Attitudes Towards Appointments And Deadlines Cultural Studies Essay

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In America, Americans were give strict obedience to time commitments and it was a basic principle of professionalism and polite behavior. Because everything tends to be strictly scheduled, postponements in one appointment or deadline can have a serious ripple effect on a coworker or customer's other work commitments.

But for example: The more flexible and open-ended approach to time of Indian and Sri Lankan businesses culture can create tensions and adverse impressions on American counterparts

2.2 Meaning of Agreements and Commitments

In business relations, commitments are taken accurately and seriously in America. They have a preference for understandable, detailed agreements and are uneasy with vague expressions of general commitment. They will look failure as a sign that a person isn't trustworthy. In Asian business culture tends to view agreements more flexibly as intentions and strategy for future action.

2.3Cross Country Difference in Individual Work Values and Attitudes

From the evaluation of several articles of Employee Work Values and Attitudes across many countries, a comparative study of the said socio-cultural features among an average American, Japanese and Indian employee can be made. The socio-cultural features have been compared from fifteen topics of consideration in Figure 1. These topics are individualism, superstition, adaptability, time orientation, innovativeness, diligence, time consciousness, discipline, self-respect, religion-orientation, caste-orientation, sexual-orientation, gender discrimination, education and dependence on own language

3. Diversity Creates Lack of Cohesion

Multicultural groups often have diverse views of the problem. They often go on discussing about the problem statement. This problem can be caused to three basic factors:

3.1. Mistrust

A natural human propensity is to work closely with members of their own culture and not to belief people who are from different cultures.

Some years ago, in Intel new members of the group were added to the project. While engineers were working at Puerto Rico, Engineers at Texas primarily had low level of respect to their Puerto Rican colleagues. This was affected by the fact that the American Engineers had a low belief of the worth of education in Puerto Rico. This was a false stereotype - because all the engineers working on Puerto Rico were educated in the USA and had worked on complex projects earlier. Probably it took sometime for the American engineers to grant the engineering capability of their Puerto Rican colleagues.

3.2. Miscommunication and language barriers

In MNC they are having one main challenge under culture is a language barrier. Communication is necessary for management. Yet communication relies upon a common language, a condition that does not exist in many global business situations and that is when the problems start. The most pronounced sign of the language barrier at work can be found in the relationship between a multinational parent company and its network of global subsidiaries.

Multicultural teams are required to communicate in a common language - it's usually the language of the main group. It can be either in English or Spanish or Mandarin or Tamil or French etc. This means that there are members in the team for whom the communicating language is not their native language. This often results in miscommunication between team members - where one member intended one thing, but said something else or it was understood in a different way. The problem can occur in translation errors.

3.3. Work Stress

The above two can create work stress on group members. Because if they are aware that there is a chance of error in inter-team communications, then all decision making, problem analysis and deductions are at risk. This creates a huge stress on workforce.

In mono-culture teams, members can openly discuss problems and issues. Whereas in multicultural teams, members are afraid of offending other members - thus forcing a "polite diplomatic" approach to sensitive issues. This creates an artificial or a superficial behavior which increases stress on the organization. This forced politeness leaves team members frustrated and disengaged which effectively lowers work productivity.

3. MNC Workforce Diversity

Multinational Companies (MNC) had to face a number of challenges in their every day business over the past couple of years. Globalization has changed various things for international players. In general MNC formation illustrates a focal point on their main resources and sectors like finance, technology, marketing, sales and production, because they want to have a large number of customers and to earn profit.

A huge challenge MNC have to manage is their workforce diversity. The milestone research by Hofstede with 116,000 recruits of IBM, a giant MNC in 50 countries and 3 regions recognized four cultural values in the workplace: Individualism-collectivism, Power difference, Uncertainty avoidance and masculinity-femininity.

For example: the United States was the greatest and Guatemala was lowest in individualism. Malaysia was the highest and Austria was the lowest in the power distance values. Greece was the highest and Singapore was the lowest in the uncertainty avoidance values. Japan was the highest and Sweden was the lowest in the masculinity values. There have been significant amount of intercultural and cross-cultural studies with these cultural values, and some studies demonstrated the relationship between communication styles with some of these values.

Because of this diversity one of the key success factors of MNC is the recruitment and selection of human resources who offer valuable uniqueness. These individuals are forming the values and beliefs of a business.

There are two key challenges in international HRM specifically building global corporate cultures and developing global leaders that have to be controlled in order to manage diversity and be successful in the international business surroundings.

Informal Integration

Informal groups play a significant role in any business. They influence both the success of the business and the career success of individuals. Total quality plans depend heavily on employee contribution and informal networks can greatly impact this process. Informal groups are influenced by factors such as common language, perceived social similarity, and ethnocentrism. These collective networks are critical for communication in organizations. It has been found that race has a major effect on collective networking. This is not astonishing as you would expect people to have a preference for interaction with members of one's own culture group, especially in an informal context.

3.1 Managing diversity in MNC during HRM

To manage workforce diversity in MNC it's a challenge for the human resource management to set up a global corporate culture. To recognize with the corporate culture of the company is the most significant thing for the workforce. That is why building a global corporate culture is one of the most important challenges for Multinational Companies.

Employee behavior is possibly the most critical challenge that multinational organizations have to deal with. In Multinational Companies there is a huge potential of conflicts, because of its diverse personalities. As a result of this anxieties will arise among employees.

Individuals try to adapt their behaviors to fit the demands of a particular environment. In order to adapt to the environment, individuals sacrifice their individualities to fit in with their new cooperatives. Individuals become incorporated into the culture of an organization when they are successfully understood into the workplace.

Successful cultural adaptation reduces members' anxiety, role conflict, and intentions to leave. Additionally, successful adaptation increases organizational obligation, job satisfaction, confidence, and job familiarity as well as successful acculturation and establishment of relationship.

4. Challenges of Working across Culture

4.1Stereotyping

They are usually misrepresentations and inaccuracies fixed in false guesses and faulty analysis. Usually this valuation is seen in a negative perspective. The challenges to organizations are to acknowledge differences in positive terms.

Power struggles and can be the result of stereotyping in organizations. For example, placing women, who stereotypically have had lower status than men in society; in senior management positions create status incongruence in the minds of many of the people. This can root complexities in the leader/subordinate relationship and can root power differences in a business. This is done in such a way that affiliates of minority groups may find it hard to use influence over decision processes in the organization.

4.2 Ethnocentrism

Ethnocentrism results when managers identify the differences in cultures - but have a propensity to think that their culture and their way of doing things is the right way, their way of doing things is the only way and the best way. Any difference from their culture or from their way of doing things is seen as "distortion" or as a "mistake" or as "Wrong way".

Most people have the propensity to pursue ethnocentrism. Americans, Japanese, Chinese,

Germans, French, Scandinavians, and Russians are more prone to ethnocentrism than other cultures - when compared to other Asians, Latin Americans, British, Australians, Africans and Indians.

4.4 Parochial Attitude

Parochial attitude refers to a person's incapability to see cultural diversity. This is exactly the reverse of ethnocentrism. Managers who are sent overseas frequently meet people who are also dressed in suits and speak their language - this prompts them to disregard all other cultural differences and make them feel that all others are "just like us". In today's business globe, most people are apt to dress similarly - in suits or other formulas and talk in English, but this does not indicate that all people have the same culture - but people often only see the surface and think that the other person shares the same cultural values.

Managers from US/UK often tend to display a strong parochial attitude - mainly because the people with whom they relate on regular basis can speak English and are dressed similarly in suits or western dresses.

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