United States Policy Toward Organized Crime Criminology Essay

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Organized crime is known for multiple facets of mal-activities against state and its harmful multi dimensionalities threaten the United States of America. Society, economy, national security and U.S political structure has been under influenced by organized crime for decades. Over periods this abuse has taken on an increasingly transnational nature by spanning itself with more open borders and the expansion of the internet, criminals endanger the United States not only from within the borders but beyond.

Organized crime can be distinguished into following categories: (a) the criminal bodies, that are generally a part of conducting armed robbery, kidnapping and some kinds of drug trafficking or human trafficking; (b) the criminal syndicates is subject to only a few targets of the population by involving in forbidden goods or services like drugs, sex and gambling; (c) criminals involved in money laundering (d) criminal political machines with respect to technological theft (Nuno, 1997).

U.S Anti-Organized Crime Policy, Past and Current Scenario

The U.S Federal government has been consistently engaged in devising its role that addresses the responsibilities of federal government in the crime control. Generally, network of state and local enforcement agencies are the foremost purveyors of criminal codes. They retain the authorities in the performance of crime control. Federal government at the same time has retained the full authority of the conduct of law enforcement acts according to the Safe Street Act of 1968 and the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970. It has regulated the activities of organized crime groups extending its position and efforts internationally.

Federal Bureau of Investigation expanded its role in controlling international crimes and global organized crimes. There are number of FBI agents who play vital role in investigating criminal cases, enforcing laws and performance of various roles in the Bureau. FBI comprised 682 field agents who commenced 433 organized crime investigations in the FY2000. If we compute the proportion of the number of each field agent working on an organized crime case it would yield 0.6 numbers of cases on average by each agent. This satisfactorily ratio of agents and criminal case brought positive impact on decreasing the number of organized crimes. Organized crime threats though cannot be indicated and identified properly, as the increasing new cases in crimes decreased the number of agents proportionally. Data and figures worked out may mislead in the way of assessing performance and taking actions and measures against criminals (Kristin, 2010).

The Organized Crime and Racketeering Section (OCRS) is a supervisor body to control O.C in the national horizon and directs agencies under international parameter conducts by the U.S. Attorneys' Offices in 21 federal districts. OCRS is only management that coordinates with the F.B.I and other strike and task forces. Upon cases of extortion, murder, bribery, fraud, narcotics and labor racketeering OCRS reviews all proposal federal prosecutions and provide extensive advice to prosecutors. By far definition, OCRS not only action against criminal jurisdictions but also reviews prosecutions in which labor-management disputes, the internal affairs of labor unions in the private sector, and the operation of employee pension and welfare benefits plans. OCRS is owe to its small group of highly experienced prosecutors in its Litigation Unit who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of organized crime cases in the U.S Attorneys' Offices' Organized Crime Strike Force Unit. They also have expertise in multi-defendant RICO cases ("Organized Crime").

The policy makers in U.S engrossed their notice towards organized mafia, no later than 1925. Many forms had been orchestrated of organized crime on the national panorama at late 1930 and it flourished to Latin America. To stop the expansion of undertaking of crime, U.S proposed larger and broader policies and combining intelligences and law enforcement started to combat criminal burgeoning offspring. U.S senate and congress facilitated that by laud authorized U.S Attorneys' Offices from all federal districts to scrutinize and give verdicts about criminal cases with no distinguish of Governments' institutes and other organizations and official management. The national focus on organized crime led to the several efforts aimed at investigating and controlling it. These first and initial efforts included the Senate Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce in 1950 led by Senator Kefauver, First Senate hearings on organized crime in 1958 and 1963 led by Senator McClellan. Various conferences on issue of organized crime at Oyster Bay in 1965 and 1966, and the creation of the 1967 Task Force on organized crime were implemented. The Task Force after thorough investigation of criminal cases and scrutinizing on law and law enforcements' action implementations, informed that measure that had been taken to curb organized crime were not successful at all, and there was more efficient undertaking by law and federal Governments required. Statistics reveals that from 1961 to 1966, the number of individuals indicted by the Racketeering Section of the Department of Justice. And large number of new indictments and convictions rose during this period. Given chart reveals criminal cases filed with the U.S Attorneys' office from 1999 to 2010.

United States Congress then came into action and introduced the new tools and defined more specific characters of federal government's role and legislations to prosecuting organized crime. Some are listed here, as Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act, Organized Crime Control Act and RICO, Asset Forfeiture and Money Laundering Statutes are distinctive. The other side Department of Justice through Attorney General's Organized Crime Counsel is directly responsible for creating domestic policies. Under the counsel there are many agencies and bureaus. All are combating organized crime into one single unit under the guidance and supervision of the Department of Justice and Attorney General's offices. The national Intelligence Council has estimated that by 2025, the "relative power" of criminal networks will continue to rise, and some countries could even be taken over and run by these networks (Kristin, 2010).

Proposed Policy to End Organized Crime

As criminal groups are always ready to form alliances with each other to venture their criminal goals and objectives; Nations of the world needs to be united under one systemized mechanism. The United Nations is the best and only platform that can enable international forces to devise the ideas and networks to operate against organized crime institutions within each country. Many other unanimous drafts have to be proposed to declare unity and unbound cooperation between intelligence and armed forces throughout the world.

First and Foremost in combating organized Crime the Immigration system needs to be scrutinized as it needs to identify people who can turn out to be potential threats for the country by engaging themselves in organized crime and hampering the country's well being. It is very crucial that immigration reforms must be inducted intelligently which can differentiate among the individuals

According to me an effective strategy with respect to combating organized crime would be if attention is focused on conducive 'needs' or 'markets' rather than the continuing and never ending cycle of arrest and prosecution. According to these analysts, one such step could be legalizing those 'needs' which organized crime illicitly fulfills. However, past experience at places, such as Las Vegas and Atlantic City, illustrates that legalizing does not necessarily results in elimination of criminal activities rather, it gives rise to a social climate which promotes criminal behavior.

A superficial system is required by the intelligence and law enforcement agencies for solving the disputes and designing unified tactics.

To Cater organized criminals the gathering of information and investigation into worldwide felony as well as drug movements should be allocated top importance

A distinguished commission should be setup. This commission would make practical plans and tactics to tackle global drugs and organized delinquency associations. The IC should evade dissipating reserves by repetition. It should acknowledge the resemblance between worldwide organized delinquencies and intercontinental hazards.

This committee should create a convenient, functioning chain of command working abroad which will gather information and maintain law enforcement rules as prescribed in the procedure. The given roles of the commission is to "design strategies" for the harmonization abroad. Though it is important for the commission to designs plans for a particular chain of command.

The U.S President must involve in implementing steps for the country's security strategies and tactics. Government has many legal advisors including the Attorney General. The Attorney General plays prominent role in Law Enforcement and in dealing the International Organized Crimes. But for better maintenance and performance the President should select the Secretary of Treasury along with the Attorney General as the representative of Law Enforcement.

This research insists the commission on enhancing harmonization with the other nations. Because worldwide collaboration is of paramount to catch criminals with who have unified relations globally. The FBI director has developing excellent operational affiliation with other nations and their law enforcement agencies. He views constructing "policeman to policeman" links as the means to curb global corruption. Only by intensification of the local agencies is headway to successful countrywide strategy, the harmonization between the American governments with other nations is also of parallel importance to fight increasing global organized delinquency

Committee experts should continuously maintain a check and balance system. Working on analyzing weaknesses in their plans and improving them is a part of Committee's attempt toward better performance. In order to examine the significant aspects of the threats from organized crimes. The Committee should provide monthly and annual reports and makes analytical practices. Having unified national strategies, coordination in activities working under the Chief of Station and improvement in policy making are the measures that may work wonder in avoiding Transnational Threats. Multi-faceted components affect the performance of the Committee; the President should draw constant attention toward the better performance by providing the actual information. Besides, the impact of the actions taken by the Committee against Organized crimes and further initiatives and amendment for weaknesses should be evaluated.

The insurgent, criminal networks must be evaluated by the Transnational Projects under the Transnational Threats Committee that should be working on International Organized crime under the President of the state. These Committees comprise all the brilliant brains from the Attorney General to the State Secretaries, putting their efforts for the best outcomes. These terrorist groups remain an intractable issue. The Transnational Committee works on an objective to chess the organized crime networks. The President has authorities to bring further members and regulate the Committee.

Impact on Stakeholders

The policies in the past have caused negative consequences on the stake holders along with growth of the economy in the country. The proposed policy would help the Government in recovering the lost revenue that was hampered as national debt problems aroused. Tax revenues would then be utilized in further strengthening the system. Financial and consumer markets that have always been vulnerable targets would be able to effectively manage deceptive methods in weakening credit, insurance, and stocks.

Law enforcement agencies would then realize their role being crucial in controlling the organized criminal activities. The law enforcement agencies, previous aim was to reduce the extent of illegitimate industry. The new aim according the policy would focus on reducing the financial stability and control of the illegitimate tycoons. This new objective relies on carefully choosing outside world organizations which when corrupted allow the criminals to procure great finances by employing legal practices to camouflages the revenues as well as hiding the power of the underworld ("Michael").

Judges, lawyers, prosecutors and other judicial bodies are the most integral aspect of any policy, as we have seen in the past despite clear evidences the criminals have been shown a safe passage. The proposed policy indulges them to be accountable in front, the head of the committee and provides clarification regarding the decisions they take with respect to criminals.

The impact on law abiding citizens with the passage of time would be fruitful, as they would find the environment improving, threats decreasing. However it is important the citizens must be informed regarding the policy measures and share their experiences along with the progress.

The proposed policy suggests that politicians would not be allowed to select the judges or the attorney general for that matter to bring transparency into the judicial system.

Federally Administered State Curbing Organized Crime Optimal Policy

Policy Recommendations

To curb the organized crime, state and federal policies must not differ but to act under unanimous approaches and harmony. From now on, we summarize possible applications that can be implemented by making an optimal policy (Kristin, 2010).

Material Possessions and Resources: In presence of organized crime the punishment should be more severe because members of mafia are usually wealthy. Everyone must be subject to punishment of similar level because that will be enough to optimally deter them given the appropriate probability of detection and punishment.

Outwardness Policy: The punishment should be increase with the severe indictment finding facts about crimes level and harmfulness. Organized criminals behave and act like they are law abiding and it is observed that lack of solid evidences of their crimes they get advantage of their moral ethics and get released. There should be a zero tolerance indictment or policy so that they could not get advantage of elusive appearance politics or any influential stature.

Debarring of Detection: Unless the punishment may not be tougher, the criminals will keep taking advantages of their stature, in which politics, state recognitions and institutional influences are included. Any criminal who is arrested or apprehended by the law enforcement agencies must not be avoid by any influence and must be taken into detection even if he/she freely moves in the society.

Subversive Activity: Accessing information about criminal transitions of property and accounts can make law or investigative agencies' task easy against organized crime with reference of local economy. It is the useful technique to weaken financial stature of the criminal in the society. To make it more successful the punishments of corruption should be tougher and the access of information is must be allowed to such criminals' accounts and money transactional records.

Jail Condemnations and Disenable Policy: Many of god fathers of underworld gets free after nominal offenses or law breaking charges and they start their dirty business again in the society. Also they remove witness by murdering and leave no trace to be apprehended by the law. In this case no public effort is possible be made in future or in favor of law or government to give witness against such heinous crime bosses. The policy should be made that after capturing such bosses severe penalties and sanctions must be implied to incapacitate them and disenable their activities after freeing them so they could not harm and spoil the evidence.

Alleviating Poverty: The poverty is the mother of all crimes and no ethics, religion, culture or regions have been snug of this global situation. The crimes are burgeoned in miserable societies and streamed with the cultures and moral philosophy. To stop organized crime, policy should be made to identified areas, cities and countries where people are under poverty, and by an intensive care and international wealthy countries' donations and aide, must be used to reinstate the economic and infrastructures for the people.

Transitions of Resources and Technologies: To protect U.S from terror attacks and organized crimes' political and territorial harassments and small counter-strikes; United States Policy of Anti Organized Crime must not be made on such principal that reserves only eliminating this abuse from U.S and Latin America but also there must be a afield horizon to protect neighbor countries and specially those overseas allies who are badly affected by both organized crime and terror with not enough competent resources to combat it. The U.S must aide such countries with military, intelligence cooperation and try best to strengthen their economy so that they could build their infrastructure by themselves and gaining internal stability, can combat organized crime and curb the terrorist organizations.

Avoiding Intervention and Negligence of the Cultures and Sects: The different faith and religion have peculiar or particular points of livings and laws. U.S anti organized crime must be accumulated all states, race and regional population's ethical information and combating the organized crime in miscellaneous parts of the world must not such act or work that is assumed insulting local customs. There must be an element of caring in making U.S policy that federal or statesmen speeches and implications might not taken as anti state and anti local integrity by any country. Law and order must be balanced against the civil liberties of the individual.

Opinions Tackling Organized crime in Modern Age

Above mentioned key point can be critically cooperative in making a revolutionary policy by which law enforcement agencies and strike forces could face the modern challenges of organized crime within U.S state and federal jurisdictions and to international threats of terror. Construing mentioned points above a modern enlighten approaches are inevitable in the perspective of any policy.

Mukasey. Michael. In his press release stated that" We had reformed the attorney general's Organized Crime Counsel to face the challenges of modern ethics of criminology, because a new generation of global crime organizations are wealthy, politically connected and technologically sophisticated, pose real national security threats" to the United States". He added "Criminals have been accessed into our system and infiltrating our strategic industries". Keeping in view the opinions of these stake holders the proposed policy certainly can prove its worth for the time to come as organized crime is not what is used to be so the policies must also be restructured accordingly ("Hemisphere's Justice", 2008).

Conclusion at Future Perspective of Organized Crime Policy

It might help to recount briefly how the perceptions of organized crime as society reflect historical trends and their interpretation, so we may treat this perspective in more detail. The disclosure of the Apalachin meeting of criminal leaders led the public and enforcement officials to think of organized crime as a secret ethnic society of criminals and hence enabled us to draft a policy that fits best in tackling these societies of criminal from its roots (Carl).

In current scenario in the U.S, on the legislative level, debates can also take place, new agencies can be formed, budgets can be approved or disapproved, and agency priorities from time to time can be changed. Thus call is for debate on priorities, not massive change which is not politically feasible.

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