Police firm is a law enforcement force that concern to protect life and property, preserve law, as well as order, prevent and detect crime. A police firm can be understood as specialized firms equipped arm in protecting governed law, fighting resistance of crime, order and security of society, protect life and property of citizen. Almost police forces represent legal rights and benefits of people, moreover maintaining application law in practices.
To these duties, police officers need essential and extensive data and information through knowledge management system of organization to achieve task objectives effectively. XPF also is a law enforcement unit; so that it does not lie out of these essential conditions to demand development an relevant IKM strategy in order to exchange information, knowledge, and experience in police community for resisting and detecting crime.
2. Q1: Develop and state the Information and Knowledge Management strategy for Xanadu Police Force (XPF).
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Duties of XPF are in the areas of crime prevention, incident management, investigation and community policing. To develop an IKM strategy for XPF, we have to analyze keys on these functions and tasks after that designing an appropriate strategy that officers can capture information and knowledge from external and internal source.
2.1. Knowledge management for XPF in crime prevention
According to Gottschalk, P (2008), Knowledge is a main resource for a police force to prevent crime. If the police have more knowledge, crime will be fought in an efficient and effective way and police will have more success. If the police officers know less and the least compared to criminals, crime will have freedom to expand and succeed. Hence, it is not absolute level of knowledge in police that is important but rather the relative knowledge level as illustrated in figure 1 about knowledge war between the police and crime.
Figure 1 - Knowledge War between police and criminal knowledge level
Police knowledge level
Criminal knowledge level
Core knowledge Advance knowledge Innovative knowledge
Target policingReference: Knowledge management in policing: enforcing law on criminal business
ses (2008) Gottschalk, P. Hindawi Publishing Corporation - New York.
Distinction can be among core, advanced and innovative knowledge. These knowledge categories indicate different levels of knowledge sophistication. Core knowledge is that minimum scope and level of police officer knowledge required for daily operations and tasks, whilst advance knowledge enables a police understanding criminal reasons to preclude crime happen and innovative knowledge help police officers researching crime approaches and future criminal situation.
From figure 1, we can see that, XPF has to ensure knowledge level in its officer force is higher than criminal knowledge level. This means Xanadu should use a IKM strategy that the main purpose to direct to three types of knowledge level for its police force preventing crime. I will introduce a knowledge level figure illustrated reflecting in knowledge war between XPF and criminal groups.
Figure 2 - Knowledge war between XPF officers and criminal groups
Criminal knowledge level
Xanadu officer knowledge level
To achieve win in knowledge war, XPF is essential to exploit, use and share knowledge in officers force by the way of better practice, faster development and criminal solving to make advantages in preventing and detecting criminal problems (figure 3).
Sharing best practices
Faster criminal solving
The Xanadu police force knowledge
Faster developmentFigure 3 - Knowledge management - competitive advantages of XPF
2.2. Information management for XPF in incident management
Incident information management is a critical element of XPF in maintaining order and security of society. There are reactive and proactive ways. Examples of reactive ways are roadblocks and spot-checks after a crime has been reported. Proactive ways include public education. However, effectiveness of above approaches depend more on using and transferring information on its computer and network systems.
In practice, law enforcement force might use basic principles of incident management intervention models to solve happened situations. With XPF, I will provide a model that apply by Royal Canadian Mounted Police in helping XPF can achieve incident and risk management more reliably and effectively (see figure 4)
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Figure 4 - Incident management/ Intervention model
The area places nearly the centre circle contains the various subject behavior categories including cooperative, passive resistant, active resistant, assaultive, and grievous bodily harm or death. Perception and tactical considerations are interrelated and are therefore contained in the same ring (officer presence) on the model. Agents that the officer brings to the situation, that are unique to the individual officer interact with both situational factors and behavior categories to determine how an officer may perceive or assess the situation. Further, the officer's perception of a situation may affect his/her assessment and, in turn his/her tactical considerations.
The outer ring of the figure represents the officer's intervention options. These options range from officer presence to communication skills, physical control techniques, intermediate weapons, lethal force, and weapons of opportunity. The outermost ring, tactical repositioning, represents the possibility that the officer may change or alter his or her position in an effort to gain a tactical advantage. This may occur at any point during the incident.
Though officer presence, communication, and tactical repositioning are not physical intervention options, they are included to illustrate the range of intervention options that may be used to control and influence subject behavior.
2.3. Knowledge management for Xanadu in criminal investigation
The criminal investigation process is a critical function of policing. The main members in crime related policing is the investigator who is involved in every step of the criminal investigation. Throughout the criminal investigation, the investigator uses his/her cognitive abilities and personal knowledge strategies to understand and solve the crime. In this assignment, I will introduce major stage in criminal investigation and how to complement management skills in helping an investigator make sense of a crime as well as in deciding the approach of the criminal investigation.
The major stages in a criminal investigation are illustrated in figure 5. These stages have been synthesized from several sources. In this assignment, I assume the model of the major stages of the criminal investigation process consist of (1) crime reported or detected by police; (2) preliminary investigation; (3) follow-up investigation; (4) suspect development and apprehension; and (5) case construction (see following figure).
Crime reported or detected by police
Suspect development & apprehension
Research of these stages in investigation process of law enforcement units will help we understand that have both reactive and proactive ways to them. The knowledge management required to effectively carry out an investigation is built upon "three pillars". These pillars are forensics, intelligence and interviews. A well-grounded forensic understanding of a crime scene is the foundation of any investigation. Intelligence gathering is a crucial activity for an investigation, particularly for proactive investigations into organized crime and/or terrorist related-operations. As regards interviews, the ability to derive relevant information from people through effective interviewing is seen by law enforcement units as an essential activity in any investigation.
2.4. IKM strategy model for Xanadu police force
According to specialists, the most important factor of law enforcement units has been the central role of "knowledge" in problem solving. (1) Knowledge and its management, is consistently viewed as a "bed rock necessity" for innovation in police problem solving, (2) in an "internet world" where information flows at the "speed of thought," managing knowledge becomes a key determinant in an organizations ability to meet conventional expectations for organizational viability.
The two significant key results to law enforcement forces, including XPF, are continuing to develop a system sharing information and knowledge. An effective knowledge management system helps innovating police abilities is extremely essential. This would ensure police officers continuously captured knowledge in the course of their work. Hence, an IKM strategy that is introduced following is constructed for XPF to use in practice (see figure 6).
Figure 6 - IKM strategy is applied for Xanadu police force
"Knowing what we know"
Processing knowledge .Creating knowledge
"Sharing what we know" "Increasing what we know"
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"Using what we know"
KNOWLEDGE - CENTRIC
The IKM strategy of XPF, clearly establishes the need for Knowledge Management as an innovation in and of its self. While Knowledge Management (KM) as an innovation has been recognized in the private sector, Knowledge management in XPF must develop to relevant with innovation leadership.
The analyses of IKM strategy in XPF that is a loosely bundled but interconnected set of management activities designed to capitalize on the intellectual assets. Knowledge management in this model is not a passive activity, but a purposeful organizational strategy that is integrally related to organizational activities. Known as an innovation cluster, the four-part police knowledge management model provides a useful framework for understanding how knowledge is captured, shared, applied and created in public safety organizations.