The Tragic Attacks In New York City Criminology Essay

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/The tragic attacks in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001,left people in the United States shocked and in disbelief, wondering who had committed such acts and why. When U.S. government authorities cautiously revealed the identities of the alleged perpetrators to be members of the al-Qaeda terrorist network, believed to be led by the Taliban in Afghanistan, everyone wanted to learn about the Taliban: From where did they come? What internal and external forces created and supported them? What was the relationship between the al-Qaeda terrorists and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan? After September 11, 2001, the United States began waging war in Afghanistan. This war was not against the Afghan people, but against the Taliban and the terrorist organization al-Qaeda that had flourished under Taliban rule. Although this was a reasonable reaction, the U.S. should not send more troops to Afghanistan for many important reasons.

Before discussing the issue of the U.S. attack on Afghanistan, it is first important to understand what happened on September 11, 2001. On this day, there were massive terrorist attacks on the United States, resulting in the collapse of the World Trade Center's, Twin Towers. It is believed that the al-Qaeda terrorists attacked the U.S. because of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989. Nineteen terrorists hijacked four passenger airliners; two were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York, and one into the Pentagon building near Washington. One plane crashed in Pennsylvania. Immediately after the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon, it was reported that the U.S. government had threatened military action against Afghanistan several months before the terrorist attacks. The Milken institute estimates the attack cost approximately 1.8 million Jobs and the University of Chicago estimates to a total of $60 billion. President George W. Bush stated that

Afghanistan was under attack because its Taliban regime harbored and supported these horrific attacks.

One reason why more troops should not be sent to Afghanistan is because it has been suggested that the al-Qaeda terrorists have nothing to do with destruction of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. There is compelling evidence that the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. were organized by U.S. authorities as an excuse to start an already planned war in Afghanistan. The U.S. authorities were almost certain of Osama bin Laden's guilt. Osama bin Laden is the leader of a terrorist organization know as the al-Qaeda. "An Indian novelist Arundhati Roy stated that "American policies may have contributed to the September 11 attacks and asserts that the people of Afghanistan are not the rightful recipients of American wrath" (Boaz p.27). "Until August, They claim, the US government saw the Taliban as a source of stability in Central Asia that would enable the reconstruction of an oil pipeline across Central Asia" (Martin p.6). "Both the American public and the dozens of foreign governments were stampeded into supporting military action against Afghanistan, in the name of the fight against terrorism. The Bush administration targeted Kabul without presenting any evidence that either bin Laden or the Taliban regime was responsible for the World Trade Center atrocity" (Martin p.6). From all accounts, it is impossible to produce evidence to link Osama Bin Laden to the September 11 attacks.

Another reason why more troops should not be sent to Afghanistan is because thousands of civilians will be killed. Although the United States has taken extraordinary measures to avoid civilian casualties in the campaign, many innocent people have died during the war in Taliban. "Within the Afghan 'rubble' could be found many innocent noncombatants who, unlike bin Laden's terrorist cadres, couldn't protect themselves from airstrikes" (Boaz p. 49). The bombing should stop, as it has set the Muslim World against the U.S. Some of the places that the U.S. has bombed have been reported not to have harbored any al-Qaeda terrorists. "Serious questions were raised about a December 1st 2001 U.S. bombing raid that destroyed villages outside Kabul. Over 100 civilians were reportedly killed in the village of Kama Ado, despite residents insisting that no al-Qaeda terrorists were ever there" (Boaz p.52). "As Afghan civilian casualties mounted in Afghanistan in late 2001, it became increasingly difficult for many writers and activists across the political spectrum to view the U.S.-led attack as just" (Boaz p.48).

The final reason why more troops should not be sent to Afghanistan is that the American army would need to first clear the mines and build roads in order to bring in soldiers."Of Afghanistan's 13,041 miles (21,000 kilometers) of roads, only about 17 percent are in good condition" (Otfinoski p.106). "Afghanistan's economy is in a shambles. In fact, the problem for an invading army is that Afghanistan has no conventional coordinates or signposts to plot on a military map-no big cities and no highways, no industrial complexes, no water treatment plants" ( Boaz p.31). The country is littered with 10 million land mines. Afghanistan is one of the poorest, most ravaged, war-torn countries in the world. "In September 2002, U.S. president George W. Bush pledged $180 million for a road improvement project that would involve United States, and Saudi Arabia" (Otfinoski p. 106). The U.S. is spending more money on reconstruction than on the war in Afghanistan.

The U.S. Should not root out terrorist groups in Afghanistan because the Bush administration might have planned the 9/11 attacks themselves. Most people think the U.S. invasion in Afghanistan was constructed as a humanitarian intervention, but it was simply vengeance. The world will probably never know what motivated those particular hijackers who flew planes into those particular American buildings. They left no suicide notes, no political messages, and no organization has claimed credit for the attacks. All we know is that their belief in what they were doing outstripped the natural human instinct for survival, or any desire to be remembered. What they did has blown a hole in the world. The U.S. could have used many other smarter approaches to limiting terrorism, including appeasement, passivity, and increased defensive security measures instead of having a war in Afghanistan.