20th Century Classical Music Cultural Studies Essay

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20th century classical music is classical music written during the last century. Composers wrote in styles from different countries that were a bit similar ideas about what form to use in orchestras or how to write good tunes. Classical music from the 20th century is the different ways of thinking as many composers has their own ideas to compose. Many types of music has names ending in "ism" there was serialism, Expressionism, Neoclassicism, Impressionism, as well as jazz, world music and folksong, electronic music, Minimalism, and even post-modernism. The writer also experienced if one can accept the saying "I am different from which I came from" which came from Claude Debussy and led to the term impressionism that was popular with painters. Impressionism is a language that many composers used to create the impressionist musical language. He was known to use interesting chords just for the sound that they make and also used the whole tone scale and was inspired by Javanese music. There were many French composers such as Albert Roussel, Charles Koechilin, Andre Caplet and Oliver Messiaen continued impressionism's language through the 1920's and later. In the late part of the 19th century, the early 20th century Romantic music was created by the traditional instrumental grouping such as orchestra and string quartet remain the most typical. Arnold Schoenberg was one of the greatest composers in the 20th- century music. He was influenced by Wagner, his music became very atonal, not in any key at all. After many years of researching, he discovered the

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twelve-tone technique of composition. This was called atonal music which was organized by putting the notes of a musical idea in a particular order which could be changed in many ways during the piece. The organization of music is called "Serialism". Many different composers were influenced by Schoenberg such as Anton Webern and Alban Berg. These composers were referred to as the principal members of the Second Viennese School. He also wrote two major operas which was "Wozzeck and Lulu". Stravinsky came from Russia. He was inspired by the Russian culture. His music had irregular rhythms which caused dancers to have a difficult time to dance at first. Igor Feodorovich Stravinsky was inspired by the music in the 18th century and one of the greatest composers. His first large independent work that overtook was the forty-five minute opera, "The Nightingale". He collaborate that with his good friend Stepan Mitusov, who was a leading figure in the vanguard of Russian symbolism. They both meet in 1904 or earlier at Rimsky's house. Debussy's Noctrune, Nuages, is the obvious model of the openings of The Nightingale. The third great ballet, The Rite of Spring, is the climax. He used it and changes it, adding dissonant and strange chords which are called neoclassicism. Neoclassicism was a style of music that many composers replaced the functional tonality of gestures and formlessness of late Romanticism. Many different composers such as Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, George Gershwin, Darius Milhaud and Maurice Ravel combined elements of Jazz idiom with classical composition styles. Another movement of music is Futurism. Futurism was embraced by the Russians. Italians Silvio Mix, Nuccio Fiorda, Franco Casavola, and Pannigi were all associated with this movement. Many characteristics features of the

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later 20th century music with origins in futurism includes the prepared piano, integral serialism, extended and minimalism. Minimalism is music based around a simple idea which repeats itself again and again but gradually changes. Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Terry Riley, John Cage and to some extent John Adams all used the minimalist techniques. John Cage is a prominent composer in the 20th century music. His influenced grew rapidly during his lifetime. He was known for his work in which any instrument is instructed not to play for the duration of the work. Cage uses elements of change. Most of the styles and movements that follow can be classified as "post-modern". Expressionist music is a type of movement that is identified with Arnold Schoeburg's "free atonal period" This music avoid cadence, repletion, sequence, balanced phrases, and any references to traditional form or procedures. Many composers continued to write in expressionist manner, it was supplanted by more impersonal style and neoclassicism. Postmodernism began when historic optimism turned to pessimism at the latest by 1930. Electronic music generally refers to a repertory of art music that was developing in the 1950 in Europe, Japan and the Americas. Electronic music depends on transmission via loudspeakers, but there are loud speakers, and there are two broad types: acousmatic music, which exists only in recorded form meant for loudspeaker listening and live electronic apparatus are used to generate, transform, or trigger sounds during performance by musicians using voices, traditional instruments, electro-acoustic instruments, or other devices. The early 1957 computers became very important in this field. Many prominent composers from the 20th Century are not associated with compositional movement such as Carlos Chavez,

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Edward Elgar, George Enescu, Gabriel Faure, Morton Feldman and many, many others. Most beautiful Classical Music of the 20th Century is the song "Song to the Moon" and also the song by Stravinsky's "Symphony of Pslams," That song is powerfully moving, the third movement, especially. Its many more songs that many viewers commented on such as "Nights in the Garden of Spain" is colorful and dream-like, with passages of great beauty. The last movement of Mahler's "Das Lied von der Erde," performed by two of the greatest musical artist of the 20th century: Kathleen Ferrier & Bruno Walter. Traditions and transition offers information on the classical Arab singer Mounir Mehdi. He has released several versions of songs and few original songs making him an international sensation with tours around the world. He started out in the mid-1980s as a teenager. He stated that he didn't chose to be a singer it was deep inside of him for a very long time. He has released a number of cover versions of songs together with a few originals. His passion for music had taken him all over including Brazil, Canada, Japan and many other countries. The profit was not always the main focus but to offer those melodies and harmonies to the young people that what made a great deal. The change has affected classical Arabic music as any other musical genre. The intriguing story of the 20th century expressions of Arabic classical music is a study in the development of national styles emerging during the first decades of the 1900s. The author stated that however classical music composed during the 20th century still has a reputation for being too difficult, too serious and too perplexing. Experimenting with atonality, microtonality, electronic distortion of sound and the role of chance: the developments favored by the more innovative 20th century composers do not make for

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easy listening. Bernd Alois Zimmermann and Gyorgy Ligeti are almost always better-known loved pieces by Beethoven or Brahms. Defining and representing "jazz" is highly and inescapably political and it should be explain both sociologically and musicologically, in a dialectical, interdependent and interactive manner. The writer describe the music as changing according to how people and era changes. Jazz has been accepted into the halls of all Americans. "Jazz" emerged as a formerly rural African American labors traveled north to the urban industrial and commercial centers. Its entire history has been the freeing of time, pitch, and harmony from fixed, regulated, predictable standard. Every major movement in the history of the music has been from struggle of musicians to attain greater and greater levels of expressive freedom through liberating the two basic fundamentals of music: time and sound. A new instrument was introduced to the world of music during the 1890s and early 1900s in the U.S.A. For the first time, one individual using all four limbs played several percussion parts simultaneously. The European instruments such as the piano and bass violin were transformed both in their role and in the manner of playing. Those roles were primarily melodic. Piano playing now involves a rhythmic approach to harmony that supplies chordal/harmonic percussions-like rhythms. The string bass is now played in its traditionally Western European bowed manner. By the 1960s the musicians sought more boldly to escape from fixed, Western temperament, the piano was either left out entirely or played without regard to conventional harmony. The most characteristically "jazz" instrument is still the saxophone. The saxophone would have become an

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obsolete, novelty instrument, in some works by French composers. The saxophone replaces the clarinet and became the "voice" of the "jazz band". As "jazz" become more of art music and the jazz composer began to pen extended works such as suites, ballers, theater and film scores and many more. A new "jazz" has become attest to the revolutionary heritage that began in the 20th century. Musically, blues is the first and foremost a unique expression of temperament. Many authentic blues performers will actually retune their instruments to be more "in tone". The blues is a form that is expressed in bars or in chords. Blues is understood in African American poetry. It's sung vocally and has a representation of the African culture. There were some composers that managed to keep a more traditional path and found new ways to use tonality in their music. The greatest figure in British music was Benjamin Britten who was an eclectic composer. There were two other composers that developed their own style: Michael Tippett and William Walton. In America there were Samuel Barber, Roy Harris and Alan Hovhances. In Germany Paul Hindemith was one of the important composers. Like Kurt Weill, he wrote his own music that had a political purpose but Weill's music is more jazz-inspired. The composers that are living today write music that is much more religious. These include John Tavener and Arvp Part. Many other composers found various ways of creating their own style. These include John Rutter and Bob Chilcott, who write music for choirs which sound fresh and attractive to new audiences. In Russia Sofia Gubaidulina and Galina Ustvolskaya are important voices in the search for new music.

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