Adaptation Of Beliefs And Behaviors Cultural Studies Essay

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The adaptation of beliefs and behaviours of one's cultural group by another is known as Acculturation. According to Berry (1998) Acculturation is majorly inculcated by the minority classes or group. In favour of the dominant group, it can also be visa versa of one sided. In the context of the consumer behaviour the minority group is trying to target these groups, this is due to the diversification appending in the consumer population. Therefore through Assimilation, we can explore acculturation in a broader and wider context. Words such as acculturation, assimilation, and ethnic identification are always lingered by uncertainty, as the meaning of these concepts are very much ambiguous. As the meaning of both the words is synonymous therefore the context of a sentence pertaining to these words can differ to each other as well as mean the same. Due to this the concepts have also led to different operationalization of the constructs, which poses questions about both the validity of these studies and the comparability of the results from different studies. Second, acculturation in many cases is taken to be equivalent to assimilation and is treated as a one-dimensional construct is a notable. Third, although empirical research has found that the acculturation process does have an influence on consumer behaviour, no systematic account exists that explains why and how acculturation influences consumer behaviour. D.M.R. Deshpande (2004) such a systematic explanation is imperative if we desire a true understanding of the acculturation process and its influence on consumer behaviour. Research in the Consumer sector should go beyond the mere observation of the mechanism that leads to such differences. From a consumer resocialization perspective and also the struggle between change and continuity of the individual's self-identity an acculturating individual's consumption experience can be understood. This difference in outcome is a result of the different impact each socialization agent has on an individual, which can come from the individual's voluntary as well as involuntary choice of the socialization agents.

Term acculturation: Acculturation can be understood as the broader concept of Assimilation and ethnic identification. Acculturation has a multidimensional construct. W. Christian Buss (1999), the acceptance of the host culture or the mainstream culture is one dimension of acculturation. And according to ethnic identification, an individual maintains his or her original or ethnic culture. This dose not means a person adopting many aspects of the main culture does not necessarily have a low degree of ethnic identification, and vice versa. This causes the emergence of two different patterns of individuals which vary along in two different dimensions. Now that we have understood the context of our work, let us now try to explore the word Acculturation and the difference between acculturation and assimilation.

Every group- level acculturation is influenced and also contributed by a individual level of  acculturation, further the evolution  of both these concepts are not always same, Example:  An individual may be highly acculturated, whereas the group he or she belongs to may be not acculturated at all this can also be true the other way around. As here is on each individual consumer the individual-level acculturation. Researchers have indicated, in acculturation process both socio cultural and psychological adjustments occur. Acculturation brings changes in an individual's value, attitude, and behaviour which are due to his or her direct contact with a culture other than his or her original culture. Acculturation .can be long process and can go on for several years or even it can span throughout a person's entire life.

According to Charles M. (1999), every individual has his own particular pace in the Acculturation process. This also causes an individual to lose his or her original cultural identity, as they get assimilated into the host culture, which can also happen the other way around. Therefore this acculturation process is highly distinctive and is shaped or affected by an entity's cognitive, intellectual characteristics or physiognomy, other factors like environmental and other external factors do carry some significance. A collective attainment to consumer socialization can help us understand how acquaint learn to spending or consume in a new country and how the consequence of this learning process turns out to be different for different individuals. By defining Acculturation, it will be easy for us to define assimilation. Acculturation and assimilation are similar since they all refer to a process that happens when an individual is in direct contact with a new culture. But assimilation takes on a much contracted, constricted meaning than acculturation it also refers to the adoption of the host culture and the loss of the original culture. It is a unidirectional process that goes from the individual's original culture to the new host culture. As one moves on in the assimilation process, loses part of his original culture and acquires the host culture so that he or she will be indistinguishable from people in the host culture.

To distinguish acculturation from assimilation we need to further understand acculturation. When an individual is in direct contact with a new culture they are prone to go through the process of Acculturation and assimilation. Murphy Sewall (2007), but assimilation takes on a much contracted meaning than acculturation. It means the espousal of a host culture and the loss of the original culture. It's moving or operating is in a single direction that is from the original culture to the new host culture. One is prone to lose his original culture and acquires the host culture and due to this he or she will be incapable of being perceived as different. According to Acculturation, the loss of one's original culture does not always lead to the adoption of the host culture. The attitude an individual holds towards the host culture and the original culture is to be given more importance to understand the process. Cathy (2007), the two ambits are important in maintaining one's original cultural identity and the relationship with other groups. The importance or significance on these two ambits changes unceasingly. It important to adopt an integrated strategy to maintain ones own culture as well as maintain relationship with other groups. A multicultural or multiethnic society is set to form when such a strategy is accepted by a majority group. And when an assimilation strategy is used the importance to maintain the original culture is lost, rather the value to maintain relationship with other groups is high. The loss of his or her original culture and identity is prone to happen and mix him or herself into the host society. Maintaining the original cultural identity is considered important but not for maintaining relationship with other groups, the acculturating individual will adopt a strategy and will isolate him or herself from the effect and inspiration of the host culture. Therefore, a freeze out situation will occur when trying to maintain the original culture and relationship with other groups. This will result in a Third culture.  Based on the above groundwork, his or her attitude will be the base of an acculturating individual's behaviour, which also predicts the stress an individual may experience in this process. Goodwin (2007), the deemed importance of maintaining one's own cultural identity can be easily associated with the frequently used concept of ethnic identification. The ethnic identity of an individual refers to which ethnic group an individual identifies. Further we can see a correlation between ethnic identification and one's own cultural identity.

An individual maintaining his or her cultural identity important is likely to be more strongly identified with his or her ethnic or cultural group, he or she also strongly maintain this group's identity. Theresa Steidley's (1999) research on ethnic identification draws a better understanding of this dimension of acculturation. Second People have different opinion in maintaining relationship with the majority group. The loss of one's original cultural identity is what happens in the process of assimilation which is not implied by this dimension of acculturation, this opportunity for understanding the relationship between the acculturating individual and the host culture. The research on assimilation and its effects on consumer behaviour can be integrated to the study of this dimension of acculturation, which is, importance for the acculturating individual in maintaining relationship with the majority group. According to John T. Cacioppo (1999), other multidimensional structures may also be important or more appropriate for understanding acculturation; the use of framework will not produce much difference in the theoretical model compared with models adopting these other structures of acculturation. The process of socialization can be both functional and dysfunctional which depending on what kind of socialization agents are involved. The other way consumer behaviour can be influence through the maintenance and change in acculturating individual's self-identity. It has a significant impact on the individual's self. It is also very important for the individual to be adaptable to the variation.

Richard E. Petty (1999), the struggle between change and continuity in the acculturation process is reflected in the products the individual consumes and how he or she consumes. Individuals adopting different acculturation strategies will put different emphases on change vs. continuity and will tend to consume in a way that reflects this difference in emphasis. In the acculturation process and in the relationship between acculturation and consumer behavior Environmental factors and individual characteristics play an important role.   Example, the working environment and the residential environment surrounding an acculturating individual shape the socialization agent further which influences the individual's socialization process and consumption behaviour.   A collective attainment to consumer socialization can help us understand how acquaint learn to spending or consume in a new country and how the consequence of this learning process turns out to be different for different individuals. This difference in outcome is a result of the different impact each socialization agent has on an individual, which can come from the individual's voluntary as well as involuntary choice of the socialization agents. This shows the different impact each socialization agent has on an individual, which can come from the individual's intentional and unintentional choice of the socialization agents.

M. J. (1996), environmental factors pose restrictions on the socialization agents an acculturating individual is likely to be in contact with. Example the working environment of a acculturating individual. An acculturating individual produce different sets of peers in a company whose employees are mainly from the host culture and working in a company who employs people from the same cultural origin.  Mass media and family are the information sources for Individuals in host country with host culture. The acculturating individual's attitudes towards the host culture and the original culture lead to his or her voluntary selection of socialization agents. It's a positive attitude towards the host culture which leads the individual to be more confabs. According to Herskovits (1996) for advice an acculturating individual will turn to family or peer.  Individuals who are more structurally assimilated tend to consult friends, co-workers, salesperson and mere observation before purchase, whereas individuals less assimilated tend to turn to family for advice. These voluntary as well as involuntary choices of socialization agent determine what the acculturating individual sees and learns about the consumption reality in the host country.

These differences in learning further lead to different consumer behavior, example processing advertisements in a different manner or different criteria in making purchase decisions. At the same time, to keep the self merged, there also needs to evolve during the changing process. This ongoing dialogue between change and continuity makes up the history of the self. Murphy Sewall (2007), says, just as historical remnants make it possible for us to understand and partially reproduce historical events and the life of historical people, there are also certain things that symbolize an individual's past, present and future self. Both the individual's possessions and people around the individual make up the extended self and substantiate the history of his or her self. It's moving or operating is in a single direction that is from the original culture to the new host culture. One is prone to lose his original culture and acquires the host culture and due to this he or she will be incapable of being perceived as different.

Although many changes in self are trivial and may not even be recognized, other changes can be dramatic and can significantly alter the self. Many changes in self are unimportant or small but other changes can be dramatic and can significantly alter the self. The changes an acculturating individual's self undergoes would belong to the latter. An acculturating individual undergoes changes in a latter stage. When an individual's original culture is very different from the host culture he or she experience dramatic changes through the acculturation process.

It is very important for an individual to have adaptability and continuity of the self in the time of changes. According to John T. Cacioppo (1999), ossessions play an important role in this self-management. On the one hand obtaining a new possessions or products, especially associated with the host culture, helps the self to get set up to a new culture. On the other hand, the acculturating individual is evoked by his or her past by his belongings and old possessions. And in the host country these possessions are substituted by products from the original country or products symbolizing the original culture. For individuals in different acculturation modes, the emphasis on change versus continuity will be different. The emphasis on change versus continuity will be different for individuals in different acculturation modes. They will be eager to change themselves to the new identity as a member of the host culture. For them, products from the host country are often purchased and consumed to show belonging to the host culture.

To show belongingness to the host culture products from the host country are often purchased and consumed. However, emphasis will be put on both change and continuity from a integrationists perspective. Stayman (2004), consumed and absorbed, and at the same time products from the original country are equally cherished. Integrationists' consumption pattern will be expected to be a mixture of host country style and original country style. Integrationists think in both host country style and original country style. They treat the products from the original country or products symbolizing the original culture with enthusiasm and significance.

 

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