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A code of ethics can be defined as a tool that helps one to determine and act during critical times. These are mainly important especially important for people holding high offices and those who have great bargaining power in decision making within the society or organization. Banks (2008) identifies one of the ethical principles used in criminal justice system as the moral integrity principle. According to Banks (2008), all the people serving under the criminal justice system must have a high level of morality including being confidential, exercising self restrain and putting the needs of other people on higher pedestal than their own needs. The officials that deal with criminal justice including, lawyer's police and correctional officers are expected to be driven by service for other people first then their needs come secondary (Banks, 2008). The second ethical principle points out to the fact that the law enforcement agents should ensure that all the rights and freedoms accorded to the citizens are protected and respected (Banks, 2008). Banks (2008) highlights that the significance of agents in ensuring that everyone is protected without any bias.
Lastly the agents are supposed to ensure that they follow all the laid down requirements and procedures in order to win the trust of the public for their services (Banks, 2008). Banks (2008) warns on the dangers of criminal justice organizations in engaging in any economic activity that may compromise their ability to deliver quality services to the citizens. These ethics are important in that they help to prevent destruction of lives. According to Banks (2008) failure to observe ethics leads to compromised justice of the people; especially those in lower cadres of employment. If police do not take due regard of the law many people who were not to be in jail, will be imprisoned. In addition, if the citizens lose their trust in law enforcement agents, the crime rate will increase as less and lesser crimes will be reported to the police thus destroying the unity enjoyed by communities (Banks, 2008).
Types of Budgets
There are several types of budget formats that an organization may adopt, depending on its need. Ku Tenk (2000) highlights the master budget as one type of budget formats. According to the economy watch, this is a type of budget where the entire plan of spending for either a calendar year or fiscal year is written. It comprises of many small micro budgets thus its size and specifications depend on how large or small the organization is (Ku Tenk, 2000).
The second type of budget format is the cash budget (Ku Tenk, 2000). Cash budget is used to plan for cash in an organization and it shows the cash receipts and expenditures within a certain n period of time (Ku Tenk, 2000). Through this budget one is able to ensure that there is no money lying unused and also help cushion against cash deficits (Ku Tenk, 2000). The components of a cash budget include: receipts; showing all cash collections from customers and all other monies received by the organization (Ku Tenk, 2000). It also shows the disbursement section that deals with all the cash paid out. The other component of cash budget is the cash deficit or surplus section and lastly there is the financing that deals with all the money that is borrowed and the expected times of payment (KuTenk 2000).
The third form of budget is the fixed budget; which budgets up to a certain maximum limit of expenditure (Ku Tenk, 2000). It is mainly used in areas or organizations where the output of the company is not directly related to the amount of work done by the staff ( KuTenk 2000). Based on understanding of the three types of budget format, the budget format most suited for correctional facility would be the fixed or static budget. This is because the facilities receive funding from the government and mostly the government funding for each department is fixed with limited variations. Furthermore, the income and expenditure of these organizations is strongly regulated by the administrators high above in the ministry to safeguard tax payer's money that is used to fund the organizations.
Impacts of Due Process on the Hiring and Firing Of Employees of Criminal Justice Systems
According to Walsh, Kemmerer & Maniotis (2005), the main question in any recruitment is if the person was accorded due process because everyone is entitled to due process if the constitution allows it. A process considered due when the life, liberty and property of an individual has been protected during the hiring process and in cases where there are no complaints from individuals who have been deprived of their constitutional rights by employees during recruitment process it is assumed that due process has been followed (Walsh, et al., 2005). In addition, the employee has no right to due process in case he takes up the job after a mutual agreement between him and the employer. Walsh, et al (2005) argue that when there is such a relationship, any of the parties to the agreement can terminate the agreement without prior notice and this will not be a violation of due process.
According Walsh, et al (2005), the due process of terminating an employee should include giving notice of ending the contract in good time, giving him a fair hearing and also the evidence that led to the dismissal of the employee should be availed. The article of due process is invoked if the client is dismissed before the expiry of the contract. Furthermore, the same employment laws are against discrimination of employees on the basis of race, gender, religion age, nationality among others and they apply to all individuals regardless of their type of contract (Walsh, et al., 2005).
The main consequence that could occur if due process mandates are not followed in hiring, disciplinary actions and firing of criminal justice employees is that the quality of work done will go down and this will lead to a decline in the confidence that the public has in this institution (Walsh, et al., 2005).
The Impact of Law Suits in Criminal Justice Organizations.
A law suit is a civil case brought in court in which the offended party sues the offender to compensate him for the loss or harm suffered (Mathews, 2010). It is mainly used to solve disputes between individual's parties or organizations. Mathews (2010) observes that although most of the lawsuits are settled amicably before they proceed to full hearing , they are very complex in terms of litigation. Moreover, law suits become more complex where the court uses state laws to litigate or where there is confusion on what level of the court system should handle the case (Mathews, 2010). Sometimes the courts in local areas are forced to use laws of other countries especially if one of the parties to the case is not a resident of the country where the case is being heard. This is because they do not have the legal mandate to get the property of the accused to settle the claims hence claim settlement becomes an issue (Mathews. 2010). Law suits are further complicated in incidences that have several parties to one suit (Mathews, 2010).
What can be done to lessen the chances of law suits being filed in criminal justice organizations?
According to Pearson report (1978) of the royal commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, those initiating liability law suits are supposed to pay court costs and also the expenses incurred by defendants in case they lose the case. This is used as a measure to reduce the number of liability cases. Pearson (1978) suggests the introduction of a social security framework to serve all people and provision for a universal no fault insurance plan from government compensation scheme to provide compensation to all people and reduce the cost of filling the lawsuits.