Belief And Faith In Organisations Cultural Studies Essay

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Believe and Faith of a group is culture. It is a word that is common and is relevantly known to almost every individual in the world. It can be both spoken about openly and defined clearly or it can be just understood mutually, that is, without saying anything but can be depicted from the mere works of an individual, group or even an organisation. It is something that is present in every aspect of our lives. In other words, it is the reason behind a person's behaviour. However, culture can come out in various contexts such as organisational culture and ethnic culture. It is a creation and worthy of worship. There are five dimensions of this culture: Power Distance, Uncertainity avoidance, Individual & Collective and Masculity & Ferminity.

Organisational culture can be defined as the systematic way of doing things in an organisation whereby beliefs and values that are developed within the organisation is shared. Thus, the culture guides the behaviour of the individuals in the organisation. It is also called corporate culture and is a key aspect of any organisation or work setting. Many at times we hear people make statements such as: "This is the way we do things here". They are in fact talking or reflecting about the culture. For types of Organisation cultures are Corperative, Adaptive, Competitive and Bureaucratic.

Notes from Lecture Handouts

Some Notes and Knowledge from Organisation Management.

Ethnic culture is the way people behave according to what they have learned from their family or society. This is normally based on the race the person hails from or the country that he or she is from. It involves doing certain things while abhorring the other and focusing on certain ways that the things are done. Different cultures have got different perceptions of viewing things. Something that may be taken lightly or as normal in one ethnic culture may be considered to be as high disregard in the other. For example, the concept of marriage in the Western culture and the Asian culture differs from each other. It is a common thing for a couple to live together without getting married in the Western culture. However, in the Asian culture (mainly Indian) it is a great sin to do such thing and it also shows disrespect for the values laid out for them.

Finding the difference between these two cultures is that in Organisational culture CHANGE can take place easily and often. For example, if a kiwi manager of the company changes, it is likely that the way things are done in that organisation may also change according to the new manager.

Organisational culture is created by the owner of the organisation/company itself and the people who are working with him.

Organisational culture duration depends upon the working and the stability of that particular company and their management.

Organisational culture has a timely boundation/attachment with the individuals working with them.

Whilst the change in the Ethnic culture is not a common thing that would happen regularly. Even if there is a change, it would take into many other things into account before the actual decision is made.

Ethnic culture is created by group of peoples/society sharing same views and ideas from past number of years.

Ethnic culture duration generally are from glorious past of fore fathers.

Ethnic culture have very close heartedly attachment with the individuals of that society.

Ethnic culture works on the idea from the heritage and religious.

Ethnic culture has less flexibility as it is strictly static and non changeable culture.

Ethnic culture has number of variety and diversity in terms of food, clothes, thinking.

Ethnic culture support is limited for the people who try to change themselves according to the situation.

Schein, E.H. (1985-2005) Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd Ed., Jossey-Bass ISBN 0-7879-7597-4

Lecture handouts by Mona

Some Notes and Knowledge from Organisation Management.

(ii) Leadership Culture - Explain how cultural perceptions may influence the leadership style and behaviour of the individual or organisation??

The leadership example that I have chosen for the following 2 questions, is that of my Manager. He originates from the Australia and recently moved to New Zealand.


It is a very common thing to hear someone say: "No individual is the same". A lot of times this phrase is used to make people realise that each person has different abilities and that it would not be wise to compare oneself with the other individual just to be discouraged by certain things that one cannot perform while the other can. Thus, even a person's perception differs from each other. Perception is defined as the process through which people receive, organise and interpret information from the environment.

A number of factors contribute to people having different perceptive. For instance, the country they come from, the family values that they received, the environment or the society they grew up in, the level of education received and so forth. Since culture is associated with the behaviour of an individual, it is very likely that there is a high influence of how an individual views things and carry out things that may differ from the other person.

Since culture is evident in every aspect of our lives, it no doubt plays a vital role in the professional field. The leadership style of my Manager very much depicts his cultural background. As mentioned earlier he comes from Australia, and the culture there is quite different from my own culture. After having a conversation with him about his upbringing and culture, it is very clear to me that his leadership style reflects highly on that. As an individual, he takes his job seriously and strives to accomplish his role as a manager. However, he does not give high regard to his position all the time. Most of the time, he jokes with his employees, whether it's about work or some other topics. He believes that working in an organisation is like a family, where each individual should be free to express themselves.

Based on his culture, providing for his family's needs is very important and that just does not mean buying them the necessities but at the same time taking out quality time to spend with them. Thus when the office hours are over he asks everyone to leave the premises and leave the remaining job for the next day.

It can be concluded that, his leadership role reflects his cultural perception.

( Lecture handouts by Mona )

Some Notes and Knowledge from Organisation Management.


The leadership style of my Manager certainly does impress me, especially the way he relates to his staff and the fact that he is very approachable. However, being from a totally different culture, my approach would be quite different. While I would appreciate to have the easiness between me and my staff, I would at the same time expect that they know and respect the position that I have in the company. This very much reflects from my cultural background from my maternal side of the family, where we follow the chiefly arrangement and every individual appreciates and respects their higher authorities.

However, that does not mean that this approach requires recognition all the time but often being lenient with the staff causes some problem later on when some of them tend to disregard their freedom. Like most of the cultures, providing for the families needs is very important in my culture. In a slightly different context from my manager's culture, our belief is to get the work done as soon as possible and not to leave today's work for tomorrow. Therefore, hard work is determined through the person's attitude towards his job, making a way for their appraisal or promotion. Commitment is something of high regard and is appreciated at all levels and aspects of the working field. As an Indian, I learned that Australian are more sensitive and they welcome the approach which comes straight to them which means they relate you from the position of equality rather than position of cultural superiority

While having a friendly conversation with the staff is helpful to gain their respect and appreciation, it is often encouraged not to make it a habit whereby one forgets to pay respect to the ones they are subjected to.

For example, being a manager and often involving yourself in jokes during work hours would not sound ethical. The reasons behind this are justified from my perception. There may be certain people who might get offended by this fact and they may start to alienate themselves from others and conclude that they do not fit in the organisation.

Thus, my approach would certainly differ from that of my manager due to our different cultural perceptions. As I am an indian and he is an Australian.

( Lecture handouts by Mona )

Some Notes and Knowledge from Organisation Management.

PART III - Multicultural organisation

Every organisation is made up of people. People, who are unique individuals, come from different cultural backgrounds and have different perceptions for different things. A term that is commonly used in describing organisations is "multicultural organisation". The word diversity is often linked to this term. Diversity is a term used to describe the difference among people at work and this could be based on the race, age, gender, experience and so forth.

Multicultural organisation refers to the presence of different cultures in an organisation. Some of the characteristics of a multi cultural organisation are:

Pluralism- Members of all cultures, whether minority or majority have the power to influence the setting of key values and policies.

Structural integration- members from the minority-culture are fairly represented in all jobs at all levels and in all functional responsibilities.

Informal network integration- minority-culture members are given assistance in the career development in forms of mentoring and support groups.

Absence of prejudice and discrimination- the need to eliminate the culture-group biases by using a variety of training and task force activities.

Minimum inter-group conflict- diversity does not promote destructive conflicts between members of majority and minority cultures.

There are many advantages and also disadvantages of being a leader in a multi cultural organisation.


Adopting customs, culture and tradition - It helps one to handle the conflicts between home culture/traditions and new culture/traditions. If one learns new language it's a master key for the second culture.

Creative problem solving - It helps one to create solution to a problem. If one is solving problem the solution should either have value, clearly solve the stated problem or appreciated by someone for whom the situation improves.


Conflict rises - Being a leader and working with people from diverse locations can create conflict. Situation arises were the fellow people tries and are not ready to accept the commands or are ready with different ideas and views.

interpersonal problem - We all have experienced Interpersonal problems at some stage in our life strained relationships can be difficult to manage. Our self-esteem and confidence is affected in this way, it can make managing life change difficult and contribute to already poor communication skills.

Management handling difficulties - Being a leader its one of the hard task because you have so many people working with you from different cultures, behaviors, attributes and age. So at one stage one feels to work till it tends to be worst or he prepare the guidelines which others has to follow if they need to survive in that organization. Certain thing like forecasting and planning, analysis of risks, uncertainty and competitive tendering are to be managed.

Lecture handouts by Mona

Some Notes and Knowledge from Organisation Management.