Beauty Of A Geisha Dress Cultural Studies Essay

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Elaborate clothing, including the exaggerated beauty of a geisha dress and the complexity of the samurai armour has a long history in Japan. Pattern, colour and layers of garments were used to indicate wealth and social status. The average perception of Japanese people towards its fashion was traditional kimono culture which was avant-garde and an unconventional medium which propped up later, made an immediate reaction of being adventurous, bright and colourful. The whole point of this fashion evolution was that they thought that the western modes of dressing were too drab and limited for their tastes.

When you look at JAPAN from the outside it seems that every segment of it is organized an each and every sector has its own clean and crisp variations. The people of this country believe in the art of presenting each and every thing on their palette. They are people who want a huge variety in the layout they are exposed to and there is a uniformity and neatness to everything they do. They have a very strong and important fashion history not known to many of us. To me, Japan was made imaginable through designers like Rei Kawakubo, Issey Miyake and Yohji Yamamoto and Kenzo. These were the designers we saw from the outer lens of the globe and gave us the insights of how the Japanese people thought. All these designers have created an image about Japan in the minds of the entire world. Japanese fashion has been highly praised for its aptitude to challenge fashion conventions and embrace technology to a point that takes them ahead. They succeeded in creating an image of Japan as being edgy, classy and technical in terms of fashion. It was the impact of Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto's collaborative hard work in the catwalk shows during the early 1980s that really created a powerful consciousness of Japanese fashion in the world. Kawakubo and Yamamoto's garments were characterised by an epitome of intentional flaws, a monochrome palette, exaggerated proportions, drapes, asymmetrical and androgynous styling.

The power dressing as well as the fantastical gowns that were created by these designers were nowhere in comparison with the shabby looks of the models. The models looked plainer and just became a medium for showcasing clothes rather than being known for their beautiful faces. This formed a whole new perception of Japan in the eyes of the world which these two designers had been aiming for. The art of Wabi- Sabi, which is defined as beauty in imperfection and the traditional kimonos played a very significant role in their creations.. Initially the response to these Japanese designs was hostile and derisory but within a few years the new aesthetic came to have a major influence on mainstream fashion.

The new generation designers include Junya Watanabe, Jun Takahashi, Kosuke Tsumura and Hiroaki Ohya who used technically advanced fabrics, craftsmanship and great skills of innovation. The use of pleats, layering of garments, using eclectic colours and forms of patterns were the key factors that these new generation designers gained popularity for.

Japan is also known for its cultural presence and there are a lot of sub cultures residing within the country which have been a source of inspiration from the west but the depiction is totally Japanese by style. These famous cultures are yet to be touched by the rest of the world in a full form. There have been designers in the young generation who have tried to take the sub cultures on a global platform like the hello kitty and the over the top dressing but there is much more about the street to be unravelled. The earlier designers like the ones I mentioned above were just trying to bring out Japan to the world as Japan seemed to be unknown to most side of the west or rather I would just say that they were not taken seriously! It is wonderful to see the difference between the fashions of these renowned designers and the fashions growing at the street level. The designers were very much involved in creating a simple and structured image for the Japanese fashion. People perceived Japanese fashion in a way that these designers portrayed it to be. The country has moved fast in terms of fashion, technology and adaptations.

On one side when I perceive their lifestyle and fashion which run on the grounds of being simple, edgy, and classy and in a systematic way, there is yet another side of this same country which exists predominantly in their hearts- in their streets. There is a huge contrast in the fashion that exists in Japan which either makes you love their simplicity or their stark colour combinations or you either would love their over the top dressing or their cute fashion. Either of the one you like, you seem to fit in or I might just say that you are Japanese by heart!

Japan as every other country, has a lot of fashionable youth who brings out the essence of their streets in the clothing they adorn. Japanese youth adheres to the traditional looks which are made classic by their earlier generations but in a more of a contemporary version. The youth in Japan has been serious about what they wear and how they look. Each one has their own identity which accounts for a strong presence among peers. A very recent survey said that the Japanese youth have always been pressurized during their school and childhood day to study as passing in studies in Japan is a huge deal and it does not come easily to them. The youth therefore when they grow older they indulge themselves in being in a fantasy world of games and animation (as Japan is known for being a technology savvy country). The Manga anime is the most common and famous among the youth when it comes to gaming and their caricatures have a strong existence and influence in Japan. Even their dressing up in a certain manner is the result of their being under constant pressure during childhood and ultimately showcasing their freedom in their youth days.

The youth has a very powerful presence in the Japanese fashion world. They want to portray themselves as being powerful, wild and quirky with a different approach towards fashion. There is a section of youth in Japan who also believes in shopping for only branded products but the major part of the youth follow sub cultures like Lolita, gothic-Lolita, kawaaii fashion, manga anime, Harajuku fashion, Cosplay etc.

On Harajuku streets.

The Harajuku scene put Tokyo on the world's fashion map alongside London, Paris, New York and Milan. Harajuku Street is a one square mile long street that is like a heaven within the city of Tokyo. It has therefore become the epicentre of fashion and current styles for youth in the city.

There is a corner within the Harajuku street known as the Omotesando and Meji-dori corner, which practically offers a mesmerizing palette of silhouettes, colours, textures and labels. This street is crowded by aggressively stylized, aggressively accessorized and unapologetically restless youth who think that there is no other way to dress than like them.

On entering Harajuku Street zone would make one feel that you have entered in an outer space arena with different costumes all over the place. The street is believed to be a melting pot of the amalgamation of fashion, youth and shopping. The Japanese fashion magazines like cutie and fruits have widely reported of the Harajuku street fashion and constantly talks about the inherent culture that is ubiquitous on the street.

Harajuku Street has been a spot for domestic audience to come into contact with foreign culture and style but these days it's totally the opposite since the foreigners are highly getting influenced by the Harajuku fashion. There have been a lot of influences of foreign culture on Harajuku, like one of the major one being the i-D magazine. This magazine was a melange of club, culture, bands, DJ's and the reaction of people on the streets. It has been a huge inspiration to the Japanese magazine named cutie which rose to existence after the i-D magazine.

In the early 1960s the street of Harajuku was a site of the US military residencies and shops. But in the later half it acted as a ground for the Japanese youth who came there often with different fashion adornments. The youth who would come there had an urge to counterfeit something that was incredibly new. The first generation designers in Japan worked from scratch through which created a new business model which later be formed as a base for any new comer in the industry of fashion.

By the beginning of 80s which was an economic boom period, people started spending lavishly on consumer goods. This healthy consumer economy was needed to develop the designers and brands that were just starting or rather booming.

Though the Japanese culture holds a strong adherence to the tradition, Harajuku is exact opposite. Harajuku is known for youthful and energizing fashion which chases after the newest thing. It was inextricably linked with the youth culture. Harajuku street fashion had occurred during the booming years which evolved into a turning phase for the development of Japanese street fashion into something easily assimilated and replicated in the broader popular culture and robbing it off its edge.

The nature of the Harajuku street styles and the way in which the designs develop here have more to do with remixing and editing than setting down new tracks and it is more about further contributing to ephemeral aspect of the Harajuku street style. Each look is an amalgam of many other styles, strategies, incidents and whims.

The stores in the Harajuku streets are usually cluttered with imported baby doll t-shirts from Levis and not to forget the platform shoes that had created a great havoc on the streets of Japan on the grounds of fashion as well as medical forum. The Japanese teenagers have been avid shoppers and consumers of all the products and thus they flock around this area the most as they are the most important part of consumerism in Japan. Thousands of boys who follow regular and trendy fashions also flock around in this area, wearing slouchy hip hop clothes. The girls in the market are spotted wearing thrift store style dresses layered over blue jeans which would seem a little difficult for the rest of the world to wear but in Japan, there doesn't seem any right or wrong in fashion.

There is a famous store called the brand select recycle on this street which has a very narrow pathway to reach to it and sometimes it can just be missed out by the shoppers. It has designers under it with the names like the undercover, bathing ape, Gucci, Prada and Martin Maison Margiela under it. The stocks are kept in a crammed up way on the racks of a second hand clothing section with hand written tags which have prices that soar high. In Japan, though people are from an affluent background and are also willing to spend to spend their money on fashion, the prices tagged here would make them wonder whether the yen price shot up while they ascended the staircase to this store.

It is noted that the most of the products sold here are bought by the college or high school students. But the studies have also found that the students who have a lot of money would not simply become a slave or blinded by what is being offered at the label. They would choose their fashions wisely.

Japan has gone under a huge speculation in the markets and is yet experiencing the hangover of it at lower levels. But, despite that fact, the youth of Japan shops without a sign of back down from which no one could tell that the conditions in Japan were not that great. Fashionable youth who live with their parents do not have to pay rentals for their living and therefore with the saved money they would go out on the streets and splurge it on fashionable items. This happens because parents of these teenagers have been living under guilt after the economic bubble. They think that they have lost the rights on their children and in turn also their respect. Thus, they give into the demands and wants of their teenage children. In this case, fathers soothe their children with ample amount of gifts in both cash and kind. The streets of Harajuku or as a matter of fact any street fashion district in Tokyo is crowded by people only under the age of 30. It seems that the people above that age have dispensed off.

After the 1990s there were many multiple styles that have eventually been emerging. There were sub cultures like:



Goth- Lolita



Harajuku fashion is an understanding of the street culture which lies in the Japanese relationship with the outside world. There is a total disconnect between what something is and what is supposed to mean. Like there would be lot of instances that their thinking does not come in comparison with the rest of the world. The instances are: punk can be cute, micro- minis are not sexy, ghoulish makeup is not a macabre, hip hop is a state of mind rather than an experience of culture. There is also a belief that they consider the extremeness and excessiveness of using piercing is a pure fashion and has nothing to do with tribal acceptance.

Japan is majorly divided into two when it comes to fashion.

Couture- it is more structured, superlative craftsmanship and use of exquisite material.

Street- involves pop- culture, t-shirts, denims and off the rack clothes with over the top dressing.

The street consists of limited edition shoes and t-shirts, tailor made sweatshirts and embroidered casual wear. The sales that happen in this street is hardly done with advertisements as the maximum sales happen through word of mouth.

The Harajuku fashion of 1990s was a movement not led by the designers but by the young people of the country who wore an extreme mix of traditional Japanese dress, handmade and second hand clothing and designer fashion. The diverse Japanese street fashion revolves around the unique and popular looks like WAMANO which is a mix of Japanese and western styles, CYBER which is a futuristic perception in a combination with bright colour plastic jewellery and COSPLAY which is referred to a generic type, for e.g. nurse or a waitress.

In the 90s the Harajuku street style emerged with extraordinary features with combinations of a traditional kimono dress with obi sashes and geta sandals. Harajuku was the birthplace of several crazes like takenoko-zoku, which means people dressed in bright coloured clothes who danced to recorded music on the side of the road and the rock and roller bands too, which originated from here.

There have been studies that have been conducted on the street of Harajuku which mainly focused on the relationship of innovation and convention, genuineness and pretense, originality and ersatz. There have been a lot of incidents where the followers of Harajuku street fashions have changed the meaning of the current passing trends just to find their own individuality in the process of doing so. There have been accounts of data where fashions come and circulate the market through the lower classes and this way the process of fashion imitation is overtly emphasized. More so it is a trickledown theory effect that happens with this street. On this street, when we focus on fashion, there is an observation that is made by the researchers that the sub-cultural styles not only exist in the market but now these styles route in multiple further directions which has therefore dropped the essence of the actual adaptations from the past. To suffice to what I said earlier, there is an example that says that in 1990s, the professionally styled editorials of the Japanese youth fashion cultures were formerly replaced by images of normal youth people who had their own distinctively designer and stylishly creative mind.

The relationship between individuality and conformity does not exist for the Japanese street markets as the rebellious forms of fashion and sub-cultures that Japan follows, like the Harajuku street fashion, do not face the predicament of authenticity. The reason behind this observation and predicament is that the Japanese fashion has self-consciously and retrospectively followed the western subcultures which have been changed here and there as per the choice and history of the Japanese cultures and traditions.

Kawaii is one fashion, where women despite being of any age want to highlight themselves as naïve and vulnerable which gives them the liberty of ignoring their social responsibilities, which they are expected to fulfill. The extensive research on the uniforms in Japan helps us to observe this behavior and understand that women there aspire to look young and cute.

The art of deconstruction is what Japan is famously known for. There have been links that have posed to have some parallel competition between the traditional and contemporary fashions of Japan. The art of a dress and the art of dressing have drawn a comparison in itself as the phase of deconstruction plays an important role. The youth at the Harajuku Street have brought in question the meaning of dress in comparison to what the fashion system and society reportedly says. The highlight of their pretense is prevalent in a broader urge for unconcealed theatricality with the intention of it being traced in several areas of Japanese art and life. The aesthetic croon of irrationality is seen as overcoming of any pretence which is so natural in fashion.

Rather than being treated as some outlandish, exotic commune, the fundamental fashion of Harajuku is used for thinking about broader frame of ideas which often relate to the possibilities and limitations of confrontation through dressing. In the broadest sense the studies confirm with the longstanding curiosity about the primal human urge towards body prettification and the association between appearance and truth.

This study of Harajuku street fashion is the idea behind the clothing that has strictly a less utilitarian purpose than it is commonly attributed to it. Thomas Carlyle, a Professor said in his research that the very first utility of clothes was not about covering one's body with fabrics to show decency but it was the ornamentation which predominantly existed among the tribal people which also includes tattooing and painting of any form on the body. This behavior is very much found in sync with a certain supercilious feline groups in Japan.

There were tribes in Japan that occupied space in the areas of Yoyogi Park which performed dance moves and wore garishly shiny robes with plastic accessories like whistle, fake pearl necklaces. They created their own image by being in a vibrant sphere where they attracted a lot of audiences. They performed for the people surrounding that area and became a source of entertainment as they were under a perpetual scrutiny and pleasure of being watched.

Like the other Harajuku subcultures that followed after them, their playful interpretations of place and possessions fashioned into tactics of resistance, prevention and a break out. The extremism of the aesthetic play in Harajuku no longer plays the same role and intensity as it did in the hokoten years, but the area remains an exceptional situate of mutual spectacle where all are positioned under severe public surveillance, and the partition between performers and the spectators is therefore dissolved. Harajuku fashion does not stabilize with the idea of being taken from the historical past of Japan as it has no regard for its authenticity. The sub-culture that we talk about today, the existence of them has not happened in Japan originally. These sub-cultures have been adapted retrospectively with detailed attention on music, dress, dance moves and other stylish elements making an evident identity.

A lot of niche fashions cannot exist side by side but that does not happen with the fashions that create a hype of reality on the streets of Harajuku, where the up-to-the-minute youth rejoices the ostentation of their posed identities and who are devoid of denying that there is nothing more to them than that. For instance, in the near beginning of 2000s fashionable trend for surfer style saw an exponential utilization of dye, fake tan, faux hibiscus flowers and bright blue contact lenses along with rendered sketches of umpteen numbers of Japanese teen caricatures of Californian beach babes which was absolutely new. With this we can observe that there is absolutely no form of innovativeness or a flair for creativity used, but this process has introduced an element of metamorphosis. The Japanese purely believe in the philosophy that says:

"It is not possible to make a clear distinction between the authenticities of an aesthetic original and the authenticity of its copy, when the culture of the Zen arts is about reproduction and repetition as a valued cultural aesthetic".

The pioneering dressers in Harajuku aren't rejecting the already existing costumes available to them, but they have adopted, adapted and altered those fashions making them symbolically contemporary in nature so that they can match up to the trends that are going on in the present. Changing the meaning of a dress in the process of their dressing, Tokyo's street fashion innovators impudently but flawlessly manage to combine traditional Japanese garments such as kimonos, obi belts, kanzashi hair pins and geta sandals with modern avant-garde Japanese couture which gives a contemporary and retro Western fashion look. They often use absolutely new trends using handmade and re-assembled recycled fashion. Their hybrid varieties of images demonstrate the professed Japanese dexterousness which helps in amalgamating uniqueness and custom beliefs of both East and West, without giving up on an indispensable identity that they have created for themselves. The styles are too eclectic to be subjected under a category of a single subculture, but in totality the Harajuku fashion is best described as layered, which predominantly suggests that bodies and identities work on a parallel progress with each other.

Incessantly borrowing from Japan's affluent visual inheritance, the street fashion is as evolutionary as it is revolutionary. Putting the banal, beautiful and grotesque side by side, their radical self-presentation can be situated alongside the elaborate costuming that has existed for many centuries in Japan, like the geisha's extravagant, artificial beauty or the samurai's complex armor.

Harajuku as a fashion is less about what one wears and how they wear it, the individual usually rises above of what the designers are generating though their knowledge of styles. DIY or rather do it yourself is a phrase that is very common in Japan and thus it gives a new meaning to the dresser of Harajuku and this is often not seen as a pure innovation of styles but the amalgamation of various other styles to make it look like your own. At the Harajuku street the fashion percolates from the minor groups of high-school going kids, who reproduce their own individual dressing to commercial bodies. The dressers at the Harajuku Street are hurdled up in the systems of hyper consumerism in Japan.

The studies say that the relationship between a producer and the consumer is redefined in the street of Harajuku where most of the shops in this street were managed and owned by young artists and students who became entrepreneurs and started their own labels without any particular formal training in the field.

The technology of conventionality in Tokyo, the world's most inhabited conurbation, fosters the fantasy of insurgence in Harajuku fashion. The people in Japan want to look different only within certain parameters of social being and thus it can be confirmed that there is a society of dual existence in Japan where conventionality and individualism both play a significant role in the lives of the followers of fashion. The reason behind this existence is because there is a great prominence of groups and their identities in this country. The most popular criticism in Japan is how each new trend that pours down in the market is seen with the eye of censure. In many additional societies the impish peculiarity of Harajuku would be less dissident, and thus wouldn't have come to subsist at the same extreme. Because of the conventionality in the nature of a costume in Japan, the passion and the pleasure in being individualistic in dressing is heightened.

Fashion's greatest paradox is that it forms a statement of criticism as well as an expression of the desire for sameness. And this is what happens on the Harajuku Street where fashion shakes up the structure despite being challenged by the anti- fashion connotations. In disapproving their antagonism to fashion's dictums, subcultures need to be aware of the fashions that they have been avoiding, by always developing their own identifiable styles in the act of reversion which oft en makes them transform mass sanctioned fashions along their way. The Harajuku fashionistas are using their youthful approaches and greenness in the field of street fashion to their maximum advantage by building an entire new system which the world would eventually follow.

The subcultures have been a subject of change as they have been produced, packaged and delivered to the youth in the form of an identity. The progression of convalescence has been seen as presaging the distinguished demise of every periphery of culture by sanitizing, co modifying, and making the availability of their ideas as a stylish identity. But in Harajuku the process is different where the border line between genuine confrontation and commercial recuperation does not exist as their outrageous styles are habitually very commercially viable and successful. Journalists, designers, manufacturers, forecasters, retailers and pop stars from around the world keep a close eye on Harajuku to keep up with the trends and styles that affect them. While Western post-war subcultures, including the subcultures that were famously accepted amongst the youth had shunned materialism for adhering by the theory of individuality, the teenagers at the Harajuku street were highly unapologetic about the fact that they would not stop from the consumption of any kind as other cultures have.

Youth subcultures originated in Japan, like anywhere else, when generational responsiveness emerged in the minds of the young and their increase in spending on fashion was recognized by the industries in the market. Harajuku style is entangled with entrepreneurship and growth and therefore the teens have no delusions or pretensions of skirmishing capitalism. They are conscious of the fact that a lot of their deep-seated innovations will be recuperated into the mainstream, but since their style is more about dressing up, that arena is rather not being touched upon and is in a secure zone. The amalgamation of their innovations does not weaken their symbolic power of style because they believe in change for the sake of change. They play masquerade with the imagery of past subcultures that are already recuperated, and don't have an urgent fixation with the illusory dream of insurgence found in Western subcultures. Harajuku street style identity is never political or ideological, but simply innovative fashion that determines group affiliation. In similar contexts it has been described that there are no politics behind the Tokyo fashion movements such as the punk movement which came into practice only because it was a fashion and had nothing to do with being rebellious. The same case was for the boy style which had no connection with the rights for women. The normal answer that the girls would give if they were asked about the fashion they woe was because it looked cute. Today no one can say that the sub cultures of Japan had been taken from the west because the origin of it the west was done due to retaliation or a political phase but for the Japanese these points are considered and thus the fashions here have always functioned in a different manner. The major reason that the Japanese did not follow these fashions on the grounds of political influence was that open rebellions in Japan are highly discouraged and disrespected. The teenagers on the streets of Harajuku have an indirect and private resistance and it would be a mistake if they were dismissed as mindless slaves to consumerism as somehow they are open to moments of freedom despite their government not believing in them.

Clothes Wear Us

The identity of male and female is fore grounded in a way as they playfully dress-up in the culture of Harajuku. Valerie Steele writes, 'pity the poor man who wants to look attractive and well dressed, but who feels that by doing so he runs the risk of looking unmanly, but no such pity should be granted to men in Harajuku'. There is a blatant phenomenon that is common amongst men in Japan which would be cross dressing. The men who follow this transformation flock around the streets of Harajuku and shibuya with great amount of liberty and enthusiasm. They groom themselves very meticulously but dress up in an unusual manner with different haircuts and makeup. There have been magazines like FRUiTS and TUNE that cater to the fashions followed by the men who want to dress like women- the transvestites. This magazine caters to the male avant-garde fashion as well as street fashion in which they show men dressed in the trendiest clothes that a man could ever wear and this can happen only in the street of Harajuku.

The Japanese take their culture and fashion very seriously and therefore they believe in the art of performance which is evidently seen in the case of a geisha. They undergo an elaborate and extensive preparation before they appear or behave like geisha. Usually their faces are painted with a thick white paste and the space under the eyebrows is painted in white. The lips of a geisha are usually stained with deep red lipstick which is done in a way that the mouth looks smaller than it is.

Her hair is painstakingly arranged with a special oil so as to resemble a sculptural wig, and her every movement is deliberated and stylized. She is an unapologetically synthetic beauty, a masquerade of sensual femininity. In the words of James McCormick 'she is a costume that fits a woman rather than a woman who fits a costume'.

Many Forms of Uniform

The extremely skewed, personal and corporeal relations people have with fashion are also unavoidably acknowledged on this street. Another way to regard the interaction of individuality and conformity in dress is to subject your attention at the uniforms that are being worn by the teenagers of contemporary Japan, in particular the phenomena of being a fetish schoolgirl uniform. Kogals are an example that have been subjecting themselves to the pedophilic male gaze by wearing the school uniforms despite of the fact that they are no more in school, which also evades a certain configuration of supremacy by creating their own bubble of inclusion.

In Japan official uniforms were introduced as a part of its modernization policies and yet till today those uniforms exist with thoughtful salience. Experts have studied Japan and declared that Japan is a very uniform country with uniformity in its society. The society is uniform where everyone abides by their costumes according to the role they have to play in the society. In Japan the schools follow uniforms in a manner that some schools also dictate in the way the hair is tied, what kind of bags are used, socks and sometimes even the underwear is uniform amongst children. Children around the world use the uniform as a pedestal for building their own sense of identity. In the surveys of high-school students, it was found that the uniform can actually determine idiosyncratic expression where everyone was in the same clothes; the individuality of each person was made clearer and understandable. Uniforms make the wearer visible as a member of a group but offer a veil of anonymity since the body is obscured by the instantly recognizable formalized code.

While the uniform's figurative rudiments might point out a desire for control, inevitability, power, discipline, conventionality or standardization, the actuality is more nuanced. The 'informal codes' of the uniform appear frequently in subversive and licentious contexts. While designed to desexualize the body by restricting movement and concealing shape and flesh, they have long been appropriated in fetish cultures. It is not surprising then that the Japanese culture of official dress breeds a unique fetishism of the uniform, the most widespread example being the adult male perversion for the uniformed schoolgirl.

The Japanese sailor-style girls' school uniform is as iconic as the kimono - there are encyclopedias cataloguing all varieties that several companies produce miniature doll versions, and there's a thriving second-hand market for its collectors. The extent to which the Japanese schoolgirl mania goes up to is that the men want sexual satisfaction from schoolgirls who come from under a specialized agency. There were shops that sold things like the schoolgirl uniforms, underwear and under pants which could also be purchased from vending machines.

The uniform of a blue suit, white shirt and tie for the salary men around Tokyo Station has no intrinsic meaning but masquerades as natural and through its social use becomes invisible. A deconstructionist approach to dressing dismantles this invisibility.

Prejudice and Visibility

While in contemporary Japan all can have at their disposal a cosmic array of preference with regard to outward show, this autonomous idyllic means that everybody is weighed down with the strain of an ever-changing extravagant fashion culture that implies stringent observation and analysis of one's self. This everlasting, cataleptic sense of being visible is only superficially escaped by the subcultures of Harajuku, where the playful norms break into bodily presentation which is given a boost and thus made public. In the culture of Harajuku both pleasure and power are interlinked with each other and both worked on equal platforms in order to perform.

The centrifugal part of the Harajuku street is the photography of the changing cultures. The teenagers here are super excited and pose in the photographs taken by them and they would take photos of friends for hour's altogether. All these whereabouts are documented by magazine photographers who place their cameras on this street to captivate the ongoing fashion trends.

Their publications form a conversation rather than a monologue because they feature images of pedestrians in their own creations who control how they are represented and are given full credit in the publications. Sometimes the photographers alter the shape of reality which they document on the streets and create a distortion in their representation by excluding or including feature that they think are appropriate.

The Politics of Reuse

There are number of magazine publications in Japan that talk about the Kawaii fashion and encourage the approach of do it yourself theory which often leads to making handmade designs. This culture defines the mix matching of second hand clothing which also makes it a thrift fashion which is totally in contrast with the philosophy of the big brands who dictate many of the Japanese metropolitans. It is highly shocking as Japan is a country where almost 40 percent of luxury good around the world is consumed and on the other side it also has a market for thrift fashion which is acts as a doubt for Japan rising to power in terms of fashion.

On the street of Omotesandō on the Harajuku corner, the affordability of styles and eclecticism of thoughts is stimulating. Here as I discussed above, the advertisements are done by word-of-mouth while there are other shops that are often unmarked and short-lived, and there is a modest promotional activity done as their budgets do not rise above a certain level. The shoppers there state a triumph in dressing up and children as they are in nature show a spontaneous and unrestrained behavior in their dressing up. They often reuse bulk-produced merchandise in their dress assemblages - for example in the decora look where masses make use of multifarious colorful plastic toys and objects as their accessories which dangle down from bodies and clothes.

Mass-production and the discovery of artificial fibers were two of the most primitive factors which contributed in making fashion a democratic structure. Of late in the counterfeit industry, eBay was able to recycle designer wear and put them in retail outlets of Japan like Rag Tag, and high fashion designers who did relatively cheap lines for chain stores like Rei Kawakubo of Comme des Garcons for H&M. all this has formerly helped in the popularization of high fashion amongst youth in Japan. A multitude of cheaper products like perfumes, jeans, and sportswear carry the tag of being 'exclusive' under brand names to create the aura of the brand being a limited and a high-end production brand.

One factor that accounts for the recent boom in second-hand fashion is that regardless of brand name or price, fashion today is rarely exclusive. The new distinction must therefore come from hand-made clothes or creative and ironic uses of existing styles, to form codes that are accessible to a selected group of people only.

The local designers have started producing limited amount of stocks to maintain the exclusivity of the fashions. This exclusivity is maintained by a furious change of codes that are available to those who can readily grasp them. Being able to find and wear second-hand things in new ways is a mark of independence and a quiet resistance against the fashion system's dictums. They use experimental dressing to correspond with wider societies who have disenchantment with it.

All Dress is Fancy Dress in Japan

The most prominent of the Harajuku style is the indulgence in the art of corsetry and lingerie, but this fashion was more popular because the corsets and the lingerie were worn outside the garments. They think that the under garment on top of the outer garment is an aesthetic appearance on its own, but the original purpose of the lingerie giving a fit to the body has lost its essence. There have been examples where the gaps under the sleeve of a traditional kimono attracts the attention to the under clothes which formerly brings out the complexity of layering. At the high-end of the fashion structure, there is also the top most Japanese label called Comme des Garçons which was popularly known for its deconstructionist fashion in the way it has constantly articulated an expression of undoing of the process of construction with things like loose threads, stitching or lining on the outside of the garments and a general undone/unfinished look. Harajuku fashion, with all its excess flamboyance, differs from mainstream style only in its wild interpretation.

Oscar Wilde rightly quoted the words 'Man is least himself when he talks in his own person. Give him a mask, and he will tell you the truth,' he used the mask as a broad analogy for the creative process and so is the case with many parts of the world and specially in Japan it was traditionally believed that a lady of quality should have a fair complexion which evidently would signify that being rich enough does not entail working outside in bad weather conditions like the peasants. Upper class women used whitening creams for their skin as early as the seventh century. They avoided sunlight and often powdered their faces white, and gradually moved to a phase where they used complicated procedures like bleaching and white lead, which had devastating effects.

The value of the white face was challenged by the 'black face' subcultures that emerged in Tokyo's Shibuya district in the late 1990s, which saw the faces of young girls artificially darkened beyond recognition. The Ganguro style followed this trend and soon after they started calling themselves soy sauce which is evidently black in color. The Japanese girls who were fond of blonde hair made no attempts at being authentic. They also wore fake hair which showed that like the transvestites they were only keen on looking feminine and hardly cared about being natural in dressing up.

The blatant theatre fashion of the Harajuku Street makes no attempt in hiding the fact that they labor hard enough to execute the performances on their stage. In this street when plays come up there is evidently no room for the backstage preparations such as costumes and make-up. Usually the high school students who take part in these theatrical performances dress up at home and come to participate there. Sunday is the day when all of them are geared up to perform, not only the students of Tokyo participate here but the students from all over the county come here to showcase their costumes. Here there is also no competition of being original as in any dramatic presentation only integrity matters and nothing else. Beyond being posed as self-absorbed, the bravely fantastical and hysterically incomprehensible dressing in Harajuku can be seen as a civic service that exhibits an awe-inspiring creativity in the mundane. The collections embody fantasy and optimism amongst the viewers which ignites a thrill in the environment of this street and fills it with energy.