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Outlining the potential benefits and disadvantages of applying situational crime prevention techniques dealing with Burglary
What is burglary?
Burglary is defined as an unlawfully crime, breaking into a vehicle, house, store or with the intent to steal illegal. Burglary also implies as to the access into a building as a trespasser and the stealing of any property within. This includes the following types of property:
- Private properties e.g. houses, flats, static caravans, sheds, free standing garages, out houses. Business premises e.g. offices, shops, hotels, warehouses, factories, pubs and clubs.
- Educational establishment e.g. schools, colleges, sports centres.
- Health organisations e.g. hospital premises, doctors surgeries, pharmacy and chemists.
- Churches and places of worship.
For example, In October 14, 2014, the Burton Mail reported that a Pair where charged with Newhall burglary. Two men have been arrested and charged with burglary following a break-in at a home in Newhall. Christopher Quinn, 29, of Woodville and Lee Cook, 29, of Swadlincote, were arrested by Derbyshire Police on Saturday. The pair allegedly stole a laptop and cash from the property in Bretby Road and damaged a door.
Crime prevention has become an increasingly important component of many national strategies on public safety and security. The concept of prevention is grounded in the notion that crime and victimization are driven by many causal or underlying isolated areas or informal settlements and subject to racial harassment and victimization.
All countries experience crime, violence and victimization. This may lead to some of the following situations like countries with high proportions of young men who are killed before they become adults. Societies with families who lose a parent or have members in prison or who are living in poverty and without access to support or legitimate sources of income. neighbourhoods experiencing gang wars or where there seems to be little public protection and security; women who are subjected to violence in their homes, or who are at risk of sexual assault in public spaces; neighbourhoods where levels of crime and insecurity have led businesses and families to cut themselves off from other citizens and public life behind gates and using private security; and migrants and minority groups living in dilapidated and. All countries strive to ensure safety and security for their citizens and to increase the quality of their lives. The guidelines on crime prevention developed by the United Nations incorporate and build on years of experience and experiments in responding to these problems. Such experience has shown that countries can build safer communities using practical, concrete approaches that are very different from, and less costly than repressive and deterrent reactions and responses. Criminologists and policy analysts have assumed that the principal value of these precautions is not in reducing overall crime rates, but in protecting individual people and agencies from victimization. This is partly because situational measures focused on particular places or highly specific categories of crime cannot make much impression on the overall crime statistics. It has also been assumed, however, that faced with impediments offenders will merely displace their attention elsewhere, with no net reduction in crime. This assumption flows directly from the dispositional error of modern criminology and, as shown below, is not supported by empirical research which has generally found rather little displacement. Reducing opportunities for crime can indeed bring substantial net reductions in crime. As this evidence becomes more widely known, and situational prevention is taken more seriously by policy makers, the debate will move on to the ethical and ideological implications of situational measures. This is already apparent in countries such as Britain and the Netherlands where situational prevention is becoming an integral, though still small, component of government crime policy Rational choice premises have generally been supported by recent studies in which offenders have been interviewed about motives, methods and target choices (Cromwell, 1996). The offenders concerned have included burglars (e.g. Walsh, 1980; Maguire, 1982;Bennett and Wright, 1984; Nee and Taylor 1988; Cromwell et al, 1991; Biron and Ladouceur, 1991; Wright and Decker, 1994; Wiersma, 1996), shoplifters (Walsh, 1978; Carroll and Weaver, 1986), car thieves (Light et al, 1993; McCullough et al, 1990; Spencer, 1992), muggers (Lejeune, 1977; Feeney, 1986) bank and commercial robbers (New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, 1987; Normandeau and Gabor, 1987; Kube, 1988; Nugent et al, 1989) and offenders using violence (Indermaur,
One of the most common assumptions about crime prevention is that it can be clearly separated from other areas of activity, and that it is restricted to academia, or solely the province of the police and justice system. In fact, as observers have often pointed out, many interventions that help to prevent crime are called something else, whether early childhood intervention, educational and employment support, drug treatment or urban renewal. Crime prevention is not the only term commonly in use internationally. In different contexts and countries, other terms such as safety and security, crime reduction and community safety are often used. The term community safety is commonly used to refer to the broader range of issues that must be tackled to promote safer cities or communities, and with outcomes that bring benefits beyond an absence of crime: Crime prevention has been deemed a police term, while community safety is preferred in local authorities in Britain to signify a broader set of interests in crime consequences.
How to Organize Neighbourhood Crime Prevention: Talk to your neighbours. Communication of the issues and each other’s concerns allows for further concrete steps to be taken. Assess what the community wants accomplished through neighbourhood crime prevention.
Locate and Identify local resources. The more resources that are available to a community the more programs that can be implemented. Talk to local police about organizing community activities. See if local businesses are willingly to donate time, money, and or resources. Seek out State and Federal resources. Are there any funds/grants available to your community? Get together. Hold regular meetings where all citizens can suggest ideas and improvements. Communicate citizen ideas or concerns to local agencies (law enforcement, businesses, Start small. Identify one or two programs that is suitable and adequate for your neighbourhood. It may be unrealistic and ultimately unsuccessful to implement a program that does not address the issues in your community.
Secondary Crime Prevention
Secondary crime prevention attempts to prevent crime by focusing on at-risk offenders or potential opportunities that may foster criminal activity. The main tool used in secondary crime prevention is identification and prediction. There are many theoretical bases for the implementation of secondary crime prevention programs. Once we are able to identify potential places, people, situations, or opportunities that are at-risk for criminal activity it may be possible to predict and prevent any future criminal occurrence. By reducing the potential opportunities to commit crime, increasing the risk(s) of the crime, and by minimizing the potential gain of the criminal act, it is more likely that the criminal will not engage in such behaviour.
Citizens can take individual steps to protect themselves from victimization. Organizing large groups for crime prevention may be very difficult at times. Certain programs like situational crime prevention allows citizens to individually participate in crime prevention.
There are many techniques that are used in situational crime prevention. Situational crime prevention focuses on preventing a specific type of crime and criminal behaviour. However, no one technique is guaranteed to prevent all crime. A few techniques of situational crime prevention are categorized under the following goals.
Reducing the opportunity to commit crime.
Target hardening. This technique makes it physically more difficult for the potential offender to engage in criminal activity. Installing dead-bolt locks in doors, using steering wheel locks for cars, and putting iron bars on windows are a few examples of target hardening. The recent surge of computer crimes has made it increasing necessary to address issues of privacy. Computer users can protect themselves from victimization by installing software that defends against potential intrusion by hackers and other criminals. Software that protects against computer viruses is a form of target hardening that is widely implemented.
Denial of benefits. Reducing benefits of a criminal activity may deter the offender from committing the crime. Retail store owners who fear theft of merchandise have used the ink-marking technique of situational crime prevention. If the offender knows that the merchandise will be stained once he tries to illegally remove the tag the monetary benefits of the crime have been removed. Car manufacturers have long ago designed face-less car stereo players. The idea is to reduce the potential reward of the criminal activity by removing the target of the crime. Another example of reducing potential reward is property identification. By marking and tagging one’s property the monetary gains the criminal anticipates to receive is reduced. If they are unable to dispose of the stolen property it is useless to them.
Tertiary prevention, unlike primary and secondary prevention focuses on prevention after a crime has occurred. The focus is to reduce the recidivism rate of criminals and insure that steps are taken so that a victim will not be re-victimized. The primary form of tertiary prevention in the United States today is that of incapacitation. Although it does not prevent criminals from committing crimes once they leave prison, it does protect the larger population from present victimization at the hands of the criminal.
The creators of Safety Cops would like to introduce themselves. John M. Carpino Editor-In-Chief Criminal Victimization
Ronald V. Clarke Situational Crime Prevention Successful Case Studies Second Edition http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs
UNITED NATIONS Handbook on the crime prevention guidelines Making them work, New York, 2010 http://www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/Handbook_on_Crime_Prevention_Guidelines_-_Making_them_work
South Yorkshire police http://www.southyorks.police.uk/home-safety/burglary
Pair charged with Newhall burglary By Burton Mail http://www.burtonmail.co.uk/Pair-charged-Newhall-burglary/story