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There are different behaviors in a society which are particular to a race, religion, gender or community. These behaviors have a strong influence on society. Masculinity is a collection of attitude, behavior and activities which are generally attributed to man. It is a behavioral process that has an immense influence on the social dealing of man. Physique and hormonal changes and the nature of psychology have a great impact on quality of masculinity. It is a typical "male" behavior. The masculinity is a characteristic of man and represents the "man hood" in an individual. It is a characteristic of exercising authorities and attribute which are specified to male gender (Kahn 2009, pp.47-50). It is a gender centric behavior. It is the quality of considering oneself as man and superior to others.
Masculinity is a behavior which represents authority and domination. It is, sometimes, subjected to attention seeking. It is an attitude to generate influence and gain attention from the surrounding. The norms and behavior related to masculinity may evoke negative attitude in the society. Masculinity may give rise to the stress, frustration, anger and violence in the society. The sense of being masculine induces aggression and violence. It evokes the person to dominate others and does not care for the limitations and obligations restricted by the society. Masculinity has a great impact on the psychology of man. The psychological, hormonal and physical changes affect the degree of masculinity (Cohn 2005, pp.01-04). Masculinity is a complex typical behavior which is found all across the globe. It is not particular to any one society or country. Man exercises their authority throughout the world and cause significant influence on society.
Masculinity is a typical male behavior. It is subjected to the sense of being dominant and authoritative in nature on the basis of gender superiority. It is a specific behavior belongs to male gender. It has exceptional influence on society because the concept of dominance gives rise to the idea of violence. The masculinity impacts society in both positive and negative ways. Masculinity enhances self confidence and determination in a man. It is a courageous behavior which tends to allow a man to stop unlikely activities in his surroundings. Man uses his physical and behavioral power to bring change in the traditional society. Despite being victim, he takes the responsibility of his own as well as the surrounding. He defends the weak and helpless through his physical and moral support. These all were the positive behavioral aspects of masculinity. There are also some negative aspects of this behavior.
With the continued exercise of power and show of anger increases the trend of violence in a society. It decreases the level of tolerance and demands immediate action against the unlikely act. Such behavior is negative for a society and the citizens. Masculinity leads man towards criminal activities. Criminal activities are directly influenced by masculinities. Persons (1964) defined the relation of masculinities and involvement of boys in this. He proposed that masculinity is a sense of boyhood and domination which initiates in the adolescence. As the boy realizes his puberty and physical changes, he thinks of himself as much powerful in comparison with the past. He exercises the domination and by the time he gets used to such behavior. Boys think of such behavior as normal and consider it a proper way to treat the society (Krienert 2003, pp.02-04).
Sutherland discussed the concept of masculinity and relates it with the upbringing of boys both from family and society. The boys are told to be hard, rough and strict. Such teachings cause an extra ordinary effect on boys, and they think that gentle and kind behaviors are not suited to the male gender. It is a common practice throughout the world that boys are considered to be tough and dominating.
A Crime refers to the violation of law and constitution in a society. It is an offensive act which challenges the state machinery, and it is the refusal and rejection of laws and rules in a society. A Criminal is defined as a person or group who commits the crime. The criminals violate civil and criminal laws of the state and exercise the domination on the basis of their physical strength or weapons. An individual or the group involved in criminal activities can cause severe loss to the state. Crime is an unpleasant and hateful activity which keeps the society disturbed and upset. Criminals can cause loss to human lives and property (Henry and Lanier 2001, pp.71). They can affect the security and maintenance of government's property, as well. History is full of examples of criminals who created issues and troubles for the state. Criminals are self funded or supported by some foreign hand.
Crime influences the society and effects citizens. It has a direct impact on the fundamental human rights of citizens. Moreover, it violates the safety and security of citizens and spread fear. It is the breach of social disciplines and a threat to defense. Crime is common in those states and cities where the government and local authorities do not exercise their authorities. The failure to implement the law and order is a prominent cause behind the existence and progress of criminal activities. The inactivity and lack of responsibility from civil society also contribute to the surge in criminal activities. In some countries and states, crime is often supported by local governmental authorities, political parties and defense agencies. The supported or funded criminals or criminal organizations are more harmful for a society in comparison with self funded organizations (Campbell and Meer n.d, pp.02-04).
The surge in violence act has been reported. Various studies have suggested the involvement of male persons in violation of laws and human rights. Majority of cases which includes robbery, mugging, hate crime, discrimination, physical assault, child abuse, violent activities, street crimes and work place violence. These crimes are most often committed by male persons. Researchers and analysts relate the commitment of crime and violent activities to aggression and dominance (Flowers 2003, p.56). Men consider themselves as the dominating pillar of the society. Drug dealing and violation of civil laws also relates to men in majority cases. This aggressive and violent behavior is considered to be the result of sense of dominance, power, aggression and masculinity.
In the past, it was assumed that crime is a result of free will of a person of a group who perform criminal activities intentionally. Later, it was found that crime is not always an intentional act. There are certain factors which drives a man towards criminal activities. There are various criminological theories which define the causes and reasons behind the crime. Criminals have certain motives and aims. The ego factor and psychological satisfaction are also among the foremost motives which can evoke a person to commit a crime. Scientific studies suggest that individual behavior and biological and physical characteristics can evoke crime (Pelovangu 2010, p.n.d). Some of the possible reasons are following.
In order for satisfaction and self interest, a man commits a crime with his own choice. They take the decision of committing crime intentionally and with their own choice. The rational theory suggested that a person will agree to act violently and dangerously towards the society irrespective of any fear or favour towards any one (See 2004, p.07).
Society has a large impact on the personality development. Man and society are interrelated. In case of social injustice and discrimination from the society, the man chooses the pathway of crime. Non cooperative societies, different violent and influential groups in the society and unavailability of justice evoke social disobedience. In case of constant deprivation of fundamental human rights of a man or group, the chances of their transformation into criminal elements increase (See 2004, p.28).
The aims and dreams regarding one's future decide the direction of life. Many people have the same goal of life, and they share mutual ambitions. Unfortunately, not all of them get the chance to achieve the goals because of the unequal distribution of opportunities. In case of lack of chances and opportunities, the person feels himself abandoned by the society. He gets angry and disappointed. This disappointment enhances the level of frustration and aggression in his personality. The ultimate results are the conversion of a person into a criminal due to the damage and loss. A man copes up his loss by forcefully achieving success (See 2004, p.28).
There are some criminal elements in some societies who enjoy financial and moral support from influential groups. They openly accept the commitment of crime and civil disobedience but due to the favour from a particular pressure group or significant stakeholder of the society, they remain safe. Such things evoke the weak and feeble individuals and communities to follow the same pathway. They learn the criminal activities and motivates through them. They settle down their issues and try to help their own selves through the exercise of their authority. Thus, influential criminal group inspire the weak groups to become a criminal and snatch their self interests. (See 2004, p.18).
The social control theory explains that a person's faith, religion, community, race and ethnicity play crucial role in controlling his reaction towards a society. The sacred and holiest places and religious scholars, community leaders and family elders are of immense importance in determining the criminal activities of an individual and try to control him. In case of his refusal and constant violation, the person is abandoned by his community. The role of religious and local representatives controls boys and their aggressive behavior (See 2004, p.22).
The powerful stakeholders of the society decide the definition of crime and criminal. They are free to label anyone as crime. This discriminative behavior increases frustration and anger in a person or community and increases the possibility of criminal activity from them in retaliation. The labelling of a group and individual as criminal element is a harmful practice for the society which enhances the rate of violence and crimes. The criminal behavior and violation of law are examples of the rebellion and retaliation towards the strong stakeholders and powerful groups (See 2004, p.25).
The human brain is the control and monitoring authority of the body. The level of chemicals in the brain and the effects of hormones and substances on brain activities have a profound effect on behavioral dealing of an individual with the society. Any chemical imbalance, mental illness or brain injury can play a prominent role in the dealing of a person with his society. The genetic behavior is an essential factor in determining the violence and aggression in the nature of a person. The genetics and upbringing causes immense impact on human life. The person, who has been taught to react rapidly without evaluating the situation, is tending to behave aggressively. The aggression and anger are a result of abnormal behavior. The furious activities, quick reaction and anger become a habit by the time and evoke a person to violate the civil laws (See 2004, p.11).
There are certain reasons behind the possibility of committing a crime. Various social reasons, family understandings and nature of the person can play a decisive role in the life of a person. The reasons why people commit crime and the causes of crimes are particularly difficult to enlist. Following are some of the few factors which can become a reason behind the crime.
The ecological factors determine the factors which are related to the environment. It includes the factors which effects the interaction of men with the environment and its elements. It includes pollution, crowd, opportunities, and the property. These are the factors that have a direct influence on human life. Injustice in property division, unequal distribution of opportunities and pollution influence the thinking of man (Schiller n.d, pp.16-284). The ecological factors evoke a man to follow criminal thinking and retaliates the unjust distribution of material.
It is the most significant factor that affects the mentality of a man and determines his positive or negative contribution towards his society. The social factors include the groups and communities of the society a person is living with. It consists of the interaction of man or group with the ethnic, racial or cultural group of different belonging (Schiller n.d, pp.16-284). Social factors make an incredible contribution towards the possibility of negative thinking. In case of economic or social injustice, the chances of criminal behavior in a society increases as retaliation against the injustice.
It is one of the most influential factors which contribute towards the criminal offenses by the citizens. Poverty and scarcity of financial resources influence the citizens to react and retaliate against the powerful (Schiller n.d, pp.16-284). They realised the hidden potential in themselves which they can use to stop the ongoing injustice.
Emotions and sentiments drive human life. If the person is suggested to fight for his deprived rights and to exercise his power then the person gets motivated. Emotional factor can avert the positive thinking of a person and influence his pattern of dealing with the society (Schiller n.d, pp.16-284).
Religion and faith are the most sensitive and strong believes for a person. It has been reported worldwide that religious extremism and fundamentalism increases the criminal activities in a society. Many examples are there in the recent past. Religious factors are of immense importance in transforming a person into criminal. People commit crimes because of believing in the false teaching by the fanatic scholars. These criminals cause immeasurable loss to humanity and this world.
The way a person is brought up by the family plays a crucial role in determining his mentality and dealing with the society. The religious, cultural, emotional and social teachings during his upbringing cause strong impression on his personality development. The children learn to behave and to react towards a situation in accordance with the childhood lessons. The developmental psychology plays a decisive role in the determination of the character and nature of the person. People belonging to separated families or single parent are likely to behave offensive and harsh towards the society (Schiller n.d, pp.16-284).
Employment plays a very important role in determining the development of personality and thinking pattern. Unemployment leads to financial scarcity, which induces, anger and frustration. Unemployment also plays a critical role in frustrated thinking. The thoughts of unequal opportunities, social injustice, economical crises and self incompetency all fused together and evoke the violent attitude.
Psychological factors are highly significant in determining the criminal nature of a person. There are various incidents of shooting incidents in schools, serial killing, serial rapes and child abuse. The psychology of person has a direct impact on the criminal nature. The psychology of a person directly affects his acts and decides his direction. The psychopath and sociopath are reported to be violent and brutal because they loss the sense when they become fierce enemy (Levin and Fox 2007, pp.03-04).
It is noticed throughout the world that, in most cases, man are found to be involved in criminal cases. It is because of the sense of dominance and authorities given to them. The masculinity and aggression plays a critical role in transforming a person into violent criminal. Man exercises his power, authority and domination over society. The strong physique and violent nature enable him to act aggressive and offensive. It is a result of wrong knowledge given to men that they are the dominating pillar of society. The sense of pride, ego and dominance result in aggression and violence (Schiller n.d, pp.16-284).
Hormones are chemicals that are secretion of glands in the body. Different hormones cause different effect on the human body. Testosterone is a hormone which is considered as the chief hormone in the male body. Its secretion in the body is found to have aggressive effects on the human body. The increase in testosterone level evokes violence in man's behaviors, and he becomes more prone to aggression (Simpson 2001, pp.32, 33).
Another hormone adrenaline is considered as "fight and flight" hormone. Adrenaline rush causes rapid and aggressive response to the situation and to run away or leave the place. Adrenaline secretions are linked with adventure and aggression (Siegel 2011, p.48). Adrenaline is known to induce anger, risk and adventure. The possibility of offensive behavior is linked with the adrenaline rush. It is widely stated that secretion of adrenaline causes more anger and quick response.
Brain is the most integral part of the body that controls all physical and psychological activities of a person. Researchers showed that during the adolescent, many changes and development takes place in the brain. Brain starts functioning at high speed. It becomes capable of planning, organising and executing the plans rapidly. The brain induces to respond and react quickly in early adolescent. An argumentative research shows that becoming physically mature does not mean that the brain has learnt to act mature. Brain began to respond quickly without thinking for the alternative or mature solution. It evaluates later. Hence, the contribution of brain towards criminal acts in early adolescence cannot be neglected. Studies evident that the brain does not attain mature behavior until the person reach early twenties. After crossing twenty years of age, behaviors change and a person evaluate and judge his decision before implementation. He plans for the future and calculate the consequences of his decisions. Thus, the contribution of brain in the violent activities of boys is particularly serious. Brain is responsible for behavioral changes, and it induces early responses in teen age boys. Many acts of violence take place due to quick harsh response. Clashes among gangs, city boys and groups occur due to ill attitude and immaturity (American bar association 2004, pp.02-04).
An important factor that can promote and support the violent activities in a person is being the victim of child abuse or physical assault in the childhood. Researches shows that the person who were mistreated, raped, abused or tortured in childhood experience more violent nature in comparison with others.
Crime is linked to mental illness in many cases throughout the world. Mentally unfit people commit serious crimes which are more dangerous and cruel in comparison with the usual pattern of crime. A very close relationship is found between schizophrenia and crime. Schizophrenia is a mental illness which refers to psychological abnormality. It can be defined as abnormal behavior related to behavior, understanding and cognition. It can generate violent and harsh response in many cases, and it can be proven harmful and dangerous in many cases. It induces violence and aggression. It increases the risk of hyperactivity as a result of aggression. The aggression gradually leads to serious consequences (Jorgensen and Johnsen n.d, pp.01-02).
Schizophrenic behavior can be a cause behind a crime. It evokes a person to commit a crime and do violence in order to satisfy his ego. Schizophrenic patients do violence and enjoy the helplessness of the victim. Various shooting incidents and horrifying violence are related to schizophrenic criminals. Schizophrenia is an aggressive hyperactive behavior which tends to create violence (Raine 2006, pp.207).
It is now accepted that Schizophrenia is a factor which can maximize the chances of violence and crime. Schizophrenic people want attention, and they do noticeable things to become centre of attention. Many researchers suggest that schizophrenia can be one of the prominent reasons behind the criminal activities in society. Schizophrenic criminals are famous for the degree and level of violence they do. Brutal violence and gruesome acts are characteristic features of schizophrenia. The relation of crime and violence with schizophrenia is commonly discussed in criminology. The violent acts of anger and frustration are characteristics of schizophrenia. Many researchers suggest that in case of negligence and avoidance of minor violence from schizophrenic patients, the consequences can be serious. Schizophrenia gets complex and develops mental illness and psychosis. These two are severe behavioral disorders which can cause serious harm to the society (Walsh et al 2002, pp.490-495). In many cases, it is a fact to state that the majority of schizophrenic criminals were male. The sense of pride and dominance leads them towards intolerance and anger.
A very complex relation to understand is that of crime and drugs. The drug addicts are usually on dependent mode. In case of unavailability of drugs, they get out of control. Drugs affect the Dopamine receptors of the human brain. It keeps the emotions and mood on a satisfying level until the drug is available. When the person is unable to access the drug, he gets out of control. The frustration and desperation of unavailability of drug transforms into anger and irritation. Ultimately they choose the option of violence. The violence and offensive acts are not their choice. It is actually the quickest methods to release the pressure and to satisfy their mentality. The drug addicts are in a good mood and gentle attitude when their need is satisfied. When they cannot access the drugs then they get violent. Marijuana, heroin etc are extremely common to teen ager. They even get it on a particularly low cost. The government banned the use of such products. People are dependent on these substances, so they use the illegal way to access the drugs. There are various factors which play an important role in drawing youngster's attention towards drug use. Broken families break ups, lack of opportunities and financial problems cause great level of stress on the human mind (Idaho State Police 2010, pp.02-04).
To relief this stress people especially youngsters use drugs. By the time, they get used to these drugs and generate dependency on drugs. Drug addiction is a harmful trend in the society. With the passage of time, the man losses self control and experience the rush & rapid response in his behavior. This loss of control leads to the show of anger and practicing harsh arguments. The aggression and retaliation related to drug abuse can be easily understand. Poverty, financial weakness, failure in academic level and family problems are those factors which directly cause impact on routine life (www.smartjustice.org.au).
Criminal mentality and behavior are a result of drug abuse and addiction. These substances affect the central nervous system and cause a powerful impact on the thinking pattern and mood. The availability of drug keep a man relaxes, but in case of unavailability he gets violent. Believing in his dependence on the drug, he tends to be more aggressive and frustrates in case of unavailability of drug. The violence and anger are the representation of frustration and mood swings. Because of the effect on central nervous system, quick decision making becomes their habit. They do not care to evaluate their plans and decision. Thus, in case of any disappointment or unexpected result, they get out of control. Moreover, if they think that the people or society is not comfortable people, and society then he can take immediate decision. The decision making on short notice and desire of remaining stress free keeps them irritated and tensed. The criminal behavior arises when they are completely dependent on the drug. Minor issues and low scale violent acts can be solved and settled (www.smartjustice.org.au).
Alcohol use is highly common in the world. From East to West different kinds of alcohol are used by millions of people all across the globe. Alcohol use is common in mature adults, but teenagers use it despite obligations. Alcohol is a harmful substance which causes direct impact on the human brain. The person under the influence of alcohol lost the senses. These lost senses are particularly dangerous to human health and interaction with the society. From minor offense to major crimes, Alcohol is one of the leading causes behind the criminal activities. It increases the likelihood of antisocial personality. The person does not co operate with the surrounding and tends to behave uncomfortably with the people. The person using alcohol is out of senses when alcohol is taken in. The person adopts an unfriendly nature and assumes himself as the only concerned person (Carpenter n.d, pp.02-06).
Alcohol addicts are violent and non serious. They are quick in quarrels. They indulge in disputes, scream out loud and behave immature. Breaking traffic laws and small disputes on streets are among the most common complains of Alcohol addicts. They scream and shout without knowing the consequences. Child abuse, rape, wife abuse and torture on other citizens or family members are reported cases of alcohol addicts. Because of the direct and rapid effect on the human brain, alcohol addiction evokes the violence and rapid response in human. Man using alcohol gets angry earlier in comparison with non addict persons. Use of alcohol increases the chances of crime in a society. Crime and criminal activities are directly link with the use of alcohol (Carpenter n.d, pp.02-06). Alcohol use in teenagers causes rapid reaction to the situation. In the early adolescence, emotions are at the peak. Use of drugs or alcohol has profound effects on emotional activities of a person. The evidences show that use of alcohol and drugs cause great level of aggression and violence in boys.
From the foregoing discussion, we can conclude that violence and crime are the unpleasant and disliked activities which cause great harm to the society and the citizens. The reasons and causes behind a crime may vary with the situation and circumstances. There are various factors which can induce anger and violence in a person. These factors include social, cultural, biological and individual factors. Genetics and sex are also inevitable factors which determine the violent element in a person. Usually, females are considered as gentle and kind in comparison with man. The aggressive and violent behavior of man is common all across the globe. Masculinity is a manly behavior which is attributed to man. This behavior is the exercise of power, domination and authority forcefully. Masculinity is a principal factor contributing to crime and violent activities. The town boys and group of teen ager act as the criminal offenders and behave harshly with the community. The example of "London Riots" (2011) is a recent example of offensive attitude and civil disobedience by boys. The crime and criminal activities can be a result of social injustice or discriminative treatment from the government towards a community. It can be an intentional behavior and a deliberate violation of civil rights.
Criminal offense is directly linked with the authoritative and dominating attitude of boys in order to gain superiority over the opposite gender, fellow citizens and in the family. Many theories describe the masculinity and man's domination as a result of their social and family upbringing. It is a common practice to consider man as the powerful pillar of the society who is supposed to dominate the society. Researchers found various possibilities that can transform a person into a criminal. The causes range from physical to psychological characteristics. A range of drugs and alcohol also put great impact on the violence in the nature of man. The use of addictive substances and alcohol can cause minor and main crimes. The addiction increases violence and crime in a society. Use of drugs and alcohol maximise the chances of criminal violence. Schizophrenia is an influential factor which causes extreme violence in nature. Schizophrenic patients are cruel criminals who act violently, and brutal violence is their significant feature. Hence, from the above discussion, we can conclude that crime and violent activities of youngsters are interrelated, and masculinity increases the rate of crime in a society.