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A prison is a place for confinement of people who have been involved in serious crimes such as felonies. Unlike jails, prisons are administered by state, provincial, national governments and house inmates for a long period of time. In the 19th century, criminals were segregated by the type of crime, age. This separation was accompanied by incentive for good behavior, indeterminate sentencing, vocational training and parole. In the 20th century, the population in prison in many jurisdictions blew up as arrests for aggressive offenses increased. As a result, many prisons have more prisoners than their targeted limit however they meet a level that is considered as safe. Recently, some prisoners are being held in courts and police cells because prisons are full.
Prison overcrowding is often recognized in terms of prison crowding and its negative impacts for the prisoners. Its calculation is based on floor space per each prisoner and the total number of prisoners occupying each cell or unit. Therefore, prison overcrowding occurs when the actual population of the prison does not match with institutional population relative to stated capacity. It is often believed that 67 percent of the growing prison population is accredited to time increase in custodial sentences.
Law-Enforcement Issues That Contribute To Prison Overcrowding
Lawmakers have made rules and regulations to serve as guidelines on how to conduct oneself in a way which majority of the population considers as normal behavior (Coe, 2009). However, the enforcement of these laws is criticized. The law enforcement community is confronted with a litany of assertions that officers have acted against the public's trust, abused their authority, engaged in criminal acts, infringed citizen's civil rights, used excessive force and lost accountability with the communities they serve. Over the past years, police acts; robbery, violence, corruption and other predatory misconduct have been carried out by the members of the police community. This acts result in incarcerations of people who ought to be free hence increasing the numbers of those behind bars.
There are various issues regarding law-enforcement in various states that add to prison overcrowding unnecessarily, for instance, identity theft; the disturbing issue involved in crime incident reporting. It may be a prime motive of crimes such as robbery, stealing from cars, burglary or pick-pocketing. In cases of identity theft, crime incident reporting systems must be sufficiently flexible so as to collect information and record it. The flexibility of the information systems enables a crime analyst to check across various categories of crimes and pick up on any identity-theft-related issue. It is the responsibility of law-enforcement community to develop businesses and agencies response plan that will mitigate major theft. Effective communication and education through community outreach helps victims to be aware of where to turn to for resolution of identity theft cases. Law enforcement officers and prosecutors are faced with several difficulties, firstly, the offender may use varying identities, which confuses and makes it difficult to ascertain investigations (Cole & Smith, 2007). Secondly, offenders can execute crimes using a victim's identity and this makes the victim to be arrested falsely. Finally, collection of information from various sources consumes a lot of time and makes it difficult for investigators to track. All these ought to be identified and stopped to reduce the numbers entering prisons.
Socio-Economic (Cultural) Diversity in Criminal Justice
Application of criminal laws and punishments in the diverse society raises two main questions. Firstly, what unfairness results from the application of uniform criminal laws, procedures and punishments to individuals who are unable to comprehend them? Secondly, to what extent should our interest in uniform application of our laws capitulate in order to reduce that unfairness? The above mentioned questions can be summarized by asking how a true and fair criminal justice system can be made accessible to our society with its varying members' backgrounds. Cases of unfair imprisonment may happen where cultural backgrounds clash.
Nevertheless, the rising diversity among lawyers exercising in the field of criminal law provides an unprejudiced resolution. Efforts made by the law schools, law firms and prosecuting governmental agencies, cultural, racial, socio-economic, and linguistic of lawyers in the criminal justice system has increased rapidly in the past years. The cultural movement has enhanced minority participation in society's criminal justice system. Additionally, lawyers are able to communicate well with the members of the society who poses different backgrounds. Lawyers become familiar with the American criminal justice system as well as the traditions and values of the clients. Therefore, they can effectively perform as liaisons, interpreting the culture, language and values of the criminal justice system into an accessible form to those whom the system has potential effect (Siegel, 2009).
Despite the type of background, individuals without legal training require advisors to explain the procedural and the technical aspects of the criminal justice system. It is evidenced that an individual from a foreign cultural background finds his or her cultural values in conflict with those of the American criminal justice system. However, a lawyer who is familiar with criminal justice systems can counsel the individual and assist him or her to select a proper way to advance. Furthermore, the lawyers are able to identify and understand potential cultural defenses and to effectively and efficiently present those defenses in a court. Conversely, the lawyers are able to adjudicate when an individual's desire to give a cultural defense would be unwise, and how to best communicate that to a defendant who has a feeling that his conduct was acceptable. For instance, a lawyer who is conversant with the Chinese cultural background can best determine the strength of such a cultural defense and present that defense to a jury. Prosecutors from varying backgrounds are able to note various cultural practices that are termed as detestable in traditional American sensibilities. Diversity in the criminal justice system is important as it increases accessibility of the system. Legal scholars and writers have their thoughts occupied with the impression of monolithic and irrational criminal justice system. With the increasing diversity of lawyers working in the criminal field, individuals from the society with foreign backgrounds will not be left to lose cases due to ignorance; Rather, through their lawyers who have knowledge about their diverse culture, will be participants in the criminal justice system and thus will be served justice.
There is also the problem pose d by technology savvy criminals. Currently, computers are widely used to gather information leading to criminal activity. Computers are used by criminals to store data relating to money laundering, drug deals, embezzlement, extortion and mail fraud. Additionally, criminals use computers to manipulate data, gain access to computers of financial institutions and utilize telephone lines of unsuspecting transactions. Therefore, the law enforcement community must act quickly and decisively so as to meet the challenge caused by the criminal use of computers. Law enforcement must come up with a well structured approach to investigate computer evidence. Examination of the computer evidence aids in addressing the legitimate requirement for access to computers and the data they contain. In addition, the computer evidence can provide intelligence and investigative information, and preserve the information for concurrent admission in courts. These efforts which are aimed at deterring crime will help decongest prisons.
The United States Constitution and the Application of Criminal and Social Justice Theories through the Constitution
Proper adherence to the constitution can result in great achievement in lowering the number of prisoners. The United States constitution comprises of the primary law of the U.S Federal Government. It explains the three main branches of the Federal Government together with their jurisdictions. Additionally, it presents the basic rights of U.S citizens. The constitution of the United States is the oldest chief document in the Federal Government and was prepared by a gathering of delegates from twelve original states in Philadelphia in May 1787. It is the landmark legal document in the United States. The constitution deals with issues of criminal social justice. Social justice occurs where crime offenders are accountable for their deeds and the criminal justice proceedings are reinforced fairly without individual bias and it provides justice to all members of society and criminal offenders (Siegel, 2009). Many people of lower status and minorities are likely to be victimized because of their social position. Individuals with money and power possess most power and laws are at times made to favor them. Therefore, to obtain social justice, individuals must realize their natural biases and take the appropriate ways to correct them.
The above mentioned effort to ensure social justice includes allocating equal resources and opportunities. With regard to the U.S constitution, every human being has a right to life, therefore, he or she should be provided with necessities such as food, shelter, health and childcare. Criminal and social cultural theories in the U.S constitution are broadly discussed in three basic principles, with different levels of significance. These principles include equality, need and desert and each principle is applied in a different type of relationship. For instance, in a solidarity society, the intimate relationships include families, church groups and team works. These groups hold similar cultural and ethnic values.
Instrumental association is another kind of relationship which occurs when individuals communicate in a manner that is functional. For instance, in an economic relationship the buyer and the seller share the same goals but exercise different tasks. In the above mentioned relationship, justice is applied according to desert. Finally, the third type of association is called citizenship. In this relationship, all members of the society are incorporated as a whole. All citizens of the United States are engaged to particular human rights including right to justice. These rights to justice include right to personal protection, political engagement as well as social services for the political community.
Another theory of social justice is where justice is termed as fairness. In this theory, every individual is guaranteed particular freedoms without considering his or her social status. These rights include freedom to contest, eligibility for a public office, free speech, freedom of thought and conscience (Noblett, 1993). According to the constitution, individuals are free to possess property and free from unlawful arrest by the police. Freedoms to every individual are entrusted through the United States Constitution which dictates their human rights. Inequalities are termed to be okay in the society if they assist the less fortunate people and delegate various responsibilities in a chain of command. For instance, it is not improper for a Chief Executive Officer of a company to make more than a worker, however, all the workers must have an opportunity to gain that work status. The above mentioned principles are important for justice as fairness to occur.
The criminal justice system is made up of three governmental bodies that are made up of law enforcement, court systems and correctional programs. These bodies work together for the purpose of providing governmental social control. The role of criminal justice system is achieved through reducing crime, enforcing laws and administering of justice. The three agencies that make up the criminal justice system are administered by different level of government (Garside, 2010). The role of the agencies, for instance, police officers' task is to carry out investigations on reported crimes and seize lawbreakers and helping prosecution in achieving criminal convictions. Nevertheless, the biggest role of police is to maintain law and order in the community, prevent crime and uphold civilians' due process rights.
On the other hand, it is the duty of the court to make decisions upon offence and innocence in a trial so as to determine proper sentence of punishment for guilty offenders. The agency of police, courts and corrections depend on each other and one cannot function without the other. For instance, courts are not in a position to hold trial without police officers arresting lawbreakers and there is no need of correctional facilities if courts do not make convictions.
The two main duties of criminal justice system include governing of justice and reduction of crime. There are two main methods of reducing crime; crime prevention and crime control. Crime control is defined as a reactive way and it is commonly applied by criminal justice agencies in the state (Siegel, 2009). An example of this method is a citizen calling a local dispatch centre and reporting a break in happening somewhere. Thereafter, information is collected and a police officer is released to that location. When the officer reaches the scene, the suspect is apprehended and the crime is stopped from occurring.
Crime prevention is proactive method where criminal justice agencies solve or correct main cause of crime thus reducing crime. Examples of this method include clearing up a harmful neighborhoods or coming up with new education programs for the disturbed youth.
Despite the fact that criminal justice system seeks to reduce crime and enhance justice, it is the role of the criminal justice agencies protect limited interests and have control over the entire population. In order to maintain justice in the United States, the guilty must be punished while at the same time preserving their rights as human beings. The two conceptions of justice in the United States, that is fairness and equal rights for offenders, conflict each other. Nevertheless, the United States justice system seeks to maintain a balance between the above mentioned conceptions. The method of achieving justice puts much emphasis on fighting crime control rather than ensuring the rights of the civilians (Coe, 2009). This often times results to incarcerations that should not be.
Operation of the Criminal Justice System
A criminal justice system is defined as a set of legal and social institutions which are used for enforcing the criminal law in accordance with defined limitations and procedural rules. In the United States, there are various criminal justice systems depending on the state, federal and military and each has varying systems for juveniles and adults. Criminal justice systems are comprised of one or more public organizations and their staff: law enforcement agencies and police; appellate and trial courts; tribunal and public defender offices; probation and parole agencies; custodial institutions and departments of corrections. There are other vital public and private actors in this system who include: defendants; private defense attorneys and bail bondsmen. The above mentioned private agencies provide assistance, supervision and treatment of the offenders. Additionally, there are various administrative agencies whose function includes criminal law enforcement. Despite the fact that legislators do not have direct task in individual cases, they have a main impact on the formulation and the implementation of criminal laws and criminal justice system.
A lot of the functioning of criminal justice agencies is poorly coordinated, unplanned and unregulated. Current systems include ancient components such as jury trials alongside other specialized drug courts. Each system has its own goals and priorities which often conflict with goals and objectives of the whole system. Furthermore, the systems have unregulated prudence in making main decisions such as application of the criminal law, parole revocation and prison discipline. It is important to describe justice system as a system and also look into the challenging manner in which varying parts of the system associate with each other (Cole & Smith, 2007).
In practice, criminal justice system operates on various aspects of criminal justice of adult offenders and they are designed to put into effect civilian criminals laws. Several military criminal justice systems are also used to implement law on serious deprivations of property and liberty. Individuals can be arrested and detained for a lengthy period under civil and administrative procedures. Nevertheless, state and federal law enforcement regulatory implement civil forfeiture procedures thus allowing the exclusion of property in the criminal proceedings.
Case attrition is a type of system operations, which begins from the time the crime is committed to the final stage of execution of sentence. The increased levels of case attrition in the modern systems indicate that the criminal law has some limitations of crime control. Case attrition results from the discretions made by both and private institutions and the nature of the criminal process. Likewise, citizens in the criminal justice system practice considerable amounts of discretion. The first stage in the process of case attrition is to take the appropriate statistics. The statistics are used to determine the type of decisions made and their rationale. The available statistics are applied in the correctional realm which is based on parole, probation and revocations (Siegel, 2009). In the second stage, the victim of the crime is reported to the police. However, the reporting rate is low for minor and victimless crimes. The final stage involves the recording of the reported crime, however, if the police are not sure whether any crime was committed they will confound the report and they will not take any further investigation. It is evidenced that criminal justice system is no longer a system at all; it is a network. It emphasizes on crime control rather than the process rights. The system appreciates punishment rather than rehabilitation. There is unequal treatment in the system due to policies such as death penalty and war on drugs which reflects prejudices. It is no wonder that many of those who pass through the process end up imprisoned unfairly.
Crime Scene Investigation Techniques: Crime Scene Security and the Collection, Preservation and Presentation of Evidence
Crime scene investigation can help in ascertaining the innocence of some suspects who are imprisoned based on false evidence. Crime scene investigation comprises of a wide range of sciences which are used to solve some questions concerning the legal system and it involves the documentation of a crime scene. Crime scene investigators ought to be conversant in photography, evidence collection, evidence processing and excellent writing skills. In the United States, there is an Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction (ACSR) which investigates crime scenes and performs forensic analysis and comparisons on evidence from crime scenes. The professionals in this association realized the significance of players understanding the whole crime scene and reconstructing the scene so as to understand well the components of the crime, recognize and preserve evidence. ACSR comprises of law enforcement investigators, forensic experts and tutors from all over the United States.
The main goals of ACSR in crime scene investigation include: advocating the exchange of information and procedures which are important in the reconstruction of crime scenes, developing new methods of crime scene investigation, creating an opportunity for members to have consultation with peers on cases and publish documents for the spreading of information relating to crime scene investigation. There are other crime investigation associations such as High Tech. This association aims at encouraging, promoting, effecting the exchange of data, awareness about methods, processes and techniques linked to investigations and security in crime scenes. A crime scene investigator is responsible for calls from the crime scene and offers the appropriate services and equipments as required. The equipments being issued must be kept in a ready-to-use condition always (Siegel, 2009). Before processing scenes of serious crimes at any time and under any weather condition, the area must be surveyed systematically and the plan of procedure is well formulated. In order to determine the frequency of events and determine the type and location of evidence, the crime investigator must be efficient in reading and reconstructing the events that happen before and after the commission of the crime.
The evidence collected during crime investigation must be properly recorded and packaged. This is done through preserving and lifting of various types of evidence. Nevertheless, the crime investigator must be familiar with the types of packaging and packaging components. A permanent record is established by describing the crime scene through a detailed report, preparation of right sketches and diagrams. All the above mentioned activities are done by application of professional photographic techniques. Additionally, the process does not only require skill to write a report, but also it requires the ability to observe minor details of the scene and their interpretation in relation to the evidence.
While searching a crime scene, the following conditions must be put into consideration. Firstly, only the qualified personnel are allowed to conduct the activity and time to do such may be of essence. Secondly, there must be a chain of custody for evidence collected from the scene. Finally, pollution must be reduced by allowing few individuals come to the crime site. There are two main ways of documenting a crime scene and recording its location and terms of all the evidence. The first method of documenting a crime scene is by drawing a freehand sketch and recording the measurements of several objects referring to a particular point. The second method is photography whereby many pictures are taken under light conditions, distances and angles. The next step is the collection, preservation and packaging of the evidence. The above mentioned step is very vital in investigating crime scenes. In the process of evidence collection, there are three main steps, this includes, recognition, collection and preservation (Noblett, 1993). When the evidence is collected it is packaged and stored correctly. In addition, there must a proper record of individuals in possession of the evidence from the time it is collected to the time it reaches the court. After the evidence have been collected, recorded, analyzed and compared to other known evidence, the criminal investigators with the assistance of forensic scientists reconstruct the crime. The crime is modernized with regard to the victims' identities, perpetrators and how the activities followed each other in the event of the crime. The main focus here is to relate the suspect to the crime through the evidence and come up with a case that will be accountable in court and convince a judge of the guilt of the suspect beyond any reasonable doubt. Those found not guilty should be let go.
Correctional Institutions and the Criminal and Social Justice Aspects of Incarceration and Release Issues
When the accused individual is found guilty after passing through the court system, he or she is handed to the correctional authorities. In the modern era, the most common type of punishment is imprisonment. Prisons serve as detention centers for the inmates after their trial. Early prisons in the United States were mainly used for sequestering criminals and little concern was credited to their living conditions. Punishment in the form of criminal time serves a variety of functions. First, incarceration of criminals in the prisons draws them away from the entire people in the society and this reduces their capability to continue doing further crimes. Prison terms are known to be ways of retribution since any harm the prisoners suffers is a revenge for the discomfort they caused to the victims (Coe, 2009).
In addition, prison punishments give the criminals a good opportunity to be rehabilitated. They are offered with schooling, job and vocational training and therefore, they gain a sense of morality. Religious institutions teach ethics in prisons and thus instill a sense of morality among the prisoners. When the prisoners are released before his or time is served, he/she is released as a parole; however, the restrictions laid down are greater than those of an individual under probation. Other forms of punishment that are used together with or instead of prison terms are use of monetary fines. In the United States, fines are paid as a form of reparation amongst the victims. House arrests and probation are also other forms of punishment which seeks to hinder individual's mobility and his or her chances to do crimes without taking them to the prisons. Capital punishment is also used in the United States correctional institutions, especially in the execution of the most brutal and sinister offenses (Cole & Smith, 2007).
In the correctional institutions, the departments maintain a court-ordered, chemical dependency and pre-sentence assessments.
Incarceration is nowadays widespread in the United States and thus it has become a common life experience. However, the impacts of mass imprisonment has a number of devastating effects in the high-poverty Black communities. An approximate of 13 percent of Black men in U.S has lost their electoral rights due to imprisonment. Additionally, incarceration has an enduring effect on job-prospects of ex-convicts. It is evidenced that labor market impacts of youth incarceration lasts for more than a decade and adult incarceration lowers the well paid employment by ten weeks annually. In the United States, incarceration rates are very high amongst individuals with the lowest power in the labor market. As a result, the U.S incarceration obviously intensifies inequality.
The Centralization of Criminal Justice Agencies Domestically, the U.S. Homeland Security Act, And the International Aspects of Criminal and Social Justice
After the September 11 attacks in the United States, the Homeland Security Act, abbreviated HSA came to birth. This new department has been endowed with a number of services and offices that formerly worked in other departments. Examples other these departments comprise of Coast Guard, U.S. Secret Service and Custom Service. The above mentioned were outmoded by the Office of Homeland Security. Moreover, this Act resembles, in many aspects, the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA). For instance, in the centralization and reorganization the functions of the Federal Security in meeting the challenges and terrorization that resulted from the cold war. Additionally, it is in this Act that the responsibility put on the shoulders of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), of putting off attacks by terrorists in the U.S., recognized.
In efforts to enforce international law and also protect the rights of humans, the international community made a treaty and thereby established the International Criminal Court, (ICC). The ICC has come about as the remedy for the prosecution of the individuals who are directly accountable for international crimes. As contrasted to other bodies endowed with the concern for human rights, the likes of Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the ICC identifies and directs judgments to the responsible individuals and not the state. Notably, this court has a potentiality of worldwide command. For instance, it is a vehicle of justice for both the survivors and the victims of crimes and as thus taking the place of earlier underground-operated connivance of impunity. Further, in line with the international criminal justice and in parallel lines to social justice, the ICC sees to it that the impacts that may be as a result of future commission of crime are deterred (Garside, 2010). This plays a key role in the actualization of an international justice system that is effective. However, it is notable that this international court does, under any means, keep away at national prosecutions of any country that are genuine. Besides, it has to see to it that not a single national system is in a position or willing to act in a manner that will in one way or the other result to a breach in the international criminal justice standards as has been the case historically. The ICC depicts the presence of consistent systems that are utilized in the searching for accountability among individuals in respect to international aspects on justice. It is a means of communication to the perpetrators of crime that it is not difficult for them to be held responsible for crimes that violate humanity, genocides or even wars without taking keen attention to what will befall of them.
The Relationship of Social Justice to the Criminal Justice System
If social Justice is followed to its logical conclusion, the rates of imprisonment would not be as high as they are especially considering crime predisposition among criminals. By definition, justice refers to the moral rightness conception rooted on rationality, ethics, religion, natural law and equity. Under it, it is also seen that in the event that a breach of the so laid down ethics, there should be punishment of the same magnitude. It is hard to define what social justice is. However, this can be termed as a concept that calls for equal rights and opportunities to all people. It is the reasonable and apposite of laws that conform to the natural law applicable to all people irrespective of gender, ethnicity, race, possession, and religion. Social justice sees to it that all are treated without prejudice. Criminal justice system is a governments' system of institutions and practices that these governments channel towards maintaining social control, mitigating and deterring crime and also sanctioning those members of the public who act in the contrary of the already set laws. The violators can even be sent to rehabilitation institutions. For that reason, criminal justice entails the application of laws as pertains to criminal behavior (Garside, 2010).
Year in year out, many people especially young adults come under process by, if not one, a number of justice system agencies. This has been done on the basis of crime prevention effectiveness and recognized crime fighting. These acts have a leaning on entrenching the distress, disadvantage and experience, as contrasted to reforming of these young adults. Resultantly, this has caused huge harm on those members of the society that are more in danger. Besides, there is hardly anything being done to see to it that the society is safer and at the same time to cut down on the crimes. The young people have undergone personal, economic and social misfortunes that range from mental distresses, blighted childhoods, violence as a result of substance misuse, trauma, exclusion, poverty among other social challenges (Garside, 2010). These are likely to commit crimes in their lifetime hence contributing to prison overcrowding once convicted.
It can therefore, be drawn that the criminal justice system has its starting point being reliant on the deeds of the youngsters rather than their needs. This process is based on what the young adult do in contravention of the law. With this consideration, then the needs of these young adults as both individuals and members of the society become non-consequential hence ignored. Hence, in getting to establish and comprehend the existent relationship between social justices to the criminal justice system, it is of essence to put into consideration the vulnerabilities and the social needs of the young adults. Some of these include wealth and poverty social structures facing the youngsters and their correlation to mortality levels.
Resultantly, the relationship between deprivation and mortality is strong and as thus policy implications have to be put in place. The principal policy is the one relating to criminal justice. This puts within brackets the role and function of the criminal justice system and the extent the same has contributed towards social justice. Criminal justice system plays a very pivotal role in affecting the young adults, who are the ones most likely to experience death at a tender age; coming from poverty-characterized backgrounds where exclusion is the trend of the day. Sadly, criminal justice system has a tendency of worsening these exertions rather than ameliorating them. This system may owe other functions in its effort to maintain law and order, but this may has little or absolutely nothing to put forward to ensure social justice for the members of this age group (Garside, 2010).
A need, therefore, to conceptualize the challenges that confront social justice in a broader perspective than that presented by criminal justice system arises. This has to put into consideration poverty, wealth and its uneven distribution among the members of society. The effects of the earlier mentioned policies would lead to the reduction the mortality rates among the young people. Accompanying this is gender and masculinity construction, where the young males get to learn about gender roles that are gender-mediated. These learnt practices are later with time deeply set in the society and contribute to criminal behavior (Siegel, 2009).
Sociology, Law, Psychology, Ethics, And Related Fields to the Study of Criminal Justice
The study of criminal justice is termed as an interdisciplinary field. It uses the concepts and principles of psychology, sociology and other behavioral sciences. One of the vital concepts as it entails to criminology is deviance. Deviance is defined as the actions that infringe norms embraced by the entire society. In criminal justice system, criminologists look into why norms exist and how they are interchanged over a given period of time and their reinforcement by the society. The study of law in sociology investigates the interaction of law with other characteristics of the society, such as the implementation of legal institutes and how rules and regulations affect the social change. For instance, the rising incarceration in the U.S over the past years may not be as a result of increase in crime but it may be due to change in law and policing. In order to achieve to achieve justice in criminal justice system, all jurisdictions must institute a legal system. Justice is a subjective concept; it depends on political affiliation and experience of the legal system. In relation to law, there is a lot of documentation and evidence giving various definitions and theories of justice. Criminal justice and law deal with legal matters. For instance, when the police officers arrest the offender, he or she is taken to the prison to be sentenced (Coe, 2009).
Forensic psychologists apply the principles of psychology to issues relating to criminal behavior. For instance, forensic psychology is used to investigate whether the suspected criminals are insane or not. The forensic psychologists make a combination of legal issues with psychology to cure mentally ill criminals, analyze the minds of criminals, make consultations with the attorneys and come up with possible explanations for individuals' criminal behavior. In criminal justice system, policemen and prosecutors use ethical dilemmas in maintenance of justice in the society. Police use deceptive tactics while carrying out their crime investigation activities. These tactics include use of hidden surveillance, undercover policepersons and unmarked police vehicles. Ethics in criminal justice is increasingly used in law enforcement and the public authorities have raised ethical questions regarding performance of those persons in power. Professionals in the correctional institutions are supposed to uphold personal ethics that enhance humane overseeing, custody and attention of offenders. They must respect all persons' constitutional rights and not to allow personal feelings to affect their decisions.
The use of prisons as correctional institutions is faced with some difficulties. For instance, there are limited vocational training programs among the women inmates. As a result of this, women do not have the required tools to enable them prosper in the society after their release from the prisons. A lot of efforts are needed to improve, farming, printing, telemarketing and furniture repair skills for female inmates. It is evidenced that majority of the prisoners suffer from cognitive and psychosocial deficits, which includes weak emotional control, interpersonal problem solving and poor social skills. The above mentioned deficits are associated with long period of substance abuse. Modern counseling programs can assist the inmates to control their feelings and handle anxiety, nervousness, solve their problems creatively and interact with other people well (Cole & Smith, 2007). Correctional institutions use individual and group techniques such as behavior modification, aversive therapy and responsibility therapy to carry out its correctional activities.
Release in the community and violent criminal behavior in the correctional institution is associated with anger and lack of self-control. Therefore, anger management programs have been established to assist the inmates tolerate harsh behavioral conduct they face. Additionally, cognitive-behavioral techniques have been initiated to aid inmates in looking for ways of controlling their anger. Faith based programs have extended to all jails, detention centers and prisons in the United States. Faith-based programs enhance family reunion and employment opportunities upon release and thus reduce the rates of recidivism (Garside, 2010). These programs help the inmates to realize the value of their lives thus they change their behavior and prepare them for successful re-entry and avoid recidivism that would have them jailed again. Therefore, there are many things that have to be brought to bear in ensuring that proper justice is delivered with an aim of fighting overcrowding in prisons.