The Limits Of Aggressive Tactics Criminology Essay

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In this article, John Brigham reviews the humor in the Bush Administrations Anti-terror policy efforts. The focus of the article is on the color-coded alert produced by the Department of Homeland Security. The codes are addressed because of the interest in the relationship between a sense of risk and evaluation of government policy. The paper begins with serious nature of humor. The article addresses the works of scholars who link humor to consciousness and then to social structure. The focus then turns to jokes and politics. It analyzes the particular jokes and their political meaning. The article then addresses the resistance and nature of culture with woke like Weapons of the weak by James Scott who suggests that laughing at the Bush administration War on terror is a form of resistance.

The nature of humor

Humor just like law and language, depends on shared understandings. Reaching those shared understandings, bringing them to the surface, tweaking them is the business of humor that is relevant to its role in fighting anti-terrorism. The theoretical perspective of humor provides an opportunity to develop the meaning of humor with regard to collective knowledge. Veatch's work emphasizes the basis of humor in norms and attention to an aspect of presentation, simultaneity, which further develops the nature of consciousness about norms. For Veatch, humor depends on the existence of norms. Humor occurs when things seems to be normal while at the same time something seems wrong.

Jokes and Policy

The author of the article's interest in humor comes from prior in interest in collective knowledge and the cultural dimensions of public policy. The collective knowledge is always an aspect of politics and it includes law. Politics is type contest over the allocation and the definition works for policy and law. The article is about law; this is the mechanism for the implementation so much.

Laughing about Terror

There is a cycle with humor about particular policies. The jokes build and at some point it is clear that the object of humor is laughable so that it becomes too easy to make the joke. The joke on simplicity of the order of the colors in the codes and puzzle of behaviors that are supposed to be followed because of the codes and the puzzle of behaviors that are supposed to be followed because of the coded warnings has to be deepened.

Brown, B. (2007) Community policing in America: A comment on the concept of community-oriented counter terrorism.

This article provides an overview of the post September 11 changes in law enforcement, with a focus on the impact the changes have had on community policing programs. Aggressive tactics and invasive technology will fail of reduce the threat of terrorism and that strategies based on the fundamental tenets of community policing could be effective against terrorist organizations. There is no question that the events of September 11 required an immediate response, inclusive of an enhancement of national security measures. However, the declaration of a 'war on terrorism,' the use of aggressive counterterrorism tactics and the powers granted to the law enforcement officials by the USA patriot act generated concern among civil liber terrorism tactics violate the basic principles of community policing.

Tapping phones, monitoring Internet activity, surveilling religious gatherings, surreptitiously searching homes, and detaining people for extended periods of time without filing charges or granting them access to legal counsel are a lousy means of winning the hearts and minds of the citizenry. In essence, the US response to the events of September 11 sparked an ideological rift in the law enforcement arena.

The Rift of September 11

In contrast to community-oriented crime reduction strategies, many of the counterterrorism measures passed by legislators involve highly aggressive tactics. Given that immigrants are often hesitant to interact with criminal justice officials, legislation which requires municipal police officers to enforce federal immigration laws would only generate an increase in fear of the police within immigrant communities and reduce immigrants' willingness to report crimes or otherwise cooperate with law enforcement authorities thereby eliminating the potential for effective community policing programs in areas with large immigrant populations.

The Limits of Aggressive Tactics

There is no question that there are situations which require aggressive police tactics such as saturation patrol and dynamic 'no-knock' entries of residences by SWAT teams. That does not mean, however, that combative tactics are an effective means of curbing crime. Although there are studies which suggest that aggressive policing contributes to a reduction in violence, such studies have focused on areas plagued by high rates of street-level violence.

The Incompatibility of Combative Ideologies and Human Rights

Another issue to consider is that once policy makers embrace a combative ideology (e.g., the war on terrorism), procedural safeguards are often disregarded and human rights are violated. As demonstrated by the internment of Japanese Americans during Second World War and the post-September 11 detentions of Middle Eastern immigrants, the adoption of a combative ideology often leads to the violation of human rights by increasing racial/ethnic profiling and the mistreatment of racial/ethnic minorities. Hence, policy makers must be cautious about embracing a combative ideology which may legitimize the abuse of human beings. Not only do such measures violate the Fourteenth Amendment, the use of tactics which target racial/ethnic minorities may hamper the gathering of counterterrorist intelligence.

Taylor, M.K. (2008) Food Terrorism and food defense

Global food supplies are at risk of both accidental and deliberate contamination. As past incidents have demonstrated, food terrorism may cause social, economic, and political disruption. The United States increased its efforts to protect its food after 9/11 by broadening the roles of existing agencies, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration, and by making coordination of food defense the responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security. However, weaknesses in the system remain. This article presents background information and Web sites useful for consumers, industry representatives, students, researchers, policy makers, and the librarians that serve them.

METHODS FOR SELECTION AND REVIEW OF WEB SITES

Food terrorism is a complex subject, and planning searches can be a problem. Terminology is one factor to consider. There is no one thesaurus for food terrorism and food defense; therefore, one should use a wide variety of synonyms and phrases. Food terrorism is closely related to agro terrorism, agricultural bioterrorism, and agricultural terrorism, especially if agriculture is broadly defined to include the entire food supply chain. Food defense, the process of protecting the food supply from deliberate contamination as a result of criminal or terrorist activity, is closely related to food counter-terrorism or counterterrorism or food protection. Food security is now a synonym for food defense, but because the term used to refer solely to the existence of an adequate supply of nutritious food, searchers should be aware that its use may produce irrelevant items.

Food safety is the broadest term, involving protection of the food supply at any point and from all hazards, including deliberate contamination. However, using this term in a search may yield many items peripheral to terrorism. Food terrorism is a very real threat and is increasingly aided by the globalization of the food supply. There are other factors specific to the United States that make it particularly vulnerable, such as the concentration of U.S. farms and sectors of the food distribution industry. Although many resources have been mobilized to defend this critical industry, more needs to be done, including reform of the food safety system. Searchers looking for information on food terrorism and food defense may want to start with strategies and Web sites recommended in this article, while always remembering that there are new sites that will become available over time and most importantly, the evaluation of Web resources for bias, currency, and accuracy is an essential part of any search.

The main emphasis of this article is on the protection of the food processing and distribution chain in the United States. Because the government plays a major role in food defense, the majority of the sites presented are representative federal resources. Additional factors involved in selection include currency of the information provided, breadth of coverage, and the presence of links to additional resources. Sites related to plant and animal health, drinking water, and animal rights were excluded, as they were not pertinent to the overarching topic.

Martin, L. and Simon, S. (2008). A formula for Disaster: The department of homeland Security's Virtual Ontology

This article focuses on the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in order to theorize the spatialities of post-9/11 security knowledge and practice in the US. It analyses the organizational discourses that animate homeland security work, such as preparedness, vulnerability, the new threat environment, risk analysis and capabilities-based planning, and considers the implications of these practices for contemporary geographies of security. It is argued that DHS operates through a virtual ontology of threat, whereby potential, future threats are addressed as present possibilities that emerge in the spaces of everyday life

Disaster looming, the potential suspension of everyday life forms the basis for security practice as the emergency becomes a fact of life itself. The spatialities of this environment of imminent threat are considered and it is argued that the everyday emergency operates topologically as a continuous process of specialization. This article analyses the temporal and geographical imaginaries of the Department of Homeland Security that is charged with "making the unthinkable manageable. Building on analyses of power/knowledge practices of post-9/11 apparatuses argue that domestic security mechanisms of the US rely upon a paradoxical timescape that is best conceptualised topologically, or as an emergent, transformative and recursive formation.

Conceptualizing Homeland Security

The securitization of US territory depends on its ability to produce a state of preparedness by politicizing everyday mobility and spaces as vulnerable to attack. This politicization takes many forms, from sophisticated biometric technologies to preventative governmentalized technologies such as risk management and surveillance. Since 2001, many have noted the expansion of digital and biometric technologies in public and private spaces and the ways in which they work to produce new forms of citizenship and bio political. The biometric border is the portable border excellence device, by mobile bodies at the very same time as it is deployed to divide bodies at international boundaries, airports, railway stations, on subways or city streets, in the office or the neighborhood.

Wormuth, C. (2009). The next catastrophe: Ready or not

A number of significant steps have been taken, and the United States is clearly more prepared than it was seven or eight years ago. There is a National Homeland Security Strategy which provides overall direction for the federal government's homeland security policies and programs. Hundreds, if not thousands, more people than before the September 11 attacks focus each and every day on improving national preparedness. A National Response Framework (NRF), formerly known as the National Response Plan, describes how the federal government will work with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as the private sector and nongovernmental organizations during domestic incidents. Fifteen National Planning Scenarios have been drawn up to guide government planning for catastrophes. Confusion over possibly overlapping roles during a catastrophe is not limited to the secretary of homeland security and the FEMA administrator. Interaction of other cabinet secretaries, particularly the attorney general and the secretary of defense, with the secretary of homeland security is not well defined either. The attorney general has lead responsibility for the criminal investigation of terrorist acts, and has broad law enforcement authority following terrorist threats or an actual incident. Since the formation of DHS, intense turf battles have raged over the roles and authorities of the Department of Justice and FBI relative to other federal departments, including DHS. Due to vague and sometimes conflicting language in law and presidential directives, it is not clear whether the secretary of homeland security, as the federal coordinator for domestic incident management, has the authority to determine during a catastrophic terrorist incident whether other aspects of crisis management and response, such as saving lives and protecting property, could be prioritized above law enforcement activities. As a result, today it may be left up to the president to resolve any conflicting priorities.

Weak Plans, Strategies and Programs

Not only are homeland security relationships weak and unclear in many places, the processes to prepare the nation at all levels to respond effectively to a catastrophe are nascent at best. In some areas, such as developing requirements for federal preparedness capabilities, they simply do not exist yet. Strong mechanisms to develop strategy and conduct strategic reviews of homeland security programs are not yet in place, nor is there a process to translate strategy into planning and program guidance. Finally, no mature planning process exists to prepare for future catastrophes. And, the few promising planning efforts that are up and running are not well linked to the requirements and budget process.

Without a well-understood process for developing requirements for homeland security, there is confusion over what kinds of capabilities are actually required, which agencies should develop them, and how to link requirements to the larger federal budget process. Capabilities are sometimes identified by specific organizations through ad hoc processes or institutional initiative, but resistance from almost any institutional quarter can prevent those proposed capabilities from going into the budgeting system. The lack of a formal validation process to connect requirements identification, to budgeting has resulted in a sort of lowest common denominator approach to developing capabilities for homeland security. Only those capabilities on which all stakeholders agree inside a particular federal department, or which can generate sufficient support in Congress, are actually funded.

Adeshina, F. et al. (2009). Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for

homeland security. Inhalation Toxicology, 21(S3): 12-16

Department of Homeland Security

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Abstract

Government has many organs that enables achieve its mandate. The homeland department in the United States of America is very important in enhancing the security situation in the United States. The papers discuss the department in details under different perspectives.The federal government of the United States has a department called Homeland security. It was created in response to the attacks of September in the United States of America (Parker, 2003). It major aim is to protect the United States of America as well as the Territories of the United States.

Introduction

Domestic Homeland Security is a central agency in the United States of America. It was instituted as a cabinet department of the federal government to merge and restructure its functions. During its formation, twenty two agencies were consolidated. The organization was also charged with extensive responsibilities. American leaders formed the body after the 9/11 terror attack. This was an attempt by the administration to prevent terrorism and enhance security to the citizens (Barnes, 2006).

The other responsibilities include responding to attacks from terrorist, accidents created by man besides disasters that occur naturally. It can be compared to the internal ministries of some countries. The defense department has the responsibility of the actions of the military abroad. The sphere that involves the civilians of the United States work with the Homeland security department to provide security internally within the states as well as outside the borders of America. It prepares, responds and prevents emergencies that can occur domestically. The ultimate aim is preventing terrorism (WHO, 2002).

For the department of Homeland security to effectively work, it had to absorb some other organs of the government in the United States of America (Simone, 2002). This includes the department of immigration. The other department that was included was that of naturalization service. This has enabled it to share some of the responsibilities based on its composition. The agency that is concerned with enforcement of customs as well as Immigration. The other organs are concerned with issues of citizenship and issues of immigration. The division in charge of investigation and gathering intelligence as well as service customs came together to form Homeland security in charge of investigations (Guzman, 2002). The immigration naturalization service ensures that functions in the borders are enforced. The specific immigration and naturalization functions include patrolling on the borders, Services that ensures inspection of plants and animals. These services have been brought together under the homeland security department to form the United States organ for border as well as customs protection (Sloan, 2002).

The home land security department is currently holding the third position in terms of size. This is after the defense and affairs veteran s departments (Sloan, 2002). It has a council at the white house which ensures that the activities are well coordinate. The council is called the council of home land security. The homeland security is thus a vital organ in the United States of America. This is because besides providing security services in the country, it also has brought together different government agencies for a common purpose (Stephen, 2003). These agencies have ensured that the unity and harmony prevails in the United States of America. For effective functioning, the United States has employed some techniques for it to ensure that its operations proceed well without disturbances.

Credibility of DHS

DHS is a vital organization in the U.S. The fact that the group was formed by the government emphasizes its credibility. The group was formed with the input of all the executive arms of the federal government like judiciary, legislature, armed forces, civil and development functions. Domestic Homeland Security is precious because it addresses the vulnerability of America to threats. It was also formed after the 9/11 horror that destroyed properties and claimed about three thousand lives in America. DHS is credible because it acts as the centre of calculation where all the safety efforts of America are made. Credibility in the work of the homeland security is achieved by doing things in a transparent way. This ensures that they apply the rule of law in all their undertakings (WHO, 2002). In addition, they avail to the public all their undertakings in the pursuit to attain a world that is secure. In conclusion, the homeland department has a crucial role in the economy of the United States. This range from providing security to its citizens to ensuring the right to food is also adhered to. Its proper coordination is what has enabled achieve the desired functions.

Casual Analysis

America cannot do without DHS. This is because the agency was formed as a last resort to win the confidence of the Americans after the 9/11 attack. The formation of the group was done after consultations with all the stakeholders. DHS has several functions. It is meant to prevent terrorism and enhance security. This is done through collection and dissemination of information to the relevant law enforcing bodies and the American public. It is charged with the responsibility to build a resilient nation as well as strengthen security enterprise. This means that it should work with the police, army, navy and private firms to ensure the safety in the nation.

The agency has made it possible for the federal government to respond to the hurricane sandy. DHS provides link to appropriate organizations in times of disaster. In other words, it enhances the preparedness of American against threats. Immigration challenges can also be handled properly under the direction of this agency. Homeland Security provides border updates and the emerging threats which can be used by the offers to prevent harm. The group helps to safeguard cyberspace in the U.S. This is achieved through tracking of emails and short messages that are sent across the nation, (Amoore, 2006).

The homeland department looks at the causes of particular problems in the docket of jurisdiction. The major causes of insecurity in the world are thus bio-terrorism and nuclear attack (Stephen, 2002). The Homeland department has developed some systems that are used to determine the root causes of problems. Other techniques of analysis are tree analysis techniques for events, effect analysis and fault tree analysis.

So what principle

The homeland department is engaged in very many activities in the United States of America. This ensures that all the issues pertaining to its mandate are properly addressed (Simone, 2002). This ranges from those within the United States to those outside. This requires different principles and techniques to be applied to a particular case. This usually leaves the department with the question of which principle should be applied to a particular circumstance. This has made the department employ a lot of principles to handle all the questions that are under its mandate. Their success has been because they have been able to identify different techniques that can be applied to a particular situation.

Principle describes the premise under which something works. Domestic Homeland Security works on a certain theory. The agency works through virtual ontology where security agents and other respondents are prepared for action during emergency. In other words, DHS has a practical principle. The hypothesis provides an analytical framework to understand how knowledge translates threat from virtual, potential, possible and actual state.

The opinion has two main concepts. These are vulnerability and preparedness. Various authors reveal that America is vulnerable. This is because of their way of life. They embrace freedom that promotes the accommodation of foreigners. In the process, terrorists find their way into the state making it a threat environment. Preparedness is the capability for action. DHS provides the ideal condition for prompt response to emergency. The agency minimizes the vulnerabilities and thus ensuring that real threats do not happen, (DHS, 2006).

Facts and Analysis of DHS

Various facts emanate from the Department of Homeland Security. It is a credible body that is in charge of security in American. The agency gives information for preparedness that reduces the vulnerability of America. Virtual ontology has failures that make the agency to be able to frequently adjust and serve the nation adequately. The principle used by the agency implies that risks can be reduced to minimal levels if the respective security bodies respond at the appointed time.

DHS makes the unthinkable to be manageable. This is through conversion of possible outcomes into actions. The organization uses framework analysis to merge thoughts and reality. Security disciplines use information from Homeland Security to prevent threats and respond to emergencies without delay. DHS also works on time for action. In this view, each day poses a new vulnerability that can only be tackled through the intervention on the same day. The agency does not postpone defense issues. According to Domestic Homeland Security, protection is a daily and continuous transformation in the U.S, (DHS, 2006).

The agency use past occurrences and potential future to handle threats in America. This is an important fact for analysis in the report. DHS uses past attacks like the 9/11 to focus on the future danger. Writers purport that folding past and future happenings are organized into present actions that can be used to handle emergencies. The Department of Homeland Security uses previous issues and the immerging events to create an imagination of what is to be protected. Through this, America is able to protect its territory and citizens from terrorism.

Concept of Michael Foucault is applied by DHS. It is called the theory of govern mentality. It states that the government has the ability to order and re-order modalities and technologies of power during an emergency. This is where the organization exercises its delegated federal powers. The security body is able to use all its powers and space to command law enforcers and other agencies into action in the event of terror or danger. Exercise of power by the agency confirms the fact of Michael. This is because security concern so significant that it requires legislative authority to execute, (Eden, 2007).

The information system by the homeland security system is by analysis of every detail in order to find some factual information before beginning any mission (Sloan, 2002). The main focus is the analysis of facilities of chemicals in a particular country assesses its impact on security issues. They after assessing these facilities, they evaluate the impacts such facilities can have on the populations living around the particular location. They also gather enough evidence concerning a particular crime and come with some findings that are factual about the crime. Thus; the Homeland security department ensures that all the activities it engages in are based on facts but not any assumptions.

Persuasion Scientific Continuum of DHS

This is the analysis of the motives and scenes exposed in the Department of Homeland Security. Concept of DHS addresses virtual ontology, vulnerability and preparedness, risks involved and the implications of the agency in America. The main motive of DHS is to promote security. All actions in the organization are directed towards attempt to protect people, properties and the territory of the United States of America, (Barnes, 2006).

The security process in the agency starts from collection of information on emergency. This is done through planning and data collection. Mapping is then done on vulnerability of the information in U.S. Continuous evaluation is done to establish the possible and potential threats the message could have in America. Last scene is the actual practice. This entails training, risk analysis, action protocol and information sharing in various security departments.

The Homeland security has adopted a lot of techniques in dealing with the global security. They have greatly reduced the use of nuclear weapons in countries that can promote the use of such weapons in the terrorism (Stephen, 2002). For example, they have banned the use of nuclear weapons in Iraq. To achieve this, they had to order for mass destruction of nuclear weapons in Iraq. They persuaded the country to do so at will. This enhanced the use of persuasion in reducing the use of science and technology in reducing the bad effects of nuclear weapons (Simone, 2002). Other countries that have seen the same legislations imposed on them include countries like Iran and Palestine. This has helped in reducing the manufacture of deadly weapons like atomic bombs.

Comparison in DHS

The section analyses the relationship between vulnerability and preparedness in visual ontology. We begin with vulnerability that led to the formation DHS. The level of risk in America is high even today. This is because of freedom of people and their way of life. Besides, there is also free market that has made the nation to have limitless vulnerability. America is day by day exposed to threat. DHS must make necessary efforts to deal with the situation.

On the contrary, the level of preparedness in DHS is an issue of concern. This is the ability to cultivated response to disaster. Is the agency read to tackle the risks in America? Compared to the level of vulnerability, the situation is not fully addressed. To some extent, DHS is prepared for emergency though a lot should be done be improve the situation. For example, the failure of Hurricane Katrina was a lesson to the institution. In comparison to vulnerability, DHS should do more to minimize risks in America, (The White House, 2006).

The homeland department has constantly been comparing the attitudes of the employees in regard to how it handles some of its activities. Other issues are how their ranks affect their work out put as well the decisions they make (Guzman, 2002). This is very important in improving the efficiency of the entire organization which houses several other organizations. Comparison is also made with other agencies of the government in other countries how they handle issues related to security. This can be done either at the local and international level. This can help them improve their efforts in the work place (WHO, 2002). From comparison; it is evident that the employees from the department of Homeland are the less motivated. This is one way that has been used in improving the morale of such citizens.

Emotional Appeals in DHS

Emotions are highlighted in vulnerability. This is expressed by the fact that every American seems to be exposed to danger. The authors have hinted their emotional appeals as they describe the predicament that is facing the U.S. Freedom is also a contributing factor to the threat that has made the nation to be ever ready for war. The mood of war is also expressed because of the effort of DHS to prevent terror and catastrophe, (Foucault, 2007).

The emotional appeals have been made by the department of homeland security to the other organizations of the world in regard to security situations. This has been achieved through the leaders to the United Nations (WHO, 2002). For example, emotional appeals were encouraged by people whose activities were not favored by the law. As a result, they appealed to the people who were being targeted so that they can win their case. This would help in restoring some balance in the entire procedure. The entire would especially Asian countries are appealing to the Obama regime to reduce the use of nuclear weapons. Their argument is that the world has become a safe place to live in. However this is just a strategy by the opponents to help in reducing the strength of homeland department in reducing attacks. This is a great issue that the homeland security has looked into seriously in order to come up with more things to do.

Inductive reasoning

This one of the techniques the department of homeland security has adopted in order to deal with terrorism and enhance security in the United States (WHO, 2002). This includes reasoning that starts from a specific observation to generalization of the whole idea. This technique has been used by the homeland security to explore the measures that can be put in place by the United States government to ensure that security prevails within and outside the borders (Stephen, 2003). This has enabled them develop high ant terrorism terrors like the one that hit the united states in September in the year 2001.The other applications of the law was when the attorney general said that officers that enforce laws to be given powers to arrest immigrants that violated the laws regarding immigrations (Sloan, 2002). The immigrants had been observed as being reluctant to interact with the officials that brought justice in the United States. The police officers feared that if more laws were enacted against them, they would not show up at all. They would not report any crimes and unlawful behaviors among them. This would lead to more crimes commitment among the law makers with no one to report to the officers in charge of enhancing the law.

Universities like Indiana have also employed this reasoning in dealing with anti-terrorism. They proposed that law enhancing officers should patrol throughout the United States so as to enhance surveillance in the matters of security (Stephen, 2002). This improved the numbers of crimes that were being committed in the country. In addition; they recommended that the police should use methods that are very investigative in all procedures involved in reducing crimes. This would be enhancing by engaging more police officers in the patrols. The use of technology has also been recommended by the top learning institutions in an attempt by the homeland security to deal with crimes. This includes using software's that can be used to recognize the faces of the people (Sloan, 2002). In addition, computers were to be used to scan the email messages so that any message that may distort the security situation is handled effectively.

Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is the exact opposite of inductive reasoning. This technique has been used by the department of homeland security to ensure peace is maintained in the United States of America (Stephen, 2002). It employs a generalized approach in dealing with insecurity particularly terrorism. This is by ensuring security surveillance is extended outside the borders. This approach is called the top down and it starts from the unknown until the situation on the ground is confirmed. Under this reasoning, the homeland security department starts its work from a theory. From the theory it formulates a few hypotheses that will act as guide based on the existing evidence. Then there is observation of the security situation on the ground. The final stage is usually the confirmation of the facts about the security situation in the country. This techniques is procedural and has enabled the homeland security to trap criminals who are may not be targeted using the inductive approach. To achieve this, the homeland security has ensured that there are trained security officers that can help in combating terrorism in the United States of America. They say that if deductive approach had been used, the nuclear attack that was witnessed in the south of Indiana would not have been experienced (Parker, 2002). This is because they had put some generalized mechanism that would have helped in reducing the severity of the attack if not limiting it totally. More officials were thus trained to enable them respond to the victims of the war. They have embarked on sealing loop holes in all places that are seen vulnerable to attacks by terrorists.

HS reasons that America is vulnerable to threats and appropriate preparedness is required to tackle the danger. The inductive reasoning can be justified. This is because there is sufficient proof to confirm the argument. American freedom contributes to its vulnerability.

Deductively, the reasons given do not establish the truth but there is good ground to justify the truth. It is because America has all the machinery to protect its people from danger.

Rule based approaches

Rules help in governing a country in regards to all sorts of issues. The rules can be applied in regard to issues like terrorism, political instability and the general rules concerning the activities of a nation (Parker, 2002). The United States has employed a lot rules in dealing with terrorism. Some of the rules include those that prohibit the use of nuclear weapons. These rules have been enforced by the department of home land security. The other rules that have been imposed are those regarding immigration as well as substance abuse. In fact, they tried and arrested the criminals that lead to the bombings in 2001 and 2007 in accordance to the law. The laws also state that no one is guilty until proven guilty (WHO, 2002). The rules have made other nations trust that the United States of America is a state that employs a justice system in transparent ways. This has also been seen it the ways it deals with its citizens who engage in criminal activities outside the America.

Right based concepts

Every government has an obligation to provide some rights to its citizens. These rights are stipulated in the constitution (Stephen, 2002). The department of Homeland security is an organ in the government of the United States of America that ensures that the citizens are protected from terrorism. It thus works to ensure that peace and stability prevails in the United States of America. Besides the obligation to provide security to its citizens, it ensures that the food consumed by the citizens is free from any form of contamination. It achieves this by the plant and animal health inspectorate. They thus struggle to both ensure the right to safe nutritious food and peace prevails in the country. The homeland department enhances that the food is defended too (Parker, 2003). This responsibility has been to the department of Homeland by the United States Federal state for Agriculture. This is to ensure those consumers, food manufacturers and the entire players in the food industry works towards ensuring safe human food to the citizens.

The presidents of The United states of America have issued many directives towards ensuring the defense of the food (Guzman, 2002). For example, President Bush issued directives to the department of Homeland security to enhance more surveillance on food safety and food security. This is an attempt to ensure that citizens are entitled safe and nutritious foods.

The section explores on rule, right and utility concepts in the Department of Homeland Security. Rule based concept focuses on perceptual learning. DHS concurs with the technique because it uses virtual ontology to carry out its function as a security organization. Right based theory focuses on accountability and process. The agency uses this principle right from its formation to the way it conducts its security function as explained earlier. Utility based concept says that a rule is only established by the good it has when followed. The rules of DHS are useful because they help in dealing with vulnerability through preparedness.

DHS is a vital organization in the U.S. The report has discussed the vulnerability of the nation as well as its preparedness to tackle threats. Several arguments have been put across to support the stated facts.

Utility based approach

The department of homeland security helps to reverse the vulnerability to attacks. In addition, it helps to reduce the consequences the result because of the attacks (WHO, 2002). This helps in preventing attacks from occurring. To reduce an attack requires that the probability of the attack occurring is significantly reduced...This means that the criminals intending to carry out an attack have to really plan. This will increase the cost of planning the attack. If the cost of planning the attack exceeds the thresholds that attack may not be executed. Since the exact threshold is quite unknown, the aim of home land security has been to make the cost unattainable by the attackers. This makes it so expensive for the attackers to carry out their activities (Simone, 2002). The surveillance system in the United States of America is well established making it impossible for the attackers to penetrate. The utility approach is thus based on the probability of increasing the chances of the attackers failing.

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