubbing, alcohol and expensive cars.

Tokyo Sexwale's humanity and sense of Ubuntu has been shown in the media with regards to him being a political leader and a selfless businessman. In the report, Minister Tokyo Sexwale hands over 56 women built houses, it was reported that Sexwale was involved in a project aimed to uplift women and help women of a community, build houses (GCIS, 2012). The media portrays more positive aspects of Sexwale, rather than negative stories about him. Sexwale can thus be labelled as a positive Black Diamond because he is selfless, gives back to the community and his work allows him to have a responsibility to take care of communities and give back, just like how he was able to give back when he handed over one hundred houses to a community (Independent Online, 2012).

Discussion of qualitative data in questionnaire:

Overall responses:

There were ten out of sixteen teenagers who had an understanding of the term, Black Diamond. One of the teenagers asked, said that they understood the term to be when a black person uses connections to become successful, for example, BEE, nepotism or tenders and the other teenager understood it to be a young black person who is successful or wealthy and lives a westernised lifestyle. From one of the sources in the Review of Literature, SA's 'Black diamonds' grow by 30% in a year, the standard definition of a Black Diamond was given: A group of black South Africans categorised according to their wealth and suitable occupations. When compared to the answer that the teenagers gave, most of them who knew what a Black Diamond was, seemed to have a general perception of just a successful black person who lives a lavish lifestyle.

Some of the teenagers said that they considered their parents as Black Diamonds because of their parents' occupations and their shared ownership in private companies. They also said that their parents were successful and owned their own houses and cars, thus they viewed them as Black Diamonds.

When the university students were asked about their understanding of the term Black Diamond, the responses were quite detailed; one of the responses was that "Black Diamonds are part of the Black population usually between ages 25 and 40 who are in a corporate environment or have their own businesses and are earning at least a six-figure salary; aspire to a glamorous lifestyle be it expensive cars, clothing etc." Another university student's answer was "it refers to South Africa's emerging, influential Black middle class. There was a study conducted between 2006 and 2007, during a period where the Black middle class grew by 30%, and following that, there was a lot of talk and focus on the Black middle class. It was mainly an economic focus as the Black middle class were contributing a large amount to South Africa's economy. There was an increase in spending and an upgrade in lifestyles, which was followed by several studies about this influential group. Market research was done to ensure that this Black middle class was targeted into continuing to grow and spend more, resulting in a more flourishing economy. It's a very broad, interesting topic as the Black middle class were treated like a new species that had to be dissected and understood." This answer can be linked back to the source, The Mysterious Majority, where the spending habits of Black Diamonds were analysed and also the source, SA's 'Black diamonds' grow by 30% in a year, where a standard definition of a Black Diamond was given and the economic involvement of the Black Diamond group was analysed, particularly with reference to the 30% growth this group held in the economy. The answers given by the university students were more detailed, describing the foundation of how the term Black Diamond came about and why. It can be said that the university students have a better understanding of what a Black Diamond is, compared to the younger teenagers in the study.

The question on whether they have ever been judged as being a coconut or ghetto had very similar responses; most people wrote that they were judged by people as being a coconut because they speak English more than they speak other African languages. They have been criticised, by both white and black people, for not being "in touch with their roots" and for not upholding certain traditions. When asked how they felt about this, they said that they were upset and they felt somewhat "westernised" and judged for being in a certain environment that does not necessarily allow for tribal customs and morals to play a dominant role in relationships.

Some of them described how they are judged on the way they dress, where they live and the possessions that they own. One of the responses was "it really upsets me that people haven't emancipated their minds from these stereotypes about black people and the continued use of these terms (like coconut) will never see Blacks liberated from the stigmas they seem to create themselves." Of the five people questioned from public schools, only one of them has ever been judged for being ghetto by some of their friends from private schools and it made the person feel annoyed because the friends from the private schools are actually black too. When the black youth call each other names and judge each other based on how they act and speak, the custom of Ubuntu is not portrayed because discrimination is taking place. There seems to be hostility within black youth that live in certain areas, i.e. urban areas versus rural areas.

The general response is that many of the people asked do not practise tribal customs in their households and it does not really bother them. Some people answered that the only thing that matters is that their family is Christian and thus many tribal customs go against the Bible, where it does not allow for ancestor-related customs to be practised. Another person said that they would only like to know more about tribal customs but not really practise them, themselves. Quite a few people said that the only tribal custom that they practise in their family is that of lobola, when someone is getting married, something passed down from the older generation, particularly grandparents.

With regards to Kenny Kunene and Tokyo Sexwale, they answered that Kenny Kunene tends to be the "perfect example of a product of new money" because of the lifestyle he leads, as portrayed in the media. One answer was that Kenny Kunene reminded the student of a cartoon character because he is forever saying embarrassing things. According to the answers, Tokyo Sexwale appears to be more humble and leads a more "dignified" lifestyle"; he also plays a more important role in the humanity of the country as a political figure. To quote an answer, "Tokyo's steps are more calculated. Kenny lives like he's dying tomorrow". One of the teenagers felt that Kenny Kunene's lifestyle was more appealing because of the "fast life" he lives and it is a lifestyle that the teenager actually wanted to lead one day; this answer can be compared to how the Skhotane group, as mentioned in Izikhotane, see Kenny Kunene as a role model and how they aspire to be like him one day, regardless of all the negative publicity he tends to get. Tokyo Sexwale is an example of someone who carries through the message of Ubuntu and can be seen as more of a positive Black Diamond role-model than Kenny Kunene who is more of a negative Black Diamond role-model and someone who the teenagers and students saw as a person who cares too much about money and not enough about humanity.

When asked about how the media portrays Black Diamonds, many said that the media portrays Black Diamonds in a stereotypical light because they usually get more media attention for scandals rather than goodwill. Some said that the media should also acknowledge Black Diamonds for doing good, for example, giving back, instead of focusing on the bad that they may or may not do. There could be many Black Diamonds that actually practise Ubuntu but the media will not take the time for the black youth to acknowledge that. One answer that really summed this up as: "I think that the media portrays the Black Diamonds as specimens. It is as if we are one big experiment. They try to see how much more credit they can promote amongst us, what else they can get us to buy etc. It is all very interesting. We are being watched as we grow and come into our own after years of oppression. It is all very exciting because the stronger the Black Diamonds the more educated we will become through our children and their children. The country will be in a much better position in future. However the gap between middle and lower class must be bridged as well. Black Diamonds cannot leave the rest behind."

It can be established that the black youth does not really think about how tribal customs and values impact their lives in today's westernised society and how neither a positive nor a negative Black Diamond can play a role in the decision that the black youth makes in honouring their tribal customs and values. It is up to the individual to decide if it is practical for them to be practising tribal customs and values in the environment that they are in. The media plays a significant role in the way many of the black youth view Black Diamonds. The media also plays a huge role in the way that it portrays the term Black Diamond, as a way of stereotyping successful black people, but the media does little to acknowledge Black Diamonds who practise their tribal customs and values, particularly Ubuntu.

One respondent's answers to the first two questions in the questionnaire were disregarded because the answers were not valid; the person did not understand the question well enough to give distinct answers that could be used for valid processing. This was a problem because I would have liked to have had a broader view of what the respondent's thoughts were on the two answers and disregarding the questions made a small impact in getting a fair representation of results for those questions.

Conclusion

To conclude, I used both primary and secondary research to help me answer my focus question: are successful black people, referred to as Black Diamonds, playing a significant role in promoting tribal customs and values, such as Ubuntu, to the black youth born after 1990?

With regards to my focus question, I was able to ascertain that although there are some Black Diamonds, particularly positive ones like Tokyo Sexwale, who can promote tribal customs and values, like Ubuntu, to the black youth born after 1990, there seems to be little significance for the tribal customs and beliefs to the black youth born after 1990. The first aim of the research was to explore how the positive and negative influences of Black Diamonds, as portrayed in the media, can affect us black youth. The media plays a huge role in the way the black youth born after 1990 view Black Diamonds and their role in society; with the primary research it was depicted that the media tends to focus more on the negative aspects of Black Diamonds and highlight more of the negative Black Diamonds, like Kenny Kunene. When comparing Kenny Kunene and Tokyo Sexwale, it can be concluded that Kunene gets more media coverage than Sexwale and that is because his lifestyle tends to be more alluring for the media to focus on, i.e. partying and spending money on alcohol and clothes. Both Kunene and Sexwale can be seen as role models for the black youth born after 1990, particularly Kunene who is a role model for some of the teenagers referred to as Skhothanes but both of them do very little to promote tribal customs and values such as Ubuntu. Sexwale does however, portray some aspects of Ubuntu through his work as Minister of Human Settlements, yet both he, Kenny Kunene and all Black Diamonds alike can actually do more to promote tribal customs and beliefs, especially through the way they are shown through the media.

The second aim was to get a better view of the black youth, especially those born after 1990, and their opinion about having to continue with tribal customs, like Ubuntu, in this new westernised society. From the secondary research, it is clear that the majority of the black youth do not feel that it is necessary to continue practising tribal customs and beliefs in a westernised environment but some do have an interest to know about some of the tribal customs and beliefs. I felt as though there were not enough people in the demographic of the questionnaire to help me sum up a fair conclusion to this aim; twenty people were involved in answering questionnaires but there was no clear balance between the people from public schools, private schools and universities and this could have ultimately affected the conclusions reached for this research task. I think that if I could do things differently, I would have included more people in the answering of the questionnaires and also included an interview with a teenager from a village who did not live in a westernised society to get a comparison in opinions between the youth who do live in westernised areas and those who do not.

The third aim of the research task was to study the lifestyles of the Black Diamond group to see if their lifestyles are being greatly influenced by the westernised society. An interview with an example of a Black Diamond had to be cancelled, due to clashes in dates. This interview could have given a better perspective into the topic because the opinions would have come from someone who has experienced being labelled a Black Diamond, first-hand, and their opinions on tribal customs and values in their households would have provided a better referencing to the opinions obtained from the black youth when they answered the questionnaire, thus enhancing the results for the research. I had to rely only on the primary research to get a better understanding of the lifestyles of Black Diamonds and then compare this to the opinions reflected in the questionnaires.

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