The World Intelligence Services After 911 Criminology Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

The September 11, 2001 terrorist's acts on the soil of United States as well as the subsequent revelation of existence of various Al-Qaeda cells in Europe gave new urgency to various EU initiatives to combat terrorism as well as other crimes happening across the border (Democracy Now 2005). In the past, efforts by the EU to address challenges like these had a serious obstacle in the form of national sovereignty concerns, lack of resources as well as mistrust among the law enforcement agencies according to Walsh (2001). The immediate European endeavors after the 9/11 led to the tracking down of terrorists as well as the freezing of their various financial assets mostly in cooperation with the US authorities as we are informed by Tilley (2003). After the attacks, the EU sought to speed up various efforts in order to harmonize the national laws and scale down the obstacles among the member states.

This is so as to ensure that the information will be always expeditiously shared and the suspects arrested (Townsley 2003). This has resulted from a permanent presence of terrorism threat due to the issue of Jerusalem and Palestinian independence (Townsley 2003). For example, the highest ranking Muslim authority in Jerusalem and Palestine has been quoted variously praising the child martyrs and calling on more youths to sacrifice their lives for the sake of their community and religious standing (Vito et al. 2005). He has variously said that he had profound respect for the young martyrs, and he remembered one teenager telling him that once he was through with his suicide mission, he would go and marry the beautiful black eyed girls in heaven (Weisburd 2004). Come the next day, the young man had committed suicide bombing and was already dead. In interview with World Net Daily on November, 10,2000, he encouraged many more youngsters to embrace martyrdom and sacrifice ,saying that the less the age at the time of opting for martyrdom, the bigger the sacrifice. He said Palestinian parents are happy when their kids opt for martyrdom because once the kids are born; it is made clear to them that their role is to defend the Palestinian land, reclaim the holly city of Jerusalem and the eventual annihilation of Zionists from the Palestinian territory Walsh (2001). He said that the increased number of children who were now taking part in the suicide bombings was an indication that the future generations who continue with the struggle to rescue the Palestinian homeland from the hands of the occupation forces. He said that although they were yet to succeed in the liberation of Al-aqsa mosque in Jerusalem, it was just a matter of time. He said that he can never greet a Jew and that is the level of hatred he would like to inculcate into Palestine children to ensure that they grow up to be the future liberators of the country from the hands of the Zionists.

He supports the teaching of children songs like the militant one which has the words: when I wander into Jerusalem I will become a suicide bomber (Walsh 2001). Therefore we can see that Jerusalem is the focal point on any militants who want to recruit volunteers for their various terrorist acts. This goes on to show that there was an urgent need for immediate cooperation among the EU states which generally support Israel and its right to exist.

Among the other steps, the EU came up with was a common definition of terrorism as well as the list of terrorism groups and an EU arrest warrant in order to enhance the tools to investigate the financing of terrorists and the measures for strengthening external Europe border controls. The March 2004 terrorist attack of Madrid by use of bombs brought about a greater sense of urgency and gave added reason for the increased EU initiatives which are aimed at enhancing improved travel document security documents security and impending terrorist travel (Walsh 2001). In addition, in the wake of these attacks was created a position of counterterrorist coordinator. The main responsibilities of the coordinator are to enhance the intelligence sharing among the Europe's countries (Wardlaw et al 2006).

Most intelligence organizations throughout the world have transformed their roles from rivalry and competition to the one of cooperation .in all their various endeavors and are now cooperating both domestically and internationally in warding off new threats.

This has led to several arrests being made especially in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom (Willis et al 2003).

Bibliography

Democracy Now (17 February 2005) Outsourcing Torture: The Secret History of America's "Extraordinary Rendition",

A Tilley, N , 2003." Problem-Oriented Policing, Intelligence-Led Policing and the National Intelligence Model", London, Jill Dando Institute for Crime Science

Townsley, M., Johnson, S. and Pease, K. 2003, "Problem Orientation, Problem Solving and Organizational Change" Crime Prevention Series No. 15, Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, NY, pp. 183-212.

Vito, G.F., Walsh, W.F. and Kunselman, J 2005, "Compstat: the manager'perspective", International Journal of Police Science and Management, Vol 7 No.3, pp. 187-196.

Walsh, W.F, 2001. "Compstat: an analysis of an emerging police managerial paradigm", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol. 24 No 3, pp. 347-362.

Wardlaw, G. and Boughton, J. 2006. "Intelligence-Led Policing: The AFP Approach", in J. Fleming and J. Wood (Eds.) Fighting Crime Together: The Challenges of Policing and Security Networks, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, pp. 133-149.

Weisburd, D. and Eck, J. , 2004. "What can police do to reduce crime, disorder, and fear?" The Annals of the European Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol.593 No 1, pp. 43-65.

Willis, J.J., Mastrofski, S.D., Weisburd, D. and Greenspan, R, 2003 "Compstat and Organizational Change in the Lowell Police Department: Challenges and Opportunities", Washington DC, Police Foundation

PART 2

This study will focus on the organizational part of intelligence service and this implies to a given set of groups of organizations within the government called the intelligence services. What they do is the intelligence activity and what they produce is the intelligence information. According to Silverman (2006) intelligence is defined as information which h is relevant to the authorities formulation and the implementation its broad policy requirements in order to further its interests of national security and to cope with threats from other actual or potential enemies. Intelligence process is the various steps or phases in intelligence.

There are several intelligence products but here I will explain three of them namely basic intelligence, current intelligence and the intelligence estimates. A standard product that provides an overall assessment of the level of play in another government, market, military, or market. It is usually from the open sources but sometimes it can involve secret sources for the purposes of value addition to the information received (Skogan 1996). Current intelligence as a product refers to a topic of immediate interest and explains that such intelligence is usually passed on without a chance for further evaluation to it because of the urgency with which it may be needed. It seeks to provide consumers with the latest information on current events, analyzed within a larger context and using advantage of secret information.

The best known of this current intelligence is the one practiced in the USA called the Presidents Daily Brief in which the authorities inform the USA president on the happenings throughout the world and especially in areas where the USA might be having vested interests. (Ratcliffe 2005) Warning intelligence is of particular interest for policing and security intelligence. It provides indications and warning on threats to national security and it is traditionally an intelligence organizations highest priority on every day basis. The third type of intelligence product estimates assesses possible futures meaning it forewarns of what is likely to happen in the coming days. Well-organized intelligence industry grew in the twentieth century and most states now possess permanent institutions fully committed to it. There are several issues to consider that influence the structure of various intelligence units /communities.

There are various considerations influencing the organizational structures of various intelligence communities. These include mandates and roles of the intelligence services and the understanding of overlaps between role players and intelligence service such as enforcement of law and order in the broader security community (Smith 1994). In addition, the form of a specific central analysis mechanism to process collected intelligence in case it does exist. Fourthly, the need to ensure accountability, central control, and coordination within the intelligence community is another overriding factor. Finally, the necessity to make sure that there is public oversight of the intelligence community.

The intelligence unit at Alexandria is composed of a number of key technological and infrastructure improvements whose purpose is to enhance service and improve employee productivity in the force (Skogan 1996). There is a presence of state of the art telephone system to ensure automated call distributor, which is a critical part, which accepts the calls and directs the same to the appropriate call takers as well as capturing information about the call. Another special facility for an ideal unit is a new emergency system, which instantly recognizes calls from people who are deaf or hard on hearing hence providing the person taking calls with some customized and pre- programmed phrases that assist him to speak to the TDD/TTY devices in various syntaxes, which can be recognized by the machines (Sheptycki 2004). Availability of unified computer aided dispatch systems helps keep track of where units have been dispatched to and hence aid in managing the field resources. There are also features, which are meant to enhance productivity among emergency communications employees (Sheptycki 2004). This helps in stress reduction. Also present is a workout centre, an extensive kitchen and a quiet room to help the employees order their thoughts.

The intelligence branch is responsible for obtaining secret intelligence by use of undercover means throughout their areas of jurisdiction (Sherman 1998). The unit recruits its own agents and hence exploits existing sources for various clandestine intelligence such as underground groups (Smith 1994). In the same cadre is Research and Analysis semi unit, which coordinates the intelligence from various snippets and later authors a report in a specific area. For example, the article authored can be of an economic, political, strategic, and geographical nature (Scott 2000). There is also a Censorship and Documents branch that has dual functions namely the securing of censorship materials for the intelligence unit as well as the special monitoring of broadcasts for various commercial and economic intelligence has well as political happenings. In every intelligence unit there must be a morale branch, which is responsible for subverting the enemy's morale. To achieve this end, it uses propaganda purporting to come from a source other than the stated one. It can use radio, rumors, leaflets and even a number of 'black' newspapers to achieve its aims (Rengert 1992).

There has been a challenge for non traditional police organizations focus on taking advantage of various policing paradigms which have been designed for conventional law and order enforcement bodies. One of the examples is enhancing of police legitimacy for acceptance in the areas where people are distrustful of the police (Silverman 2006).The Alexandria police department aims at providing competent, courteous, professional and community oriented police services to the surrounding community (Scott, M.S. 2000). The officers endeavor to protect life and property and at the same time ensure fair and equal treatment to everyone. It maintains a highly trained, technically skilled, energetic, well equipped and a diverse police department. It has 320 police officers and 138 civilian employees.

DEPARTMENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE - Listed here by title and rank:

Chief of Police -Colonel

Assistant Chief -Lieutenant Colonel

Command Officer- Lieutenant

Line Supervisor- Sergeant

Police Officer -Officer

-------------------Probationary Period------------------

Police Officer - Probationary Officer-P

(1 year from date of hire)

Police Officer - Recruit Officer-R

during Basic & FTO Training- Police Candidate

One of the main roles of intelligence services is to collect intelligence through human resources and other appropriate means (Sherman 1998). After this, there is correlating and evaluation of intelligence in relation to the national security and provision of appropriate dissemination of the intelligence. In addition, it provides the overall direction for coordination and collection of intelligence within the department. Prevent and control conduct widely seen to be a threat to property and life as well as aid individuals who might be in danger of being harmed physically like in cases of violent attack (Ratcliffe 2003).

Bibliography

Ratcliffe, J.H. 2003 "Intelligence-led policing", Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, No 248.

Ratcliffe, J.H. 2005 "The effectiveness of police intelligence management: A New Zealand case study", Police Practice and Research, Vol 6 No 5, pp. 435-451.

Rengert, G.F. 1992, "The journey to crime: Conceptual foundations and policy implications", in D.J. Evans, N.R. Fyfe and D.T. Herbert (Eds.) Crime, Policing and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology, Routledge, London, pp. 109-117.

State police investigative structure and the adoption of intelligence-led policing 24

Scott, M.S. 2000. "Problem-Oriented Policing: Reflections on the First 20 Years", Washington DC, COPS Office.

Sheptycki, J. 2004. "Organizational pathologies in police intelligence systems: Some contributions to the lexicon of intelligence-led policing", European Journal of Criminology, Vol 1 No 3, pp. 307-332.

Sherman, L.W. 1998. "Evidence-Based Policing", Washington DC, Police Foundation.

Sherman, L.W., Gottfredson, D., MacKenzie, D., Eck, J., Reuter, P. and Bushway, S. (1998) "Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising", Washington DC, National Institute of Justice.

Silverman, E.B. 2006. "Compstat's innovation", in D. Weisburd and A.A. Braga (Eds.) Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, pp. 267-283.

Skogan, W.G. 1996. "Problem Oriented Policing in Chicago" Conference on Problem-Oriented Policing as Crime Prevention, Stockholm, cited in Sherman et al, 1998.

Smith, A. (Ed.) 1994. Intelligence Led Policing: International Perspectives on Policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ, International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts

PART 3a

The mission of Alexandria Police Department is provision of competent, courteous and professional as well as community oriented police services (Maguire and John, 2006). To maintain and enhance a strong and productive partnership with the community and to continue to reduce crime and ensure improved quality of life in all of the Alexandria's neighborhoods. They are committed to protection of life and property while making sure there is fair and equal treatment of every one.

Surveillance and intelligence has been there since the times immemorial. For example in the republic of Venice in the fourteenth century, authorities boarded ships In order to identify those people with bubonic plague and hence prevent them from disembarking (NCIS 1999). In addition, in 1741 Rhode Island had authorized tavern keepers to report patrons with contagious diseases, including small pox and cholera this part of intelligence. As for the naturally occurring infectious outbreaks, advances in transport and communication that have been witnessed in the 20th century have made their transmission very fast. Diseases like H1N1 influenza and SARS are no longer limited by political or geographic boundaries in their spread (NCIS 1999). Nations struggle daily to address the impact of naturally occurring diseases in areas under their jurisdiction. Therefore, surveillance technologies ought to be sought in order to mitigate the impact from the outbreaks of various diseases no matter what their cause might be (Uncle, 1997).

Several secret service organizations sprang up -after the Second World War. The secret service in various countries of the world is used in gathering intelligence reports. The terrorists act on 11th September 2001leashed unprecedented wave of policy interventions in the European Union. The European countries general approach to fight against crime was suddenly regarded to be more feasible than ever before. After the end of cold war, Europe gradually evolved towards a broad notion of security that conflates several notions into security continuum, ranging from organized crime to international terrorism. Although there is evidence that terrorists groups are increasingly operating on a transnational bases, most national secret services focus their intelligence gathering operations on domestically active organizations

Domestic terrorism is still an issue in several European countries. Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ( ETA), has carried out several terror attacks in European countries notably in France and Spain . Its operational capabilities are still maintained extensive law enforcement efforts between the French and Spanish authorities. The Revolutionary Armed groups first of October (GRAPO) has been carrying out armed robberies but it suffered serious setback due to the dismantling of its management structure by Spain and French law enforcement agencies in various sting operations. RIRA has been very active in British mainland and the Northern Ireland. 'Anarchist' terrorism is still active in several EU countries (Mastrofski, 2006). Revolutionary front for communism has claimed responsibility for two failed bomb attacks. A bomb attack against ministry of interior is yet to be claimed.

A number of cells planning attacks in the European union have been dismantled in Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Belgium. The EU secret service is headquartered in Brussels and it is composed of several agents from European capitals seconded there by their governments. A French agent heads it. The cell deals with classified information from various member states .Its reports are equally important and available to all 27 EU countries via their envoy s to the political and security committee (PSC) which is a group of member states diplomats, which meets regularly in the EU council to speak on matters pertaining to security (Sherman 1998)..

While member states remain responsible to ensure the functioning of their police forces, intelligence security as well as the judicial authorities, they have been actively strengthening the role of the European Union and its capability especially to exchange information , establish common legal framework as well as work with international partners in their efforts of surveillance (McDonald 2002). The member states compare their various domestic experiences with a view to identifying the most appropriate practice. Denmark and Belgium for instance responded to the EU peer evaluation into domestic competencies and coordinating mechanisms in the war on terror through creation of national centers for terrorist threat assessment while Finish government has taken various steps to empower its internal security agency.

Sometimes back in The December of 2005, the EU council adopted the European Union Counter-Terrorism Strategy and set itself four strategic aims (Moore 2003). These are, the prevention of people from turning to terrorism, protection of infrastructure and borders, pursuance of terrorists across the borders to bring them to justice and across the board preparation in solidarity in order to minimize the possible consequences in cases of attack (Moore 2003). The EU has come up with various measures to help to prevent the radicalization as well as the recruitment into terrorism for example by analyzing the terrorist's use of the internet. The German, Australian and the Finish presidencies are closely coordinating the implementation of this action plan. Issues pertaining to border security have also been dealt with as the council agreed to include biometric security features into various member states passports (Maple and Mitchell 1999). In addition, there has been a review of standards in order to improve security at ports and airports. There are also [plans to provide services responsible for national security with wider access to these and other databases, while strengthening data protection and ensure controlled access to data. Cooperation with the US, the United Nations and other partners in Europe, in the Middle East, across Mediterranean as well as in Asia (Maguire and John 2006).

The EU has remained fully committed to regional security from Iraq to Afghanistan and from the Aceh and Africa to the Palestinian territories (Maple and Mitchell 1999). Member States of the European commission in liaison with the commission have embarked on a program of coordinating their assistance to third world countries to help them in counterterrorism efforts. Aid has been given to Algeria and Morocco and many other member states as well as provision of support by the commission to the Jakarta Centre for Law Enforcement Cooperation. Also being assisted is the African Union's Counter - Terrorism Centre in Algiers (NCIS 1999). Unfortunately, under the current EU treaty, there are clear limits as pertains to what the EU can do to protect the public against acts of terror (Moore 2003). Due to the requirement for unanimity, the decision making process has been slowed down. Some of the problems facing security initiatives can be seen in the fact that it took more than a year before the EU could muster enough unanimity for the appointment of the director of the Europol (Europe Police). Also, even when the council is able to reach unanimity, it often takes a number of years before the various national parliaments can implement the relevant legislations (Moore et al 2003). This can be seen from the three Europol conventions.

Bibliography

Goldsmith, P.G. McGuire, J.H. Mollenkopf and T.A. Ross (Eds.) 2001. Analyzing Crime Patterns: Frontiers of Practice, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 11-22

Intelligence Model in the UK", Policing and Society, Vol 16 No 1, pp. 67-85.

Maguire, M. and John, T. 2006. "Intelligence led policing, managerialism and community engagement: Competing priorities and the role of the National

Maple, J. and Mitchell, C. 1999. The Crime Fighter: Putting the Bad Guys out of Business, Doubleday, New York

Mastrofski, S. 2006. "Community policing: A skeptical view", in D. Weisburd and A.A. Braga (Eds.) Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, Chicago, pp. 44-73

McDonald, P.P. 2002 Managing Police Operations: Implementing the New York Crime Control Model - CompStat, Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.

McGuire, P.G. 2000 "The New York Police Department COMPSTAT Process", in V

Moore, M.H. 2003. "Sizing up CompStat: An important administrative innovation in policing", Criminology and Public Policy, Vol 2 No 3, pp. 469-494.

Moore, M.H. and Braga, A.A. 2003. "Measuring and improving police performance: The lessons of Compstat and its progeny", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol 26 No 3, pp. 439-453.

NCIS .1999. "NCIS and the National Intelligence Model", National Criminal Intelligence Service, London

Part 3b

There are several problems in security and safety facing the Alexandria Police department (Alan 2007). At this time of economic hardships and when the governments are doing their best to reduce the rate of expenditure, many law enforcement agencies are facing personnel layoffs and reduction in for resources available while they are expected to go on fighting crime. The resource and budget cutbacks can have negative impact even on the best of departments tasked with ensuring public safety (Moore 2003). The safety of citizens especially in the southwestern border communities has been threatened by violence; criminal organizations and the enormous flow of drugs, firearms, as well as money, which is mostly channeled from the porous Mexican border. Over the years, the list of innocent crime victims who lose their lives to these gangs has been on the increase.

The police and government officials have been targeted by these evil elements in order to hinder the fight against crime. One key security problem facing the law enforcement agencies in the USA has been the illegal drugs which have been brought into the country from Mexico and the opposite flow of drugs and fire arms into Mexico (Costello and Wiles 2001). The focal point in this problem is the cartels, which direct, organize and manipulate the flow of drugs, firearms and money. Crime rate that has soared especially in the border regions has led to a slump in tourism hence reducing the revenue available to municipal authorities. This has led to reduced spending for the police departments hence impacting negatively on their effectiveness. This has left departments understaffed and has had to leave open positions as well as reduction of ranks through layoffs while others are unable to replace their dilapidated equipment, buy the needed guns, establish the needed communications systems or even the soft body protection armor (Tucker, 1996).

This has left the police officers outnumbered, out gunned and in great peril. Safety and security is becoming harder and harder. There are just a myriad of threats that it's so hard to keep with the most recent development (Daphen 2009). Another issue that has had a negative effect on the police department is that it is proving to be very hard to retain quality police officers. Small police departments such as this one have to work much harder in order to retain quality officers against the lure of larger agencies, which have much more to offer. This includes even larger salaries and better chances of the officers getting promotions. Safety ends up being compromised when experienced cops are lost because of staff turnover and the arising of vacancies in various departments. Larger police agencies have higher rates of retention due to lower average rates of attrition as compared to their smaller counterparts.

The problem becomes much worse when large security agencies intentionally recruit the seasoned officers from the other agencies. For example, you will find Houston Texas Police Department offering a signing bonus of up to $7000 t o experienced officers who chose to relocate there and finishes a three months training program. The aim is to poach officers from other departments and hence reduce the amount of money used training them (Crank and Rehm 1994). Miami gardens on the other hand dishes out a $7000 moving allowance and a $12000 signing bonus. It is important to note that bioterrorism agents are event more c heaper to come by and to use than the other weapons used by terror groups. This is more the reason why people of the world ought to be with a ready response while prepared for any surprise, which the terrorists might spring at them. Although it is not humanly possible to be fully prepared for unexpected events, it is a proven fact that taking preparedness actions aids people to better deal with the disasters of any kind in a much more effective manner than when caught unprepared. Therefore, there is need to develop plans and procedures to prepare and respond appropriately to all bioterrorism threats which might be leveled against the citizenry or even the military (Alan 2007).

Countries need to assess vulnerability to specific hazards of bioterrorism and their ability to respond to them when they occur. By so doing they will be able to plan and prepare for emergencies if and when these acts occur (Costello and Wiles 2001). The following are some of the grounds on which we need to have serious preparations incase an emergency response becomes necessary. Liaison and Planning units needed to provide technical assistance and hence lead to a better-organized response team; also, a training and exercise unit is needed to provide training and coordinated exercise design as well as evaluation in case of emergencies (Alan 2007).

Another vital unit that ought to be anchored in every nation's preparedness plan is Environmental health emergency preparedness unit. This unit can effectively plan for response to terrorism acts targeting the respiratory system and hence ensures items of clothing are available at convenient and appropriate locations (Crank 1994). They can also have equipment for mobile testing for toxic levels. Another very important area is the establishment of well-equipped hospitals. These should be well equipped in terms of medicine and personnel. These will ensure that incase of emergencies, we will be able to cope with the outcomes. This is possible by enhancing the strategic stockpiles of all the materials that might be needed during emergencies.

CONCLUSSION

The events of 9/11 brought to the light that all the intelligence communities of the world needed to change from the past framework practiced during the cold war to one that sought a wider spectrum of information about the several actors engaged in different activities. To make matters worse, the second gulf war of 2003 further shown the intelligence community's problematic intelligence performance (Alan 2007). The 9/11 and second gulf war shortcomings led to several recommendations from several commissions and congressional inquiries as pertained to the need to reform the intelligence services. This has led to the most far-reaching reform in the history of intelligence services (Alan 2007).

Prior to the events of 9/11 most intelligence organizations worldwide were decentralized but like in the case of the US intelligence, the 9/11 commissions recommendations and their subsequent adoption of the intelligence reform act, meant a change from the formerly decentralized agencies toward unified, centralized agencies under the control of the Director of the National Intelligence. We realize that these problems facing the police departments need to be solved earliest possible if the various forces are to be able to achieve their goals in protecting the public from several problems which face them (Benjamin and Steven, 2002)

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.