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The saying is that history often repeats itself. If this is, a true saying then society will have to deal with the complex burden of juveniles delinquent, who may eventually become adult criminals. Moreover, if this saying is true then the community in which juvenile delinquencies exist must have the tool necessary to divert the youth from crime. If one is to change delinquent youth's behavior, they need to variegate the justice system in order to prevent juvenile delinquent recidivisms. Furthermore, understanding the cause of juvenile delinquency is an important key in its prevention. Therefore, in order to understand the cause of juvenile delinquency, the history of the juvenile justice and varies approach to prevent it need to be examined.
"The history of the juvenile justice in the United States began during the colonial period. During this time span the family was the main origin of social control" (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, p.5). However, the Juvenile Justice system was developed by states because of the demographics in cities. "In the 1800s, the state seeing the developing cites and the effect it was having on the young population, they had to develop a system control the youths" (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, p.6).
As a result, states were now actively practicing the concept of "parens patriae" thru the court. "In earlier years, child offenders above the age of seven were treated and incarcerated like adult offenders" (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, p.5). Since those time the objectives that have been set for the juvenile justice system have included the "rights of youth," creating distaste among the youth towards jail terms, and compliance with the "due process of law" has made the system harsh and in some cases inhuman.
The earliest Reformatory Refuge was built in 1825 and was called the New York Hoses of Refuge. It was only in 1899 and when the Progressive Era commenced in the US that individual states started setting up rehabilitating centers. There was a feeling during the progressive era starting 1901 that the justice system should take the responsibility to recover the lives of young offenders before they were sucked into criminal activities. The parenting responsibility was that of the state so that the children got an opportunity to recover. In the year, 1967 most of the cases of juvenile delinquency were tried in juvenile courts.
Persons under the age of 18 were tried in juvenile courts. The approach was to use civil proceedings rather than criminal proceedings. However, in 1967 it was held by the Supreme Court that it was necessary for the juvenile courts to use the due process of law" (Zigler, Edward. 1994). The approach after the decision was to encourage the states to develop plans that would discourage juvenile delinquency.
In this context the juvenile delinquency Prevention and Control Act 1968 was passed. To strengthen this movement, the Office of juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention, established The Runaway Youth Program and The National Institute for Juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention. The law was The juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention Act 1974. The law was the juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention Act 1974. However, the movement received a setback when there was an increase in juvenile crimes during 1980s and 1990s. The 1974 Act was amended to allow states to try juveniles as adults. In 1990s however, there was high publicity of juvenile crimes and the approach towards juvenile delinquency changed (Welsh, Brandon C., and David P. Farrington. 2007).
(2. an exhaustive examination of all stakeholders to juvenile delinquency)
The first stakeholder is the youth that commits crime. He has all the rights that are promised to adults under the constitution. It is necessary to understand that legally a youth should have more rights than an adult has. The same justice system cannot be used for youths. Other stakeholders are the parents. The parents have the primary responsibility for ensuring that their wards do not commit crimes. The government whether state, federal, or local, are also stakeholders, which have the dual responsibility of protecting the community as well as rehabilitating the juvenile.
The Finally stakeholders is the community. It is because of the demands made by the community that stronger action is contemplated against juvenile offenders as a deterrent. The perspective of the community is that it has the right to safe and secure community. The community must be safe and secure from crimes committed by the youth (Zigler, Edward, and Cara Taussig. 1992)Â Â
(3.A complete description of issue addressed.)
The issues involved are if juvenile should be treated like adults if they commit crimes that are normally committed by adults. Is it fair? Some are status crimes like truancy. How can these be stopped? To what extent can the parents be held responsible for supervision of children? What local agencies are available to the parent if she cannot by herself control the child? The issues are if child drug abuse can be stopped. On the other hand, the existence of after-school recreational activities or sport can reduce juvenile delinquency by a great extent. On the other hand, if peer pressure is applied by juvenile delinquency, the parent needs to be alert to such problems and must seek intervention" (Welsh, Brandon C., and David P. Farrington. 2007,p.).
(4 A detailed analysis of possible strategies and intervention designed to stop juvenile delinquency)
Parental guidance and good home life are the best overall approach to stop juvenile delinquency. In this context, the strategies and interventions proposed are:
Certain strategies and interventions that are suggested that would stop juvenile delinquency. Every minor offense including truancy should be treated quickly and seriously by the parents and school attendance should be given the greatest importance.
2. The parents should use the three-point strategy of supervision, prevention of drugs and introduce activities to the children. 3. If there is any doubt an advocacy group should be contacted at the earliest" (Koffman, Stephen, et al. 2003).
(5. A comprehensive list and weighing of alternatives, both pro and cons, to the stop juvenile delinquency.
The alternative that "Every minor offense including truancy should be treated quickly and seriously by the parents and school attendance should be given the greatest importance" has the pro that juvenile delinquency can be stopped at the incipient stage and
school can play an important part in preventing juvenile delinquency. The con is that often parents are not aware of truancy and come to know of it when it is too late.
2. The alternative that "The parents should use the three point strategy of supervision, prevention of drugs and introduce activities to the children" had the pro that its implementation can surely stop juvenile delinquency. In addition, it is a multi-pronged strategy, which has worked well. Furthermore, it contributes to the holistic development of children. The cons are that parents that hold jobs which make it difficult to supervise cannot implement this strategy. Second con is that in case of several parents some training is required to implement this strategy.
The alternative of If there is any doubt an advocacy group should be contacted at the earliest" has the pro that advocacy group can provide expert guidance to the parents. Further, the advocacy group can devise strategies for particular youth. The con is that in most cases the advocacy group is contacted after serious crimes are committed or the case becomes difficult. For instance, advocacy groups are contacted after the child is addicted to drugs.
(6. a prediction for how juveniles justice prevention and intervention strategies will be handled over at least the next two decades)
Over the next two decades the preschool system will be so strengthened that juvenile delinquency will be reduced if not prevented. In addition, there will be compulsory training for parents that will ensure good support for parents. Further, there will be greater support and practical advice for adults. A move that is designed to improve family life and avoid divorces; a strong family unit will become the strongest method of keeping away juvenile delinquency.