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This paper will endeavour in explaining which factors significantly contribute to violent behaviour in the case of Les Roches Students and furthermore will suggest effective prevention methods for the local community, to reduce violent behaviour in pubs and clubs.
Methodology: In order to collect primary data, questionnaires were distributed to current Les Roches students, resulting in (N=250) responses. Furthermore it acquired local authorities and venue owner's opinions in order to apply a triangulation analysis to accurately assess the results of the topic.
Findings: Results from the primary data demonstrated that, in the case of Les Roches students, no independent variable, such as alcohol consumption, environment, management practises or cultural heritage were significant in explaining violent behaviour, although when cross-tabulation was performed, the influential factors demonstrated to have a strong influence on alcohol consumption, which is known to be the leading cause of violent behaviour. Furthermore no prevention method was deemed effective in reducing violent behaviour in the case of Les Roches students.
Keywords: violent behaviour, Les Roches, consumption, prevention methods, licenced venues
Violence is an extreme form of aggression; it's an inevitable human act in one's everyday life; it has been evident throughout history, where it would be used to determine power and settle disputes. Regrettably our society today, still emphasises the need of violent behaviour for many issues. It has many purposes and causes, ranging from individuals personal attitudes and/or external factors such as intoxication, setting, beliefs or environmental factors.
In our current generation, violence is a common occurrence in the nightlife setting; one often comes across violent behaviour ranging from a simple dispute to a full-on brawl. Violent behaviour most commonly occurs because of a contrast of interests or a misunderstanding. Majority of violence is caused by young adults, for the reasons being that these individuals are the ones that have grown up in a violent environment either as a consequence of modern trends or because society has rendered it acceptable to display violent behaviour in any circumstance (Homel & Clark,1994).
Youth violence is also quite often associated with the consumption of alcohol. Although there are many other factors that are leading the young community to behave violently, alcohol is still considered the key risk factor for both perpetrators and victims of violence all around the world (Homel, Thomsen, & Thommeny, 1992, p. 679). Unfortunately the young population is not aware that this kind of behavior can have disturbing consequences to both their health and overall safety, not to mention the burden it gives society in general, even though they have made violence an everyday occurrence in their nightlife activities (Hughes, 2006, p.1).
Among alcohol and illegal substance consumption, there are a variety of other factors that have led to violent behavior in licensed venues: some of them being related to the environment of the venue, such as spatial density (Livingston et Al., 2007,cited in Livingston, 2008, p.1); management coordination (Rossow & Norström, 2011, p.1); and finally an individual's cultural background may have some sort of influence on how individuals might react in violent circumstances (Markowitz, 2001, p.3).
In the case of Les Roches students, the study of violent behaviour would not only prove beneficial in the prevention of harm of the patrons, but the gained knowledge would be an asset for licensed premises as they would be aware of the leading causes of violent behaviours and crimes, whether it is solely caused by alcohol or if there are also other factors that lead the local university students to behave violently.
The research will focus on students from Les Roches International School of Hotel Management in Bluche Switzerland. This population was chosen because of the historically evident occurrence of violent behaviour during the nightlife setting. The sample proves to be relevant because it satisfies the targeted age group of young adults between the ages of 19 to 25. Furthermore Les Roches is familiar to the nightlife environment along with its components: alcohol consumption, intoxication, socialization and violent behaviour. In addition, Les Roches location in an isolated village of Bluche and Crans-Montana proves beneficial to the study as it minimizes the effects of external factors. Les Roches has a fairly small population which facilitates a more concentrated study. Having said that Les Roches' population consists of students from 98 different nationalities and several different cultures. This allows the research to be generalizable as the Les Roches student body reflects the young adult population of the world. The study will focus on present Les Roches students that have been here for one year or more , as this will ensure that the individuals have been integrated in "The Les Roches Way of Life".
This dissertation will initiate with a critical analysis of existing academic literature regarding factors influencing violent behaviour in licenced venues. The paper will then continue with a detailed description and justification of the methodology and data collection used. Subsequently, the paper will present the readers with the results obtained, and then the author will apply a triangulation analysis in order to evaluate the results to compare and contrast with appropriate existing literature, and discuss the findings. The last section of the dissertation will offer the readers the final justifications and conclusion of the topic, in addition to the limitations of the study as well as provide recommendations for future research in regards to this topic. This structure will allow the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of which factors influence violent behaviour in the case of Les Roches students.
Aim and Objectives
This research was chosen in regards to the limited available research on various factors influencing violent behaviour; the available documentation in regards to this topic mainly focus on intoxication as a leading factor contributing to aggression. This research aims to explore and identify the extent to which previously identified factors contribute to the present violent behaviour in the Les Roches community.
The following objectives are considered in order to accomplish the purpose of this research. The objectives are:
To critically review secondary literature related to the different factors leading to violent behaviour, which habits lead to violent behaviour and also which prevention methods can be effective in the avoidance of violent behaviour in licensed venues.
To measure the prominence of such factors, habits and prevention methods in the Les Roches community, and identify the major causes of violence by considering the perspectives of the Les Roches students, the local venue owner and the local authorities.
To apply a triangulation analysis in order to critically evaluate the results and discuss the most significant findings by comparing and contrasting such results with the findings from the critical review of relevant secondary literature .
To assess whether a specific model can be implemented for the Les Roches Population, which visually demonstrates the interdependence of violent behaviour and the various independent variables.
To formulate suitable recommendations towards future research in line with the identified limitations, and to propose possible solutions towards the local authorities and venues on how to prevent situations pertaining to violent behaviour.
The research question of this Dissertation is "Which factors are responsible for the contribution of violent behaviour in nightclubs in the case of Les Roches students".
Following the statement of the research question and the illustrating of the objectives, the paper will continue with a critical analysis and reviewing of relevant literature work on the general area of research.
This literature review will constitute an analysis of secondary data of factors contributing to the production of violence in licensed venues, which will allow for a critical comparison to be made in the case of violence for Les Roches Students; this literature review will provide an overview of different factors leading to violent behavior, such as consumption, environment, management practice and cultural heritage, as well as the type of habits violent individuals are accustomed to. Furthermore, research about effective prevention methods previously applied to licenced venues, will be investigated in order to establish and recommend effective prevention methods.
General Knowledge of Violence
In recent years, people have developed a sense of proximity with violence, making it normal to witness, whether on TV or by simply going out of the house, violence is witnessed everywhere; all this exposure to aggression is bound to create a generation of hostile individuals. In studies made by scholars concerning the relationship alcohol-violence, there were two different ways in which they categorized violence; scholars from the Macquarie University in Sydney categorized violence as either Physical or Non-physical, the last one implying non-physical contact, such as: cursing and threatening (Homel, Clark, 1994, p. 15); whilst scholars from the Vancouver University, stipulated that an incident would be considered aggressive if it involved a personal violation, if someone acted against the rules and regulations of the venue, or a fight where someone's personal investments are put into question (Homel Carvolth, Hauritz, Mcilwain & Teague, 2004, pp. 21-22). Van Havere, Vanderplasschen, Broekaert and De Bourdeaudhui (2009, pp. 1899-1900) acknowledge that our current generation has made it a habit to "go out", every weekend, thus exposing them to alcohol and violence. Moreover, the young generation has begun to exaggerate when it come to entertainment which generally, leads to aggressive behaviour; studies show that around forty percent of all violent incidents happen around licensed venues, making these locations accountable for many serious assaults (McIlwain & Homel, 2009; Haines & Graham, 2005, cited in Mazerolle, White, Ransley & Ferguson, 2012, p.2). The foremost factor is usually consumption of alcohol (Homel & Clark, 1994, p.4), although there is space for other variables. In fact, a fundamental assumption by Graham et al.(1980, cited in Roberts, 2007, p.2) and Homel et al. (1992, p.680), is that violent behaviour episodes were not necessarily caused by one single variable, but by the somewhat combination of various variables at a specific time and place. Majority of research made on the topic of violence in licenced venue concerns young adults (Liang & Chikritzhs, 2011; Hughes, Anderson, Morleo & Bellis, 2007; Donath Grässel, Baier, Pfeiffer, Karagülle, Bleich & Hillemacher, 2011; Bellis & Hughes, 2011; Homel & Clark, 1994; Macintyre & Homel, 1997). Whereas the location where this topic is usually focused is in licenced night-time venues (Scott & Dedel, 2006; Livingston, 2008; Atkinson, Anderson, Hughes & Bellis, 2009; Homel & Clark, 1994)
Key Factors Influencing Violent Behaviour
Violence and alcohol have a strong positive correlation in the development of aggressive behavior. One of the first persons to acknowledge this notion was a Greek poet named Eubulus, who during the 4th Century, created a play where Dionysus conveyed a message to the audience on the effects of too much wine consuming (Bellis & Hughes, 2011, p. 1). Although already known, society has only made this relationship deteriorate, by the younger generations who are overindulging in alcohol and find pleasure in brutality (Hughes, 2006, p. 1). Alcohol used to be a festivity beverage, as Room (1988) reveals: "Australia's reputation for drinking was brought on by male British military units; they would have two specific rituals whilst drinking: shouting and binge drinking after a hard day at work" (Room, 1988, cited in Homel & Clark, 1994, p.2). Because of what Homel and Clark (1994) mentioned, other researches such as Hughes et al. (2007, p.62) have added that the act of binge drinking has continued well till now, and it doesn't seem as if it is going to change; we now live in a binge-drinking culture that focuses on alcohol for socializing at night (Homel et al., 1992, p. 679).
The majority of alcohol related violence occurs in "commercial drinking establishments (pubs/venue/nightclubs)" at night-time, usually during the weekend where there are favourable conditions for extravagation and indulgence (Graham, 2009, p.1). Moreover Homel & Clark (1994, p.10) comment that bars and club venues are usually selected rather than restaurants for this type of research, as to avoid having elderly people involved in the sample, as they are not generally involved in violent behaviour. The young generation now feels compelled to consume alcohol to entertain themselves (Van Havere et al., 2009, p.1899), unfortunately they do not realize the consequences that could perpetrate from such behaviour. Hughes (2006, p.2) explores this issue and identifies that there is a firm linkage of violence to alcohol, this is because intoxicated people are more prone to violence due to the fact that they feel more confident. Incidentally Romain-Glassey, Gut, Feiner, Cathieni, Hofner & Mangin (2012, p.3) also proved that in addition to confidence, alcohol has an effect on people's perception and judgment on situations, leading them to make the wrong decision. Furthermore the World Health Organisation (2009, p.4) states that alcohol fuels the courage to perpetrate violent offences. Ramage (2012, p.1) adds that when an individual finds himself/herself completely inebriated, he/she is more reluctant to be able to get out of an argument because of the inability to talk his/her way out of the situation. Combining this to the continuous decrease in drink prices (Scott & Dedel, 2006, p. 7), people have as well started pre-drinking at home. The pre-drinkers have shown to relate to most of the violence, due to the higher level of alcohol consumption (Hughes et al., 2007, p. 61).To further discern this issue, Homel & Clark (1994, p.6) explored this argument and essentially discovered that when venues would lack alcohol supply, violent occurrences would decrease even if people would be pre-drinking at home. However, Liang and Chikritzhs (2011, p.525) stress that it is essential to bear in mind that in various studies done, where alcohol was found to be the leading cause of violent behaviour, one must consider the possibility of violent behaviour originating from a combination off two or more other factors. Moreover, alcohol consumption is sometimes used to cope with issues that upset patrons, such as bad environmental characteristics (Macintyre & Homel, 1997 ,p.6). In regards to alcohol consumption, The World Health Organization (2009, p.4) declares that there is a strong correlations between alcohol consumption and aggression, and that social and cultural norms also add to this tension. Furthermore, in cultures where drinking to intoxication is common, violence is more likely to occur. (Dawson, 1997; Rossow, 2001, cited in Quigley, Leonard & Collins, 2003, p.758).
The link between alcohol and violence has been extensively and clearly demonstrated in various studies, but what Begue and Kuendig et al. (2006; 2008, cited in Romain-Glassey et al., 2012, p.3) identified, is that the most important predictors of fighting, is the amount of alcohol consumed, which according to a study performed by Bellis, Hughes, Quigg, Morleo, Jarman & Lisboa (2011, p.4), on average, consumption is of 22.5 units (men 27.2, women 16.5) on a night out, and because binge drinking is a constant problem for young people all around the world (Donath et al., 2011, p.1), the younger generation is the most studied when analyzing violence and its factors. In fact, Graham (2009, p.104) states that the individuals that are more frequently involved in fights are young (21-23) intoxicated males. In regards to gender, Holmila and Rairasalo (2005, cited in Van Havere et al.,2009, p.1900) dispute that "gender differences in alcohol consumption can be considered one of the few gender divergences in human social behaviour". Interestingly tough, in the research conducted by Leifman (2002, p.3) in regards to alcohol consumption in Europe, it was found that quantity of alcohol consumed did not vary for men, while for females it differentiated remarkably. Meanwhile, pertaining to age, many authors argue that older individuals are more prone to intoxication as they have a "growing disposable income" unlike younger people (Aubrey, Chatterton, and Hollands, 2001; Williams and Parker, 2001, cited in Van Havere et al., 2009, p.1900).
Venue Layout and Crowding
Another major situational factor that can trigger aggressive attitude in guests, is their environment, in this case the venue layout, which can cause such issues as crowding (Scott & Dedel, 2006, p. 8). Crowding is characterized by a high number of people in a relatively cramped area, which usually occurs in specific areas such as toilets, entrances/exits and the bar counters (Homel & Clark, 1994, p. 34); in fact, in an evaluation made by Macintyre and Homel (1997,p.4) of density in Australia, there is a direct correlation with patron volume and the amount of violence in venues. This theory is also supported by Hughes (2006, p.2) and Livingston (2008, p.1), who both observed that venues that are uncomfortable, are more prone to have patrons act intolerant and consequently, aggressively. Scott and Dedel (2006, p.8) explain that the reason patrons act aggressively in crowded areas is because there is an elevated chance to bumping into people and dropping their drinks which causes frustration and consequently brawls; they also add that unattractive decor and dim lighting, although highly subjective, can signal to patrons that the venue has relatively low standards and will likely tolerate dire behaviour.
Many researchers such as Homel & Clark (1994) and Bellis & Hughes (2011) mention that the lack of seating options is another cause of irritation that leads to violent behaviour. Contrarily, Ramage (2012, p.2) mentions that the presence of furniture encourages violence, because people will see them as weapons. Venue layout does not only apply to the interior of the licensed venues but also to the exterior, and in conclusion Homel et al. (2004, p.29) commented that the lack of public transportation availability outside venues has also shown relevance to peoples aggression due to frustration of waiting.
Other Variables in Environment
Macintyre & Homel (1997, p.1) and Roberts (2007, p.2) all claimed that there are other minor variables involved in the environment of venues that can still cause serious aggressive behavior between patrons, and although these studies were done at very different times, the conclusions remained the same: noise, poor ventilation, party themes, smoking and competition/rivalry are minor variables that can lead to aggressive behavior. Recent work by Homel et al. (2004, p.20) also confirms these factors and the absence of food, and fatigue caused by the absence of seating, are leading causes for peoples' aggravation and could lead to violent behavior. Although the previously mentioned research defines loud music as a leading factor to aggression, Ramage (2012, p.2), argues that in clubs, the quality of music is more important than the level of the noise itself.
Research shows that internal and external environmental factors are a typical issue that cause violent behaviour, on the basis of aggravation, for this reason patrons are more prone to react to violence if they feel bothered by environmental aspects of the venue (Ramage,2012; Homet et al., 2004; Roberts, 2007; Macintyre & Homel, 1997; Bellis & Hughes, 2007).
Violent behaviour is not always caused by the misbehaviour of patrons. Substantial research points out that a number of violent accidents occur due to the inaptitude of venue security to act appropriately (Graham, 2009, p.105). Romain-Glassey et al.'s (2012, pp.1-2) research on nightclub security describes how many victims of assault, by bouncers, reported physical violence in addition to verbal threats; with bruises being the most frequent injury. This finding is contrasted with the conclusion made by Roberts (2007, p.1), that highlighted the absence of bouncers to be a strong predictor of aggression. Furthermore, Graham (2009, p.104) highlights the notion, that when bouncers are present, and they are friends with the patrons, it is possible for the bouncers to persuade against violent behavior.
Bad service Practise
There are various practises licenced venue staff constantly perform that are cause for violence. When outlets refuse entry to intoxicated patrons they might be acting rightly, but involuntarily they are placing these intoxicated individuals on the streets (Hughes et al., 2007, p.61). Furthermore, another malpractice is the continued service to intoxicated patrons (Scott & Dedel, 2006, p.7).
Homel & Clark (1994, p.5) revealed that although many venues request an entrance fee, which for some people may be a considerable part of the spending of a night out, the lowering of prices and promotions on alcoholic beverages result in an obvious pressure to binge drink. Venues are currently focusing on attracting the younger generations in order to generating more profit.; whether by cutting the costs or organizing special theme parties, all in order to attract individuals that binge drink and thus need to consume more (Bellis & Hughes, 2011, p. 536).
Patron Cultural Heritage
The previously mentioned key aspects that led to violent behaviour, all proved to be external factors; not always are these the only causes for violence, occasionally, violent behaviour is originated because of someone's behaviour and/or cultural background (Donath, et al., 2011, p.2). An interesting notion stated by Lebaron and Pillay (2006, p.92) is that because of cultural differences, it is harder to resolve conflict in general, because it broadens the likelihood of either misunderstanding and/or misperceiving what an individual's intentions are. Although (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010, p. 64) explains that for some societies, being part of the same culture automatically means having a direct bond with each other.
Different cultural background tend to affect individuals in many different ways, for example individuals that originate from countries that are affluent and small, such as Scandinavia, Switzerland, Belgium, Singapore and Nederland's are said to benefit from both frequent contact with foreigners and good educational systems; therefore are predisposed to be more open towards different cultures (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010, p. 389), which in turn reduces the opportunity for violent behaviour caused by cultural background for these individuals. Alternatively research by the Uniform Crime Reports, analyzed ethnic groups violence tendencies, and noticed that offending among blacks, Hispanics, and native Americans is more common than among whites, and that offending among Asian Americans is least frequent (Hawkins et al., 2000; Huizinga et al., 1994; La Free, 1995; Snyder, 1999, cited in McNulty & Bellair, 2003, p.1). Shaw and McKay (1942,1969) pointed out through their research, that violent behaviour rooted more from community context rather than ethnic background (cited in McNulty & Bellair, 2003, p.4). They argued that the transmission of delinquency behaviour through the community was caused by social disorganization and a weak social control. This concept was more recently observed and structural disadvantages in minority neighbourhoods caused by segregation (Massey and Denton, 1993; Massey et al.,1994; Mouw,2000, cited in McNulty & Bellair, 2003, p.4) was added to the causes for community delinquency behaviour. Criminological research showed that because of a community's instability and deficiency, interdependence of social networks that assist in the social control of young adults is weakened (Morenoff et al, 2001; Sampson and Groves, 1989, cited in McNulty & Bellair, 2003, p.5). According to McNulty & Bellair (2003, p.5) ethnic differences in violence are replicated by the residential exposure to criminally-related environments, for this reason minority groups are more prone to violent behaviour as there is a higher possibility of these individuals to live in impoverished communities. Depending on the community, individuals will also be exposed to many factors that lead indirectly to violent behaviour, such as exposure to gangs and alcohol (McNulty & Bellair, 2003, pp. 7-10;18).
The World Health Organization (2009, p.1) states that every culture and/or social group has a specific set of norms that state specific expectations pertaining to behavior and encouragement of violent behavior. Although these norms can protect against violent behavior, they can also promote its use. An interesting factor to keep in mind illustrated by Ramage (2012, p.1), is that assaults are most of the time cause by difference in ethnicity, race or other biases.
Furthermore, in regard to individuals involved in the fights, Felson and Steadman (1983, p.61) acknowledge the notion that when third parties are involved, the chances of arguments escalating to fights is higher, due to possible instigation and involvement, this may imply that because of a social norms of unity within a culture, violent behavior accidents are more frequent when many people are involved.
In regards to which nationalities are more disposed to violence, the World Health Organization (2009, p.5) offers insight on some cultures perspective pertaining to aggression: in India and North Africa, men are believed to be superior than women, while in China, India and Nigeria men have the right to physically discipline females. Meanwhile in the United states, teenagers believe that violence is acceptable in resolving arguments (Yates, 2006, cited in World Health Organization, 2005, p.5).
Although not much research has been done on different cultures having different drinking habits or violent behaviour, Donath et al. (2011) examined previous research by the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) concerning heavy episodic drinking in Europe, 20% is in Iceland and 60% in Denmark. Furthermore, Hughes et al., (2011, p.37) add that in recent years Italian, Portuguese and French teenagers are experiencing an increase of heavy episodic drinking
Donath's et al. (2011, p.1) research analyzed how different backgrounds affected binge drinking; they researched adolescents with German, Soviet Union and Turkish backgrounds and they found that the ones with the biggest drinking habits were the Germans, followed closely by the Soviet Union, leaving the Turkish adolescents as the lesser alcohol consuming culture.
Males account for the biggest portion of the binge drinking except for the north-western part of Europe (Hibell B, et al.,2009; Kraus & Pabst, 2008, cited in Donath et al., 2011, p.11). Ramage (2012, p.2) points out that the vast majority of altercations happen between young males, and that actually when females are present, they have a overall soothing effect on men's behaviour and overall actions. Interestingly tough, in Homel and Clarks (1994, p.18) research, when observing altercations in various pubs, they noticed that the majority of non-physical altercations, such as verbal arguments, where mainly involving female patrons.
Unfortunately the direct cause leading to violent behaviour vary depending on the research carried out, for this reason the justification of the ethnicity/gender-violence relationship remains controversial and unresolved (McNulty,2001;Short,1997, cited in McNulty & Bellair, 2003, p.2).
Moreover, violence is occasionally also caused as a result of prevention methods such as an implementation of lockouts. Researchers Miller, Coomber, Sønderlund & Mckenzie (2011, p.1) investigated a case where a 3AM lockout was implemented in the city of Ballarat Victoria; they firstly noticed that only a small reduction of intoxicated violence occurred, but in the long run, the assaults steadily increased again. Mazerolle et al. (2012, p.55) also researched another attempt of lockout implementation in Queensland which resulted in a net decrease of violence inside the venues. In contrast, Rossow and Nordstrom (2011, p.530) investigated this legislation in Norway, where venues would extend their closing hours; this change in policy showed a direct increase in violent assaults near the premises and further research showed that the effects were symmetrical in an opposite scenario.
On the other hand, Foster (2009, pp.3-4) explored the UK Licensing Act of 2007, where licensed premises were allowed to extend their closing hours. Initially the Media and many others feared that this would cause an increase in violent behaviour, but instead results showed that this law decreased alcohol-related violence by fifteen percent in the UK. Overall these analyses suggest that lockouts can be an effective intervention to reduce violence in nightlife landscapes in short term reference, but in the long run will prove ineffective due to the patrons being accustomed to the procedure. Even so, in Hughes et al.'s, (2011, p.1) research, they discovered that there lacked empirical research of these techniques in Europe, while internationally they proved to be quite successful.
Homel & Clark (1994, p.1) commented that venues have successfully lowered violent occurrences by properly training their staff on appropriate serving practises such as refusing to serve intoxicated guests as well as how to deal with violent crowds. Hughes et al. (2011, p.38) adds that in Canada, staff were trained and assessed in order to reduce violence occurrences, and it proved successful in lowering the number of altercations. Another effective practise that Homel et al. (2004, pp.1-7) noticed, is the reducing of testosterone in the staff by the increasing female personnel. Furthermore, Room (2005, p.1) also concurs with this ideal by stating that an actual increase in female staff could prove to be the right method to lower violent behaviour between patrons. Even so, Hughes et al. (2007, p.63) argues, that even tough management practises improvements are important, other methods could prove more effective.
There have been a number of involvements by the police in an attempt to reduce violent occurrences in licenced venues (Ramage, 2012, p.1), only few have actually had an effect on reducing overall assaults. According to Ramage (2012, p.4), a key element in reducing violent behaviour is enforcing responsible management, according to liquor laws in licenced venues; this is because with the threat of licence suspension and/or revocation, outlet managers will feel compelled to obey the law. In Sweden, the Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problem (STAD) proved to be a successful prevention method that steeply reduced violent behaviour (Hughes et al., 2011, p.38). Moreover occasional undercover police incursion was also studied by various authors, and proved to be an effective method to reduce high intoxication of patrons in licenced venues (Saunders, 1983; McKnight & Streff, 1994, cited in Homel & Clark, 1994, p.39).
In conclusion it is obvious that this issue requires further research, as well as an individualization of the many variables due to the variation of indivuals behaviors and perceptions. The situational factors have shown to have a direct effect on peoples attitude, and that it, almost always, leads to aggressive behavior; intoxication and its management are the main factors that increase violence, among other factors that, again, depend on the situation and the individuals involved. Although consumption is found to be the leading cause for violent behavior, there are other factors to keep in mind. Firstly, the internal and external environment has been showed to lead to frustrated patrons, which in turn are more likely to be involved in violent behavior (Hughes, 2006; Livingston,2008; Scott & Dedel, 2006; Homel & Clark, 1994; Bellis & Hughes, 2011). Secondly, managerial practices have shown to cause a good deal of violence because of the inaptitude of the staff to act according to "good practice" seeing as generating more revenue is more appealing (Romain-Glassey et al., 2012; Hughes et al., 2007). Finally, although individuals cultural background has been defined as another basis for violent behavior, although there lacks empirical research on this relationship (McNulty,2001;Short,1997, cited in McNulty & Bellair 2003, p.2). For this reason this study will further contribute to the existing literature on this topic by developing research on a multi-cultural sample.
Based on the above summary and critical review of above literature, the author developed the following framework in order to visually demonstrate the interdependence of violent behavior and the various independent variables.
Figure Interdependence of Violent Behaviour to Influential Factors Model (Jensen, 2013)
This chapter illustrated secondary literature in regards to this context with its findings, it has provided further understanding on the topic. In the following section of the dissertation, a deductive approach will be employed, such approach is similar to the majority of the above critically reviewed literature. As such, will endeavor in the accomplishment of the objectives previously mentioned.
Data and Methods
In the following section of research paper, the results of the primary data collected will be presented and explained. The number of respondents for the questionnaires were 250 (N=250. The results will be presented through a variety of charts with relevant descriptions using a Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 21 (SPSS) system of statistical analysis. The sections will be divided according to the questionnaire, it will be separated into seven sections: demographics, consumption influential factors, environment influential factors, management practise influential factors, cultural influential factors and current habits. After that, the results obtained from the structured interviews with both the local authorities and venue owner will be illustrated according to their input regarding the subject matter.
Les Roches Questionnaire
This section will provide an overall representation of the sample population (N=250) of the present study, regarding the gender, age, program of study, nationality and ethnicity of the respondents.
Error: Reference source not found illustrates the proportion of gender that took part of this study. 51% of the respondents were "Male" (n=140), while 49% were "Female" (n=110). This model falls in line with the Les Roches international School of Hotel managements' demographics, as there is a majority of male population in the school.
Error: Reference source not found exhibits the segment of the respondents age. As expected, the most common age represented in the research is "21" (32.8%). Respondents between the ages of 19 and 23 represented 87.3% of the sample population, which conforms with Error: Reference source not found, Program of study, considering BBA3 students age ranges between "20-21", which is the program that had the most participants in this study (n=93). The least represented age group was the 24 and above year olds', representing only 12.8% (n=31).
Program of study
Passports Used for school enrolment
Concerning the nationality of the respondents, there were altogether 57 different nationalities. As can be observed by looking at the above Error: Reference source not found, which exhibits the most frequent nationalities of respondents that participated in the study of violent behaviour. The other nationalities can be observed in the Appendix: Error: Reference source not found, Error: Reference source not found. Nationalities and ethnicities (Error: Reference source not found), were not examined together due to the possibility of students originating from a specific country but having a different cultural background.. Although the most frequent nationalities and ethnicities examined in the research were originating from Asia followed by Northern and Southern European and American as can be seen in the bellow pie chart.
The following section will provide the relative information pertaining to Les Roches students' population (N=250) opinion on the following factors that cause violent behaviour: consumption of alcohol, environment, management practise and culture.
According to Error: Reference source not found, the table above illustrates the mean score of the cluster factors studied, in which 0% means no influence and 100% means highly influential as a source of violence. The respondents believe that the major cause for violent behaviour is culture, with a mean score of 59.83%, followed by consumption with 55.33% mean score, then management practise with 51.30% mean score, and lastly environmental factors with a mean score of 41.68%.
In the following sections, the influential factor groups will be analyzed further into detail.
Consumption of Alcoho
According to the respondents (N=250) consumption was rated as the second most influential cluster to cause violent behaviour (55.33%). Three questions were asked pertaining to alcohol consumption (see Error: Reference source not found); the one considered the most influential was "being drunk/ under the influence of alcohol"(63%), while the least influential was "drinking before going out" (48.1%).
Furthermore, environmental factors were considered the least influential cluster to cause violent behaviour (41.68%), according to Les Roches respondents. Of the various statements that pertained to this group (see Error: Reference source not found) , the one that was most evident was "crowding" (61%), while the least influential statement was excess of light (30.3%).
Management Practise cluster was ranked second (51.3%) as cause of violent behaviour. Respondents were asked which of these (see Error: Reference source not found) questions were the most instigating, they ranked the "refusal of service" (64.8%) as the most significant, whereas "continued service to intoxicated patrons" (43.9%) was listed as the least.
Finally, the factor that according to the respondents had the highest influence in prompting violent behaviour is Cultural background cluster (59.83%). According to the respondents, "if a friend would be involved in a fight" (73.2%) was the most relevant assertion of violent behaviour, while the least influential statement was "individuals cultural background" (51.4%). (see Error: Reference source not found)
The study not only required respondents to choose how influential each factor contributed to violent behaviour, they were additionally requested to indicate to what degree each prevention method mentioned, would be considered effective in the prevention of violent behaviour. The following section will elaborate on the findings provided by the respondents (N=250) opinion on each prevention methods effectiveness.
As Error: Reference source not found illustrates, the respondents suggested that the most effective prevention method would be "occasional police incursion" (59.2%), whereas "a later closing time"(33.9%) was perceived as the least effective.
The following section will explicate the respondents (N=250) current habits in the Les Roches International School of Hotel Management. The questions will identify the frequency the respondents go out, whether the respondents consume alcohol and how much, if they were ever involved in either a physical or verbal altercation and how many times, and what was the nature of the altercation and which genders were involved.
Frequency of going out
According to the above figure, 97.2% of the respondents go out from "less than once" to "3" times a week (n=243), whilst the vast minority (2.8%) go out "4 times or more" (n=7).
Alcohol Consumption & Quantity
When the respondents were asked if they consume alcohol, the majority of respondents (see Error: Reference source not found) said "YES" ( 85%), while 15% said "NO".
Moreover, the individuals that responded "YES", were asked how much they consumed, where one drink would be considered the same as one beer and/or one shot. There was an impressive skewing of respondents, that either drank "5 drinks" or "10 drinks" or even "more than 15 drinks".
Involved in Altercations & Quantity
Respondents were asked if during their time in Les Roches, they were ever involved in an altercation. According to Error: Reference source not found the majority answered "NO" (61%).
The individuals that answered "YES" (n=98), were required to indicate how many of these fights were "physical" and how many were "verbal". The majority of both physical and verbal altercations (n=27, n=25) occurred "1 time", while limited respondents were involved in physical and verbal altercations "7,8,or 9 times".
Nature of Altercation & Involvement
Additionally, individuals involved in either physical and/or verbal altercations were asked to define the nature of the altercation. The greater part of the fights were "One-to-One" (59%), while the lesser part were "One-to-Many" (15%). And in regards to genders involved (see Error: Reference source not found), in most cases, "Male-to-Male" altercations (68%) occurred, while "Male-to-Female" (15%) were most infrequent
Venue Owner and Local Authorities Questionnaire
According to the above figure, all factors where perceived differently, except cultural heritage (81.25%), according to the venue owner and local authority. More detailed information pertaining to each question can be seen In Appendix: Error: Reference source not found, Error: Reference source not found, Error: Reference source not found and Error: Reference source not found.
The Local Authority believes that all prevention methods would prove successful in reducing violent behaviour, except "later closing time" ( 0%), meanwhile overall the Venue owner believes that only " later closing time"(100%), "training staff" (100%) and "increased female staff" (75%) would substantiate a decrease in violent behaviour.
Les Roches Students Habits
Here above is a table representing Les Roches students "partying Habits" according to The Local Authorities and venue owner. It can be seen that both perspectives share similar opinions, excluding when inquired about which ethnicities are most frequently involved in altercations. The Venue Owner declares that all ethnicities have been involved, even if once, in either a verbal or physical altercation, whilst local authorities believe that only "Eastern European", Middle Eastern", North African" and "South American" have been involved in altercations.
The following chapter will prove to be the most significant in achieving the aim and objective of this research paper. In regards to the research question of this study: "Which factors contribute mostly to the production of violent behaviour in nightclubs in the case of Les Roches students", the following section will provide an in-depth analysis of the presented results in cross reference to previously discussed literature (see Section 2. Literature Review). It will additionally provide triangulation approach in order to strengthen the analysis to increase the interpreting of findings (Campbell & Fiske, 1959; Denzin, 1970; Polit & Hungler, 1995 cited in Thurmond, 2001, p.1) and enhance reliability and validity of recommendations. It will endeavour to further discuss in detail the results and demonstrate correlations using SPSS Version 21 system of statistical analysis. The SPSS system was chosen in regards to its efficiency in preventing errors as well as significantly diminish the time spent on data analysing as compared to other system programs (Marczyk, DeMatteo, & Festinger, 2005, p.204).
The following chapter will be divided similarly to the Results chapter, according to the areas inquired on the questionnaires, as it will prove to be most efficient in exploring the similarities, differences and possible new directions of the topic of this study.
The justification of this study was to explain "which factors contributed to violence in the case of Les Roches students", for this reason the age frequently occurring throughout the results (see section 220.127.116.11 Age) is that of young adults. Which according to Liang & Chikritzhs (2011, p.230) study, is the foremost population involved in violent behaviour. Furthermore the study endeavoured to pursue similar research as Hughes et al., 2007 and Bellis & Hughes, 2011 and Homel & Clark, 1994, where young intoxicated individuals were the most prominent in violent occurrences.
Majority of the respondents were male (n=140), which corresponds to the Les Roches student body ratio of male to female of 3:1. This ratio is not uncommon, as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) (cited in Van Havere et al., 2009, p.2) illustrates that in European countries, male and female ratios are also 3:1. Incidentally, also in other literature research, the majority of respondents were male (Van Havere et al., 2009, Macintyre & Homel, 1997). Van Havere et al. (2009, pp.1-2) mention that a variety of studies concerned with this topic have shown that men are more likely than females to be involved in either intoxication and/or violence. This is indeed supported by Ramage (2012, p.2) as she confirms that males are more frequently involved in altercations, and adds that female presences usually helps cease altercations. On the other hand Homel & Clark (1994, p.2) argue that although males are more predominant in physical fighting, females have shown more frequency in verbal fighting than males.
Although alcohol consumption remains a leading factor in violence according to many researchers (Hughes et al, 2006; Homel & Clark, 1994; Hughes et al., 2007;Romain-Glassey et al.,2012; Foster, 2008; Macintyre & Homel, 1997), out of the four factors illustrated in this research, respondents of the Les Roches student questionnaire and local authorities ranked "consumption" as the second most influential factor, while the venue owner ranked it the third most influential factor. One must although consider that, as Liang and Chikritzhs (2011, p.525) state, alcohol related violence might not be caused by alcohol alone, but a combination of other factors as well.
"Environmental factors", according to Les Roches students were found overall to be the least influential factor to cause violence, this was also supported by the venue owners and the local authorities who both did not consider the "environmental factors" inquired, to be of importance. Interestingly Hughes et al., (2011, p.37) found in their "systematic literature search", that internationally (not Europe), environment is a leading factor in the predictor of violence. Moreover, Livingston (2008, p.1) examined how change in outlet density affected violent behaviour, and concluded that there was a positive relationship, in which the density would affect violence through the increased consumption of alcohol. Also in Macintyre and Homel 's study (1997, pp.91-92), they recommended that licenced venues should follow strict architectural procedures in order to minimize violence, as the environment is a leading source of this behaviour.
When inquiring on whether "managerial practises" were a major cause of violent behaviour, there was a variation in the responses from all three perspectives. The Les Roches students and authorities both found "managerial practises" to be the third most influential factor, although the authorities (68.75%) ranked it a slight more influential than the students (51.3%). Meanwhile the venue owner believed that "management practises" were a considerable factor resulting in violence, this could interestingly be linked to the fact that the venue owner is more knowledgeable in this sector as they are directly related to these circumstances. Interestingly, in Homel et al.'s (2004, pp.19-22) longitudinal research, they found that improvements in both environmental aspects and managerial practises, significantly reduced violent behaviour by 81.2% between 1994 and 1996.
The study of violent behaviour as mainly been done in direct setting where violence would occur, such as licenced venues and nighttimes locations, this is because individuals would be exposed to the more obvious factors known to cause violence: intoxication, environment and management, but there lacks empirical research pertaining to how individuals background would influence people's behaviour in different situations. For this reason the study chose to conduct the research in the Les Roche International School of Hotel Management, in regards to the variety of different ethnicities (see Error: Reference source not found) present on campus. Interestingly, Les Roches students, local authorities and the venue owner all ranked "cultural heritage" as the most influential factor to influence violence. Which specific nationality and/or ethnicity is more prone to violence will be discussed further in Section 5.5 Model assessing and Cross-Tabulations. When referring to culture, many researchers consider many aspects in the attempt to find whether culture has an influence on ones predisposition to violence. McNulty and Bellair (2003, pp.1-10) assessed that minority groups tend to be more involved in cultural conflicts, as they are usually more predisposed to living in hostile and impoverished environments. Furthermore, even if an altercation were taking place, Lebaron and Pillay (2006, p.92) suggest that some specific individuals cultural background might prevent the fight from resolving because of norms and possible misunderstanding of interests. Meanwhile, according to Hofstede (2010, p.389), individuals that originate from relatively fortunate and small counties tend to be less affected by culture-related conflicts, as they are more well educated in the ways of other cultures. Also in this context, there is an avid debate over whether cultural heritage, as a leading factor influencing violent behaviour, is actually influenced by intoxication, and the combination would cause for an inclination to exhibit hostility.
Based on the above comparison and contrast of the primary literature with the findings from the Literature Review chapter, the main aspects identified by the author is that the primary data collected corresponded, for the most part, to previously researched literature in regards to the influential factors, whereas according to the triangulation analysis, not always did the three viewpoints provide the same opinion.
In order to formulate suitable recommendations to the local community on how to possibly reduce violent behaviour, Les Roches students believed that an effective method in reducing violent behaviour would be to have the "local authorities conduct occasional incursions in the licenced venues", meanwhile the local authorities believed that both "police incursion" and "better training of the venue staff" would prove to be effective prevention methods. On the other hand, licenced venues ranked "later closing time" and "training the venue staff" as the best tactics in reducing violence occurrences. Interestingly Rossow and Norström, demonstrated that in Norway, for every additional extended hour of the closing time, there was an increase in number of assaults. Moreover, recent work by Miller (2012, p.1) demonstrated that in Australia, earlier and later closing times did not suggest any noticeable change in the amount of violent occurrences. Furthermore, Jeff's and Saunders (1983, cited in Homel & Clark, 1994, p.39) reported throughout their study, when police officers would conduct occasional police incursion in some Australian licenced venues, violent assaults declined by almost 20%. Graham's (2009, pp.104-105) theory agrees with this papers findings, in that if staff would be better trained, violent behavior in licenced venues would decrease.
Overall no discussed prevention method would seem effective in the case of Les Roches students, as, according to the cross-tabulations, they did not prove significant in order to be considered influential to violent behavior. This belief was also raised by Hughes, et al., (2010, p.37) who highlited the reason behind this probelm beeing the lack of information in regards to the specific factors causing violence.
The third section of the questionnaire inquired on the "current habits" of Les Roches population: the students were asked how frequently they would "go out", and the majority responded "from never" to "four times a week". Furthermore the vast majority(85%) stated that they consume alcoholic beverages when at licenced venues .The average consumption quantity was "5 drinks per night". Fascinatingly, this is relatively small, considering that in Bellis et al.'s (2010, p.4) research, which dealt with alcohol consumption levels, the average amount of drinks consumed in one night were about 22.5. Furthermore according to Begue and Kuendig et al. (2006; 2008, cited in Romain-Glassey et al., 2012, p.3) the amount of alcohol consumed is the most important predictor of violent behaviour.
Moreover, when inquired if they were involved in a fight, majority (61%) of students replied "NO". Conclusions from local authorities and the venue owner indicated that individuals who were involved in a fight were always intoxicated. Alternatively, Homel and Clark (1994, p.7) found that in a recent study by Australian police, 77% of offenders that were arrested for assaults and offensive behaviour were intoxicated. Furthermore, according to the Les Roches respondents, most of the students involved in fights, were only two males, whereas the authorities and venue owner described fights involving two or more males. Additionally, the venue owner stated that the fights among Les Roches student only meanwhile the authorities explained that sometimes the fights would also include locals. According to Felson & Steadman (1983, p.61) individuals frequently feel compelled to aid friends that are involved in altercations, and according to the Les Roches respondents (Error: Reference source not found Error: Reference source not found), on average 73.5% of individuals feel that "if a friend would be involved in an altercation" they would be inclined to violent behaviour.
Conclusively, the venue owner declared that every ethnicity described in the questionnaire were involved in altercations, whereas the local authority stated that only Latin American ethnicities and Islamic cultures are the ones more frequently involved in altercations. As previously mentioned in section 5.2.4Cultural background, there are a number of cultures that in regards to their cultural beliefs and background, are more inclined to exhibit aggression.
Regarding the above findings, it is clear that the Les Roches student populations as their specific habits when frequenting licenced venues, that can vary quite extensively from other literature. Furthermore there is a much stronger feeling of loyalty among students, compared to in other studies, as the feeling of community is strong, because of the cultural bonds embedded in some cultures (Donath, et al., 2011; Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010).
The following table examines the influence various "demographic, environment and habit" factors have on respondents frequency of going out. Although all of the above Independent variables resulted in a positive correlations, it was a relatively weak relationship.. This is in line with various authors conclusions in regards to environmental aspects affecting violence, even if minimally (Romain-Glassey et al., 2012; Mazerolle et al., 2012; Macintyre & Homel, 1997; Atkinson, et al., 2009; Homel et al., 2004; Livingston, 2008; Ramage, 2012). Whilst "age" and "quantity of physical fights" both had a moderate correlation to frequency of going out, which was not seen in any studies previously analyzed.
As can be seen by the following cross tabulation there is a moderately positive correlation between the demographic factors the amount of times individuals have fights. This is almost every research paper analyzed in the Literature Review, as the majority of individuals that are involved in altercations are the same age group majorly represented throughout the sample (Homel & Clark,1994;). Moreover in line with the findings of different research (Markowitz, 2001; McNulty & Bellair, 2003; World Health Organization, 2009) ethnicity is considered moderately influential in the amount of fights individuals have, enhancing the idea that different cultures have different approaches to this matter.
Model assessing and Cross-Tabulations
The initial model of this study (see Figure Interdependence of Violent Behaviour to Influential Factors Model), which was created in regards to the information procured from the Literature Review, emphasised on the correlation each independent variable (consumption, environment, management practises and culture) have on the dependent variable(violent behaviour).
For this reason the author decided to assess, through the use of the SPSS analytical software, whether the model can be applied to the Les Roches International School of Hotel Management population.
According to the cross tabulation, each relationship with the dependent variable of violent behaviour and independent variables of the factor clusters (consumption, environment, management practises and culture) could not be proven significant as each provided a p value > 0.05 (Collis & Hussey, 2003, p. 231) and the r values were relatively weak. This is possibly because of the lack of students involved in altercations (n=89) compared to the studied sample (N=250).
Furthermore the prevention methods were also cross tabulated in order to measure if they could reduce violent behaviour. Results indicated that even though there was a negative correlation (r = -.067), it was not significant (p = .515)
Therefore the author attempted to assess whether the independent variables (environment, management practices, culture, and prevention methods) had a positive relationship with consumption, in an attempt to investigate if the resulting relationship caused violent behaviour. This is considered due to the notion mentioned in the Literature Review section proposed by many researchers which states that violent behaviour could be caused by consumption deriving from a combination of other factors. (Liang and Chikritzhs, 2011; Roberts, 2007; Hughes,
When interpreting whether consumption depends on environment, the author found that there was a moderately positive correlation (r = .453) between the variables, and that 21% of the consumption can be explained by environment. As can be seen in Macintyre & Homel (1997, p.6) research where they recognized that individuals are often motivated to consume alcohol as a consequence of bad environment and management practises.
Furthermore, when inferring on whether consumption depended on management practises, the SPSS analytical system demonstrated there was a strong positive correlation (r = .62) between the variables, so 38.4% of consumption can be explained by management practices (see Error: Reference source not found). This is also evident in the study of Homel & Clark (1994, pp. 5-9) where the management practise of offering drink promotions encourages binge drinking which is a leading factor of violence.
Next, the cross-tabulation of consumption depending on culture also showed a strong positive correlation where 36% of consumptions can be explained by individuals culture. In fact, Donath et al. (2011, pp.1-2) concluded that there is an inclination from certain nationalities to drink more or less depending on their cultural background, or community background, due to childhood exposure to alcohol thus violent behaviour (McNulty & Bellair, 2003, pp. 7-10;18). Moreover, cultures that have made binge drinking an ordinary ritual are more likely to engage in violent behavior. (Dawson, 1997; Rossow, 2001, cited in Quigley, Leonard & Collins, 2003, p.758).
Moreover, in an attempt to establish a correlation between consumption and prevention methods, the author determined that in regard to the p value of 0.00 the correlation was significant, while the r value of .315 revealed that it was a moderate relationship which inferred that 10% of consumption is caused by prevention methods. This is in line with Miller et al.'s (2012, p.370) study that verified lockouts are prevention methods to be ineffective, as alcohol consumption actually increased over time.
Considering all above factors proved significant with a positive correlation to consumption, the author endeavoured to assess to what extent all the independent variables could, combined, predict the dependent factor, consumption.
The parametric Pearson r statistic test was carried out in order to assess the significance and the strength of the relationship confirmed at r significance of 0.005, the relation is the most significant with the strongest positive score of 0.718, thus revealing that 51.6% of consumption can be explained by influencial factors, ranging from consumption, environment, management practises and to culture. This corresponds to a good deal of research that suggests alcohol consumption is influenced by other factors (environment, management practises and/or culture) (Liang & Chikritzhs, 2011; Homel & Clark, 1994; Bellis & Hughes, 2011; Livingston, 2008; Roberts, 2007).
Furthermore based on previous research done by other authors, where alcohol consumption was ranked a leading factor to violent behaviour ,(Homel et al., 1992; Roberts, 2007; Homel & Clark, 1994; Macintyre & Homel, 1997; Quigley, Leonard & Collins,2003) the author generated a new model (see