Analysing Design In 20th Century Cultural Studies Essay

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"Modern" is a very meaningful word that carries a lengthy history, started by Christians who aspired to create a new age of light and pleasure escaping from the previous dark period and in addition "modern" is a new definition in the world of art having the same importance. Moreover, it was a progressive trend of society that emphasized the power of people to create in order to improve their environment using science and technology. Consequently a new culture had been created with new-sophisticated forms of expression. With good judgment "modern" is an act that still continues in our days. It's a movement, and maybe the only one, that with the passage of time continues to change and refers to the notion of synchrony always creating a connection to any topical synchrony. Accordingly, the meaning of the word "modern" doesn't change even if its characteristics do change over the years. Something remains to be "modern" when it is something new specifically what was "modern" in the past is not "modern" now and what is "modern" now will not be in the future.

However important the role modernity has played to influence man, they who have developed architecture and has reached, even today many years after his death, to be the most important figure in modern architecture. His views are a key example of the new generation of architects. Was an architect, who flourished in a dull season, opening up the architecture in a more multidisciplinary way in a matter of practice. Confidently, I chose to talk about Le Corbusier because he was the superstar of architecture, and it was long before today's great architects. He created everything from scratch, so making a completely different architecture for his time and most importantly that through his buildings created a social life. Nowadays almost fifty years after his death, the architecture seems to be stagnating, reminding you of the architecture of this great architect. The fundamental question of this research is, if all the above apply, then why after so many years does it continue to affect the architects of today? Through his work and through the works and views of other architects, the answer is made clear.

By taking everything into account and starting from Paris that was the city where modernism had started, and afterwards in nearly all the countries it was something natural and symbolic and can even be described as a revolutionary movement. Modernism affects a series of writers, artists and unquestionably began to play an important role in architecture and everything that has to do with it. Historically it occurred in 1930 the period when modernism had become accepted in Europe, especially in England as well as in America and starting then to develop more and more thus to be really powerful. To be more specific, right after the Second World War it was the period that very significant buildings were built by great architects like Le Corbusier, who was far ahead of his time having authentic and original ideas, due to the fact that he created a new world with different perspectives, making his own history in the world of architecture. Over the years even in our days he is still called the creator of modernism distinguishing easily through his buildings the characteristics of modernism, which was somehow his own creation.

The movement's approach began to be a new way of life. It was something totally new. The changes it had caused were intense. Basically it began to have deep roots in geometry and to keep everything simple imparting you a sense of freedom and freshness. Nature and imagination were the key feature of modernism. Architecture is mostly associated with many areas. In short the architecture was everywhere, but ceased to be a part of decorative art as it has a simple character, taking place in the simple design and combines with a new spirit of light.

Everything starts to work with mathematical precision; the white walls were now the point mark of modernism as well as glass, steel and aluminum. Technology was also an important aspect, which had invaded architecture and played a main part in it and in people's lives. In addition architecture is becoming an urgent need of humans affecting much of their consciousness with the use of shapes and forms. Equality and organization are generated in buildings, thus giving the people a sense of attractiveness and progress, thereby boosting their morale and courage skipped ahead to a better tomorrow and a social life. It also plays a major role in the mental health of humans making them live in harmony, a harmony that is emitted by the buildings because of the mathematical precision which comes from natural law. It has the ability to affect the human senses and mind through understanding and appreciation of the forms for the reason that it there is a logic in all of them. Also it contributes to the visual pleasure as they can distinguish the fineness and serenity that buildings are emitting.

All this philosophy of things happens because of modernism, as well as the white walls, brand new materials, such as concrete, aluminium, steel, glass are features of Le Corbusier's buildings. Therefore it is not a coincidence that he was named the creator of Modernism. Le Corbusier played a very important role in the beginning of this new architecture. All of his theories have become so accepted that they have been and still are a great example of modernism displayed through the buildings of the century and by people's reactions.

There are some specific elements which help to solve many problems giving a visually and functionally better result. Mass, surface, plan and regulating lines, are the elements that every architect must have in his mind to achieve a much more attractive view of buildings, houses and even streets. Above all the orderly view of the architecture is a matter of harmony and strength of mind. Nobody said that architecture is easy. Every architect must create a set of forms that look great and fit together not only in the eyes of people but also functionally. The geometry of buildings and the unique forms attracts our eyes, architecture has the ability to impress everyone with the elements that occur and perhaps this is the reason that the degree of difficulty facing an architect is higher. He must achieve this; and this is his goal.

To achieve all these, an architect must create a plan with sophistication and meaning. The plan is one of the most important architectural elements that determine the mass and the surface of a building. Mass creates an absolutely different picture to our eyes especially when it is revealed to the light. Cubes, Pyramids and such like geometric shapes that are revealed to the light creating a different atmosphere and without doubt the most attractive forms. Another factor is the surface where an element of architecture has great value and also it gives emphasis to the buildings. The new materials combined with the mass shows the greatness of spirit and fresh ideas that play with the light and create wonderful shades and reflections. All these create an image which the world needs to see. Modernism has not only changed the way of design in architecture but also the way of thinking and perception of people. Having a more open mind, life is getting better and people of architecture day-by-day want to create an even better world that is giving pleasure to the eyes and mind of man and also to his life. Therefore it all begins to change and reform with more complicated ideas and geometric forms.

The geometric forms may make it difficult for architects of the new generation because the problems of modern creation have geometrical solutions that force them to work with precise geometry and calculation. The slightest mistake it seems and they have to satisfy our eyes by their geometrical designs. No one said that simplicity is an easy thing to achieve. Although throughout that degree of difficulty, the result that you can get out of precise geometry, can show the essence of sensation. With a sense of coordination and harmony, whether people want it or not they are forced to look at all these buildings that surround them and so these three basic elements of architecture, mass, surface, plan, should follow a rhythm and have a bond with each other, so the influence on our eyes and mind can be pleasant. The feeling that we get from buildings starts from the foundation and more specifically from its plan, setting out how a building will look like, and through this develops further the human imagination.

A plan may be subjected to many variations. It can remain a simple plan and evolve up to the most complex, by following the law of geometry. These simple or complex forms must somehow work together and to keep balance creating the spirit of synthesis. This variety and combination of styles and shapes is purely a matter of architecture and it has nothing to do with decoration. Architecture starts setting up its own principles and laws in the creation of a modern world. Ultimately escaping the epoch of masculine and feminine room, which was an epoch that had more to do with decorating. The modern construction has more to do with technical, giving solutions to existing problems. So the plan comes to create by itself its own substance decoration.

For the reason of this rapid evolution that prevailed in the modern life and its requirements, the plan begins to take on a new format which people want to see and above all to satisfy their needs. Accordingly, due to this growth, people begin to live in excessive noise, fumes and begin to lose the element of nature. This new form of architecture is to give a touch of beauty to the cities. Buildings began rising up, building one house over another. This would give people more free space, having the opportunity to escape from the panic that took hold of them in the city, finding peace and freedom in parks and more quiet places, to calm their minds. Man has a need of serenity which somehow ceased to exist with the new way of life. Therefore the new way of planning comes to satisfy people's needs, giving them a place to relax and to escape.

With these positive and negative impacts on the contemporary social life, this is now the new way of planning houses, offices and apartments, using completely different methods of organization of services. However the plan never lost its importance and remains significant in this new generation of architecture and develops more and more now because the old foundations of architecture did not fulfill the needs of society. A new period of construction begins creating new bases with more analysis and being more functional, a new period of exploring and accordingly discovering more and more architecture.

In view of that, people wanted to protect their economies by creating synthetic materials from natural ones, which were not liked by all the architects and most people, because of high cost. Thus replacing natural materials with man-made ones such as concrete and steel, which began to dominate, created a completely different feeling in people. Using good judgment you could say that life in the city becomes hazier, dark and noisy. In other words, you can describe it as a concrete jungle. Respectively, you can say that the white walls and big glassy windows give suffering a pleasant note. Architecture does not contribute one hundred percent of this city's plight, as a problem of time. The will of people for development and convenience of life played a main role. In fact people always will judge a building and if something does not seem beautiful to the eye no one would be able to let it spoil the aesthetics.

In our time, the growth is apparent in many industries and buildings, and it continues to increase and many of them are highly regarded pieces of architecture, because of these new methods of building and materials that they use. This shows that people accept and love the architecture of Le Corbusier.

On the other hand people who belong in the world of industry and business are allegedly a group of people distant from aesthetic actions but in reality this is the same group of people who created modern aesthetic. This creates a new spirit of the main features of the construction and synthesis, caused by daily human activities. Follow-on a closing epoch replaced by a new one. Machinery was now a new way of life, causing a new spirit of philosophy and creating a system of material and intelligence through a unique style in architecture, and this was starting to be very clearly visible.

Technology is becoming one of the most important means of architecture. Le Corbusier described the houses as "the machine for living in" and was absolutely right because there are many reasons which can prove this, as for example in baths and regulating hot water or cold, the warmth you generate inside the house using heat or air-conditions, and generally this sense of purity and hygiene. The technology starts to provide a lot of comforts and people henceforth were dependant on them. This had resulted from the creation of world that had the need of organization, equipment and their essential comforts. From now on the world recognizes that the use of technology contributes to having better way of living in their houses and basically in their lives. This of course has become acceptable and you reach a final conclusion by asking if Le Corbusier had made better conditions of living? The answer is absolutely yes, because the machines or in other words the technology, lead to employment for people and it giving more free time, making life much easier than it was. Therefore, people start to live in harmony and dependent on this.

Le Corbusier managed to achieve many of his goals, if not perhaps all them. He managed to adjust the harmony to an industrial culture and to carry out the ideals of society. He gave joy to the buildings with geometry as well as color, light and whiteness, managing to replace the old dark buildings with fresh and shiny ones. Thus bringing a sign of purity and nature. The architecture is clearly a difficult science that combines with art, and not only, as things go architecture relates to everything. Le Corbusier managed with his own theories to rebuild a new world with totally new bases. Many believed that he was crazy, and many who disagreed and questioned his architecture, but also there were many who admired his work. Furthermore, it is usual when people see something new to judge it both positively and negatively. The important thing is that the techniques of Le Corbusier brought casualness and harmony in people's lives. This is true even if there were people who disagreed. Nowadays, Le Corbusier is a legend in the world of architecture, for the reason that his buildings are strong pieces of modernity and his theories are an important example for the right foundations of architecture to the young architects.

The Notre du Dame Haut is a vivid example of modern architecture, and it has all the features of new construction set by Le Corbusier. He makes use of all natural forms and examples of his other projects which included the use of geometry, nature, harmony and new materials. All these elements lead to the description of Ronchamp. It was a church built in nineteen fifty on a hill above the village Ronchamp in France, and this is the reason that some people gave this nickname. It is a sacred and magisterial building built on a green hill, giving to the people who are visiting the church an unreal picture of a building. It was built at a time when people were not accustomed to seeing this kind of church, for that reason the Notre du Dame Haut had a shocking effect on people. Its forms made the viewer to look with amazement, making him wonder where it came from. It transmits a picture of the future. It was a remarkable project in which everyone saw it as a great example of modern movement, but in fact Le Corbusier did not do something new after making use of the forms that had been used into other buildings, which are already on modern architecture. In short you can say that he got a rectangular shape and simply distorted it to various directions. Its walls and roof have an inclination towards different horizons; specifically Le Corbusier before starting to design the form of the building, the first sketches he did was the four horizons, hence that, the whole building has a curvature. The walls and the roof of the church are really heavy and the whole building is very deceptive. As stated by Le Corbusier "The shell has been put on walls which are absurdly but practically thick. Inside them however are reinforced concrete columns. The shell will rest on these columns but it will not touch the wall. A horizontal crack of light 10cm wide will amaze."

The light entering through small windows, which lies into the thick walls, and the gap between the ceiling and the wall, gives you a great feeling. The church in conjunction with the landscape, turned into a gorgeous spectacle, and it is evident that the world visit the Notre du Dame Haut for its architecture instead of pilgrimage.Le Corbuier deliberately designed a church completely different from the traditional ones, essentially, having rejected religious motivo in the way of design, making the world wonder how Ronchamp relates to the sense of drama and the religious spirit of other churches. Without doubt Le Corbusier had connected the history, the religion and nature with mathematical proportions and engineering. The element of religion was in Le Corbusier's mind and ideas. The design of his church stemmed from a deeper point having a metaphorical meaning. It seemed to have a mystical interpretation like some specific artists who have used to a mystery in their paintings, leaving people to wonder. Le Corbusier, while designing this church, genuinely had in his mind the religion, even if human eye and imagination do not see it, his ideas were inspired by the hat of a nun, from the shape of praying hands, and a dove.

Only a few were the people who correctly understood the point of this famous chapel, because seeing the chapel you can't see the point of religion. The church considered the Ronchamp as offensive to its traditions. Specifically the Archdiocese of Paderborn, stressed that 'this church is a consummate example of the mania for innovation, arbitrariness and disorder... In particular, we find this church wholly lacking in the sacred character that absolutely needs to be forested.'

Considering all the negative and positive comments for the Notre du Dame Haut. In our days the church is greatly appreciated, and now we see the architecture with a different eye and we are more open minded. Le Corbusier did a really good job, making guests of the Ronchamp discover the answers of its mystery through the drama of light and form. He was an expert of light and forms and as he had said "…architecture is the play of forms under light."

Many buildings are built today based on his views and ideas. Many architects continue to follow and replicate his methods of practice. It is clear that Le Corbusier is a divisive figure, but his influence continues to perform greatly; since the fifties, only one type of architecture was considered as the epitomy of its time and this was Le Corbusier's architecture. Today for all architects and students of architecture hi remains a historic figure. Their school education throughout the world has basic examples of famous works. Tim Benton rightly said that,

A whole generation of architects, for example, Rem Koolhaas, Robert Venturi, Dennis Lasdun, as well as the British architectural movement called New Brutalism, and the "New York Five," a group of New York City architects Peter Eisenman, Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk, and Richard Meier. It is interesting to note that even though Le Corbusier's ideas and approach to solving problems have been criticized in the past 40 years, he still appeals to architects on so many levels.

Le Corbusier has affected several generations of architects and nobody can doubt that. In all the above names that Tim Benton mentioned, Richard Meier it seems, was a faithful follower of Le Corbusier.He started in 1967 to become one of the most renowned architects who supported modernity.

Investigating Richard Meier's buildings you can easily see that the ideas which he is using today in the 21st century have no difference to those of the 19th century and most specifically in 1920, which was the period that modernism began to take a position in architecture. Brett Steele commented, "Richard Meier, well, it's a little bit of everything; something old and something new..." The main features that Richard Meier is using in his buildings are those in which Le Corbusier described architecture. Nor is it accidental that have been given the designation, "Neo-Corbusian".

Forms, light as well as the white colour, are the elements contained in all his buildings. And about whiteness he said, "I think white is the most wonderful colour of all, because within it one can find every color of the rainbow." and giving a clearer explanation in an interview he said,

...The whiteness allows one to perceive, perhaps more clearly planar elements juxtaposed against linear elements, for instance. It allows one to perceive the difference between transparent, translucent and opaque surfaces; it clarifies the intention in terms of the way in which light comes, in various ways, into the building; and I thing for me color is something which comes from all the things which are out of control, the change of nature, the uses of the building, the people in the building... everything gives it color. You don't need to paint or color the surfaces because there is so much color that is a part of the architecture, and the whiteness is really that which is static and unchanging to some degree. The color is constantly changing.

But if Le Corbusier did not specify white as the colour of modernism, what would happen? Would the white colour still dominate the modern architecture? None of us knows what will happen. Maybe not the white color was never to be a feature of modern architecture.

From now on white is everywhere in modern architecture. When a customer requests something from a modern architect, their minds go directly to a room with white walls, large pains of glass and basically the same elements as those that begun in 1920; that which has come to characterise modernism; something that is pure white, calm and geometric. All these ideas still qualify today. This shows once again that Le Corbusier did a good job and his views were so strong that they still remain today in the 21st century.

This is exactly what Richard Meier is doing in his buildings; since many of his buildings are inspired by Le Corbusier's works. With good judgment you can say that Richard Meier uses the ideas of this legend in architecture, having started a career in architecture based on his opinions, and as he had said,

"I have to acknowledge cartain debt to Le Corbusier; His work was part of my learning about architecture...When I was in architecture school, in the late 50s, of course Mies van der Rohe was one of one's heroes as were Le Corbusier,Alvar Aalto, and Frank Lloyd Wright. So I frankly feel that each of these great masters has been influential in my work".

But even after all these years he still remains faithful to them because all his buildings are seen to have been using the ideas of Le Corbusier especially those of Villa Savoye. In all of his buildings is using mainly the white color as it was also Le Corbusier's mark. Himself, Richard Meier said " If I cannot be Le Corbusier, then I can be Richard Meier". And clearly Richard Meier is the architect, where he continues to faithfully present the following modernism. The modernism as Le Corbusier was set up.

In particular the Smith house shows the similarities in the way that Richard Meier is designing his buildings with those of Le Corbusier. The Smith House is classified as a "...lighthouse of transparent geometry". It is strictly designed according to the geometry, the interior of the house has big open spaces and a big part of the house consists of large glass surfaces. Α white house in a green environment, and even here there is an element of nature. Watching the Smith House it comes in to your mind the VIlla Savoye and several other buildings designed by Le Corbusier because there was always that combination of white and nature.

In 1968 the editor of Record Houses stated about the Smith House, "…design impact is produced by the simplest means, with no frills and a remarkable absence of most current architectural cliches".

Generally Richard Meier has been described as a big fan of Le Corbusier. He admits saying,

"We are all affected by Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto, and Mies van der Rohe. But no less than Bramante, Borromini, and Bernini. Architecture is a tradition, a long continuum. Whether we break with tradition or enhance it, we are still connected to that past. We evolve."

His admiration for Le Corbusier is quite obvious and shows up strongly in an interview in which when the reporter asks a pretty tough question,

"Imagine for a moment that God decided to destroy every building on earth except one, and he asks you which one to spare. Which one would you pick?"

after a few seconds he answered, "I choose the Chapelle de Ronchamp by Corbusier." This shows strongly the bond that he has to the works of Le Corbusier.

The people of the 21st century now have to await bigger things and expect more from today's renowned architects. They now have to free themselves from the ideas of Le Corbusier and be more adventurous.

Le Corbusier was at the heart of modernism and now is one of the most important architects of the 20th century. Despite the good reviews it did not fail to acquire some negative comments. There ware a percentage of people who disagreed with his ideas and buildings.

Le Corbusier preferred the world of industry and machinery and he focused on them. This is the reason that he used a lot of technology in his buildings. He was also living at a time when the technology was at its peak, and contributed greatly to the development of human life. He believed that buildings should have functionalism so there would be better living conditions for people who live in them and not just a good appearance.

The architecture starts to become more complex not only in functionality but also in other factors such as psychological. Accordingly a large number of people disagreed with these views of Le Corbusier, which were that architects should take into consideration the psychology of humans and how a building makes them feel. This is very important and perhaps one of the most important things in architecture.

Le Corbusier was accused of not taking into consideration people's psychology when he was planning his buildings. Perhaps in some of Le Corbusier's projects, the beliefs of these people were true specifically for the "Plan Voisin" in Paris. But with good judgment most of his buildings emit a sense of nature and freshness. Nor is it fate that he is one of the best architects of the 20th century. Indeed he always had in his mind how his buildings would look like and what feeling they would give to people. He was both faithful to the geometry and element of nature and always strived for a lovely effect and pleasing resault.

Somehow the problems and the necessities of people in that period were, and are still affecting, the design and the planning of buildings in the cities. Especially nowadays, the fast development of technology and the use of new materials are lower in cost and more sustainable. Cheap materials are also to blame for the moody atmosphere of city buildings. Both architects, materials, and the economy describe the architecture of a city. Le Corbusier, despite being criticized he continued to think about people and the environment and the economy.

To illustrate the "Plan Voisin", it was an evil moment in Le Corbusier's career. He wanted to place two very tall skyscrapers in the center of Paris. When this became known, and after several bad reviews this plan was not acceptable and was rejected. It was because of this project, that resulted in the idea that Le Corbusier does not take into consideration the people when designing buildings; he was making people more depressed.

For instance, in a city where the famous, picturesque landmarks like the Eiffel Tower and the Arc de Triomphe reside, "Plan Voisin" comes in to spoil the whole picture. This iconic and beautiful image of Paris could not be easily tampered with. Instead of this you wold be forced to see a series of huge tower blocks with no connection or sympathy with these other historical monuments of Paris. They had a completely different relationship to the environment in which they were built. These buildings would be responsible for forming a completely new image of Paris. Le Corbusier wanted to make this iconic city more modern, but in doing so this monumental spectacle of the city would lose its essence. It would give birth to a new atmosphere and ethos; one without historic meaning and romanticism. Le Corbusier's plans were to now make Paris a more New Age and cutting-edge city with huge skyscrapers. The area were he planned the build was designated to be on the main streets of Paris. This city developed in a circular formation outwards from the centre. "Plan Voisin" was in a prime location were it has a full range of view of all sides, north, south, east and west. This was the point of Paris in which you could see all the historical monuments. Le Corbusier's new buildings would block these important and famous buildings and interrupted the continuity and flavour of the city.

Paris was a city of spectacle and the Eiffel Tower dominated it. Perhaps Le Corbusier wanted to develop this image of Paris, making some slight changes to this sense of fairy tale. These romantic images of extraordinary, traditional streets and buildings, would be given a more modern touch and create an image of a city with huge skyscrapers. Consequently, it would remove all these memories and picturesque streets of Paris. These were the opposing views that Le Corbusier was up against concerning his proposals. Through this you can see how much he believed in modernism and wanted to liberate the city from the past, by turning it into a more stylish spectacle. Nevertheless, his idea did not sit comfortably in the environment of Paris because it is a sensitive and specific area that does not easily allow this modern element.

So even the respect that Le Corbusier's other plans gained, the "Plan Voisin" was undesirable and rejected. Generally however, after nineteen sixty there was a certain dissatisfaction with the modern cities. Even today the existing situation can not be changed because of multiple factors such as population growth and the whole cultural development. These cities are now dominated by huge skyscrapers. In fact, it is now clear that Le Corbusier has a great influence on modern cities around the world. So we can safely say that all modern cities are planned on the basis of Le Corbusier's city planning and repeated time and again throughout the world. Even if he was accused for the "Plan Voisin" and people rejected it, some architects that was influenced by his ideas, took them as their revolutionary examples. You can say that they copied his ideas. It can be easily observed that the blocks that others build are very similar and the only difference is that they are not in the center of Paris, but outside it in an area called Bobigny, used to house the poor people of Paris.

Now all the buildings and mainly in the cities, are designed in this way. This form of design tends to lack passion as it does not inspire people. Life in the city is dull and very fast. Perhaps the fault is not one hundred percent the architect's but also the requirements of the age and culture, these also play an important role. Le Corbusier began to create this new architecture at a time when the world was looking for something new especially after the second World War. Through his architecture therefore, it can be said that he gave people comfort. So it wasn't difficult for people to accept and admire his works and techniques. Man suddenly begins to realize that this kind of architecture has great comfort in his life. And when something new has a good results, clearly people will admire it and be jealous of it.

Consequently, once again, we arrive at the conclusion that despite the bad reviews that Le Corbusier received in many of his works, the new generation of architects is still affected and inspired by this great architect. He established a history in the world of architecture and most importantly, changed the lives of people. It is logical though that something new will always have good and bad consequences, no matter how good something is. The evils of modernism impact was this fast development and this acceptance by people, this resulted the creation of a life in city more hazy. Even if people complain about this dull life in cities, now everyone depend on technology. And even though there were some disagreements, in reality Le Corbusier did make a better life. Now we all have a demand to look around and see only high-tech buildings with modern architecture, because no one is attracted to old buildings anymore. Nowadays we work and live in this environment and, ultimately, this is the ideal lifestyle of a man who lives in the 21st century. Today the architecture is to serve an idea, and gives birth to serve human beings. This shows strongly the influence that Le Corbusier has on the architects of this new generation. Le Corbusier was the first architect who planned everything with functionality and this is the most important part of today's architecture. Even though some refuse to admit that Le Corbusier is a legend in the architecture, all these we see around us is the answer. Because architecture can not meet its own purposes for which it is built, has received a supportive environment which consists of ourselves. This means that we ourselves by our actions we are accepting this architecture. Now only the neo-conservative architects may hate him. Especially in our days, it is rare to find this kind of architect.

The beauty of this architecture is that the building work to help people, and this is the charmers. This is the international style, and we can describe ourselves as inheritors of this style. Manifest that for many years until today, white remains the colour of modernism as well as the use of geometric shapes and the large glass surfaces. Today we have reached a stage where some things have changed considerably, but some principles still remain the same. Maybe in the future to change things, but at the present time we remain in an epoch where the architecture of Le Corbusier dominates.

But, why in an era where everything evolves at a fast speed, key elements of the architecture remain the same? The knowledge of the architects of today are the ones where they have learned from their schools, having so a solid foundation from older architects. Therefore for their own convenience remain within the limits of academic boundaries, continuing thus, to walk in the paths of major architects. They keep closely to their plans, ignoring completely new ways of building maybe because clearly there wasn't something else for them to do. Perhaps this is the main reason that since 1920 where Le Corbusier, mapped out his own path in architecture today continues to be way.

"…new styles of architecture are the token of a change of heart, then things are as they should be. You cannot change a worm-out heart very easily, not even in our times."

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