Art And Architecture In Collaboration Cultural Studies Essay

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Art has been given several definitions and appears with many and various forms, throughout the world. Painting, sculptures, architecture and design are included in the essential unity of 'art'. Even though each one has its peculiarities and characteristics, each one gives substance form to man's imagination, emotion and thought. In Architecture, Art is one of the most dynamic generators of architectural ideas and forms and this is being identified in several buildings but also the Oxford Dictionary defines architecture as the 'art or science of designing and constructing buildings'.

The last twenty years there have been noted interesting developments in the nature of collaboration between artists and architects but also between the approaches taken by artists, making work intended for public space. This collaboration gave the opportunity to architects and to artist to learn and work with new methods but also to think more conceptualistic. Art and architecture is a combination which can give messages and stories through their artwork, as Zaha Hadid in the book Art+Architecture points out: " The paintings are very important…you can tell many stories on one board - the scenario of the building…there are a lot of images and messages in one painting.'' (Ivan Margolius, 2003, p.9). People might look at a piece of art and admire it without understanding the story that comes out from that piece of art, but on the other hand architects can read and understand the message and explore the paintings but also through them, architects can create the scenario of their building, to start and create a new design with ideas that came out from the paintings. In my opinion colors, lines and materials of a paint, they are creating spaces which they convey atmosphere, feelings even a story which they analysis in their own way. This might be about the problems that people are facing, about the environment even about buildings which they give to the architect the key to start putting their ideas on a piece of paper and create their design.

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In the book Art and architecture: a place between, the author argues that "Artists value architecture for its social function, whereas architects value art as an unfettered form of creativity.'' (Jane Rendell, 2006, p.3) Architecture gives to the world the sense of community, a comfortable environment, a shelter to house people's dreams and hopes but it also gives them the feeling of safety in their lives. Architects are working to house expanding population to satisfy people's needs for physical security but also to create a shelter to house their dreams and hopes for the future. Artists admire all the work and the effort from architects to create a better place for the world and the amount of work that they produce but they also value the way artists work and create unique pieces of art, the feeling of unfettered while they are working and they produce forms. In terms of their relationship to 'function', art and architecture have differences. As I have mentioned above, architecture is functional in responding to social needs, they create something unique and admirable for the society but even that artist don't give to the public something so invaluable they present to them pieces that can take their imagination and transfer them somewhere else, to the past to the future for few moments. In the book Art and architecture: a place between, the author says that "Art is functional in providing certain types of tools for self-reflection, critical thinking and social change." (Jane Rendell, 2006, p.3) Moreover architect Maya Lin, has described her experience of the division of art and architecture in the book, Art and architecture: a place between, and says "I always sense that the fine arts department thought we were somehow compromising art because we build things for people as opposed to being pure and doing it for yourself.' (Jane Rendell, 2006, p.3) When architects start to create a new design they have to make a research according to the proposal function of building, they have to consider the users of the building, their needs and what kind of people will be in this space because each activity which is happening inside a building has their own requirements. Moreover architects have to create a space which will give to people energy and desire to be in that space because everything that they will create is for the users, not for them and this is their priority, first to think the public and then what they believe. Their customers have priority and then their opinion and ideas. On the other hand artists creates their pieces of art according their believes, their thoughts and their feelings. While artists are inspired and they are producing designs its plays a significant role in what emotional state artist is because according of what he feels they create. The materials, the colors even the shapes that their creating is affected from their feelings. The most of the art work is being inspired from their feelings but also from their everyday life, from the world but also it can be a fiction. In the end the architect and the artists they are producing pieces of art for the public but they are influenced from different resources. Furthermore architects and artists offer to the public different accidences where each person admire and respect each one in different ways because each one has their own singularity.

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From the beginning of architecture, creativity, artist and painters started to be influence by art and craft of building but also artists borrowed architectural elements in their designs. Furthermore architects, painters but also writers work together, and are influenced from each other's work. Artists and architects have started collaborating, using each other ideas and work and as a result, their designs and buildings have complex art objects displayed in a space than only buildings with simple structure creating spaces for people. This is manifested in the book Art+ Architecture as the author says that "The drawing is a stenography, a symbolic support for successive and complementary stages of the transmission of an idea. First stenography, after that proportioning: geometry and numbers, limitless fields, openings to a possible heaven."(Ivan Margolius, 2003, p.8) Through different kind of drawings and paintings architects and artist started creating and searching forms, spaces and shapes to develop their idea. For the public, these simple lines and sketches might be nothing but for the creators all these are the stages from the developing their ideas and to help them to take it to the next stage.

As John Ruskin in the book Art+ Architecture points out that "all great architects of the past had been great painters or sculptures as well, and accordingly he encourage Victorian architects to study paintings and sculptures if they ever want to achieve this". (Ivan Margolius, 2003, p.10) Many architects begun their careers as artists and later they focus on designs and through their knowledge's for art explore the architecture language. Le Corbusier spent most of his time painting, writing and architecting and many pieces of art as sculptures, paintings even drawings were the key for his architecture inspiration. They helped him to explore and observed and illuminate the concept of a space and the methods to produce it in his design and this is manifested in the book Art+ Architecture where Le Corbusier points out "Every day of my life was devoted in part to painting. I have never ceased to draw and paint, searching where to find them, those secrets of forms. It is wrong to look for the key to my work and my research anywhere else." (Ivan Margolius, 2003, p.10)

In the book Art+ Architecture, Henry-Russel Hitcock (2003) recognize that before and during the Middle Ages paintings and sculpture where part of architecture and you were able to see them in the interior space as decorating elements. Later on paintings became more self-governing and started to ignore the remarkable elements that architecture has. Moreover in modern times painting became architecture and buildings spaces became more into paintings. When technology was appeared in the architecture and artistic world, painting and architecture became separate and this happened because technology was introduced as a source of inspiration for architects and designers. This new method became as the main inspiration for architects with result to split architects and artists after the Second War. Furthermore Le Corbusier who used art for his inspiration to create a concept of spaces and reduce a design, he turned the attention from art to technology using machines and engineering objects to replace the sculptures and paintings. Even that when technology appeared as the main inspiration, architects continue to work with artists on projects and there is a specific method how they work together. In the book Art+ Architecture, Ivan Margolius (2003) points out that architects collaborate with artist because they are interested in their methods, thoughts, their ideas, the process but also the philosophy rather than the possibility on how they make two or three dimensional work. Also what is more important and admirable in this corporation is the fact that artists don't try to be architect and control the work but also they don't try to make the leader on the process of the design. Art and architecture are two very elegant elements and two very distinct disciplines which they work with different methods, in different levels and they produce different kind of work. As I have mention and above, architects make spaces and shelter that provide a specific function and artists produce work that provide a comment on society. As John Ruskin in the book Art+ Architecture points out that "Art gives us a sense of who we are, where we have come from, what we are doing and where we are going".

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There are painters who studied architecture with result to be very helpful to them since it gave them many advantages in their work. In paintings is very important to create spaces and through their previous study in architecture it gave them the chance to understand and create these spaces through a correct technique. In the book Art+ Architecture, Henry-Russel Hitcock (2003) the French painter Andre Masson commented that "Great painting is a painting which the spaces between the figures are charged with as much energy as the figures that determine them." (Ivan Margolius, 2003, p.11) Many painters in their art work they create spaces with figures and shapes where they bring outside to the public the energy which is created. Having these spaces into the painting makes it more colorful and dynamic, it show the life which comes from the forms, their movements into that space. These spaces link with the spaces that architects create in their designs with result artists try from their art work to include architecture in their paintings. This liveliness that's comes from the shapes of spaces makes the viewer to transfer into that space and take him to that time and that moment for few seconds. Having these spaces in a painting, it makes it more magnificent and more real. Architects recognize that's artists create into their work spaces with figures and shapes and this is what matter the most because as in architecture is important to have spaces into the building for the people, artists try to show this significant role from their work with the creation of these spaces between the figures.

Moreover in the same book, Art+ Architecture, Henry-Russel Hitcock (2003) Nelson said in 1937 "In Leger's later paintings a new quality appears that can be called spatial. One can, as it were, measure the surface of the wall, the space, that is, to turn one's back on the painting in order to see its reflection, its signature in space, and to measure the volume that it projects there." (Ivan Margolius, 2003, p.11) Leger Fernant was originally qualified in architecture and as photographic retoucher but he didn't make it to enter to the in 1903 and he studied at the Ecole des Arts Decoratifs and the Academie Julian. Even though he didn't enter to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts he studied architecture for two years in Caen, France. He worked together with Pablo Picasso and George Bracques and together they create the basic of Cubism. Having knowledge for architecture he put in his art work elements of architecture. Several pieces of his art work was inspired from his experiences of the Word War I (1914-1918) and he started using symbols and forms from the industrial world and he tried to show the items and peoples in machinelike forms. In Fernant's work, volumes, shapes and forms are the basic elements that are prevailing in his paintings where you can recognize these elements in architecture.