The History Of Illegal Immigrants Criminology Essay


This chapter will explain the overview of this study, which consists of the background of the study, the problem statement, objectives of the study, research questions, the scope of the study, the significance of the study, limitations of the study and definitions of key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

The influx of immigrants has been a problem in many countries, which includes Malaysia. One of the states that are significantly affected by this problem is Sabah, as the state is flooded with immigrants from neighbouring countries, such as Indonesia and the Philippines. Political and economic instability in those countries could be among the factors that cause this issue to occur. In fact, the issue of immigrants has often been discussed since the 1970s, especially after the massive arrival of Filipino refugees in Sabah (Sadiq, 2005; Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006).

By referring to the Statistics Department of Malaysia (2011), it was found that the number of Sabah's population has increased dramatically in the last three decades. This might be closely related to the issue of immigrants, since more than 27.8 per cent of the population is non-citizens. Despite that, the statistics only shows the official figures of non-citizens. The influx of illegal immigrants is also a huge issue in the state and their actual numbers are most likely not included in the statistics. It is estimated that there is a ratio of 1 illegal immigrant to 750 Sabahans based on the previous arrests (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010).

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As shown in Figure 1.1 below, Sabah's coastline is closer to both of the Philippines and Indonesia compared to other states in Malaysia (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2008). Hence, it may increase the tendency of immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, to come to the state.

Figure 1.1 Maps of Sabah and its' Surrounding States

Source: Google Maps

In Sabah, immigrants are often associated with crime. Until now, it has become more difficult to avoid the perception that linked crime and immigrants, especially with the extensive media attention on this matter. For instance, certain crimes in Sabah, such as violence, robbery, prostitution and drug abuse are generally associated with immigrants. As a result, the Sabahans may perceive immigrant population negatively, which later may turn into anxiety of their own safety.

Even though immigrants' crime involvement has become one of the main interests in Sabah, there is still a shortage of studies conducted on it. Most of previous immigration studies focused on the migration theories, policies and Indonesian labours in Sabah. To date, the study by Marquez (1988) is the only perception study found on immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah. Yet, Wan Hassan and Dollah could be considered as the most active researchers in conducting studies about immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah. For example, Wan Hassan and Dollah (2010) had published various materials on this matter, such as the implication of city development towards immigrants' crime involvement and immigrants' involvement in sea piracy in Sabah.

So far, no study was found to investigate the gap between Sabahans' perception and the actual immigrants' crime involvement. Thus, it is hoped that the current study will be able to contribute further on the knowledge on this topic.

1.2 Problem Statements

Study on immigrant involvement in crime in Sabah remains very limited. To this point, only a study by Marquez (1988) was found to examine Sabahans' perception towards immigrants in Sabah, in relation to crime involvement. Nevertheless, this study only concentrated on Filipino immigrants. The study also examined Sabahans' perception towards immigrants in general, and only studied immigrants' crime involvement as part of the study. Apart from Marquez's study, which is clearly outdated, no other study has been found in relation to Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement. Therefore, it is essential to investigate Sabahans' perception of immigrants, especially in term of crime involvement in Sabah.

Furthermore, only a few empirical studies have been carried out on the actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah. One of the recent studies on this matter was conducted by Wan Hassan and Dollah (2010). However, their study was only based on three years data, from 2001 to 2003. Consequently, the study may only reflect immigrants' crime involvement in a short time period. Based on the assumption, it is convinced that there is a necessity to further investigate the immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah, especially within a longer duration of time.

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In addition, no empirical study has been found to analyse the gap between Sabahans' perception with the actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah. Sabahans may perceive that immigrants are responsible for crimes that occurred in Sabah, especially with wide media exposure on that matter, while in reality, the Sabahans could be the one who commits more crimes. Hence, it would be crucial to investigate misconception by the Sabahans on immigrants' involvement in crimes in Sabah.

1.3 Research Objectives

This study seeks to achieve several objectives, which are:

(a) To analyse Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah.

(b) To analyse the actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah from 1990 to 2010.

(c) To identify misconceptions by Sabahans towards immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah.

1.4 Research Questions

To further support the research objectives, the following research questions are formulated:

1.4.1 What is the Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah? Does Sabahans with different profile background have the same perception? What are the types of crime that the Sabahans perceived that immigrants were involved in? Why do the Sabahans have such perception? What are the reasons of immigrants' crime involvement in Sabahans' perception?

1.4.2 What is the actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah from 1990 to 2010? What is the pattern of crimes committed by immigrants? Why did immigrants get involved in crimes? How did immigrants get involved in crimes?

1.4.3 What are the misconceptions by Sabahans towards immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah? What are the impacts of misconceptions towards immigrants' crime involvement? How can the Sabahans' misconception be corrected?

1.5 Scope of Study

Sabah is chosen as the focus of this study since the state has attracted a large number of immigrant populations especially from the Philippines and Indonesia. Selection of respondents from Sabahans who live in the West Coast of Sabah will be adequate, as they may come from different parts of Sabah.

Moreover, this study will focus on immigrants' crime involvement from 1990 to 2010. In this study, there will be more emphasis on index crimes, which includes violence crimes and property crimes, as well as other criminal activities such as involvement in drug abuse, drugs distribution and prostitution. While entering or staying in this country illegally is already a crime, it will be excluded in this study since the focus is about crimes that have been committed after the immigration. The time frame of this study is from March 2012 to September 2013.

1.6 Significance of Study

Firstly, this study is significant as a feedback to policymakers. By understanding the reasons for immigrants' involvement in crimes, this study would shed some light for the policy makers to plan for corrective measures to combat this issue. As a result, immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah could be prevented or at least reduced.

The second significance of this study is to avoid prejudice towards immigrants. As some immigrants entered this country through legal means, it would be unfair for them to be perceived negatively because of some misconceptions. This study would expose the actual situation of immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah and clarify any existing myths. Therefore, this study would provide better understanding and awareness to the society regarding this issue.

Finally, this study would be essential for the body of knowledge. Until now, the literature on immigrants' involvement in crimes in Sabah is at best scarce, thus, this research would contribute to the knowledge on this matter. Previous researches were focusing more on the aspects of policies, migration theories and the issue of migrant workers. While this issue has often been talked about, there were only few empirical studies conducted to conform it. Accordingly, this research would provide new insight on this matter. Other than that, this research could also provide directions for future immigration studies in Sabah.

1.7 Limitations of Study

There are few limitations that must be considered to ensure a smooth process for this study. Firstly, even though this research will examine the actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah, the data that will be obtained later may only reflect those who were reported and prosecuted. Those who got away with it may not be included in the statistics. While the official statistics could still represent the majority and provide some reflection, it would not be that accurate. Therefore, it would be useful to interview some of the experienced officers of the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP), Prison Department of Malaysia (PRIDE) and some community leaders to further support the findings.

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Apart from that, there is a possibility of accidentally handing out questionnaires to immigrants. For that reason, all of the questionnaires will be self-administered by the researcher to make sure that only local respondents' will be selected as respondents.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Some of the terms that will be used throughout this research proposal should be further clarified as follows:

1.8.1 Sabahans

In this study, the term 'Sabahans' could be used interchangeably with 'locals'. Sabahans could be defined as Malaysian citizens who live in Sabah. The term will also represent immigrants who had been naturalized and obtained Malaysian citizenship as well.

1.8.2 Immigrants

For the purpose of this study, immigrants could be defined as non-Malaysian who have settled in Malaysia, which include illegal immigrants, migrant workers and Filipino refugees, but exclude those who had already obtained Malaysian citizenship (Canadian Council for Refugees, n.d.; Special Task Force Report, n.d.). Unlike many foreign studies, citizenship is included in this definition. In other countries, it would be easier to distinguish immigrants from the locals with race and origin. In contrast, Sabah's population consists of various races with complicated origins. Therefore, for clarity, those immigrants who had obtained Malaysian citizenship will not be referred as immigrants in this study.

1.8.3 Crime Involvement

Crime is an offence that breaches the law with prosecutions or punishments as the consequences (Malek and Mohamed Kamil, n. d.; Abas, 1998). In this study, the focus will be mostly on index crimes, which includes violence crimes and property crimes. However, other types of criminal activities such as involvement in drugs abuse, drug distribution and prostitution are considered as suitable to be included in this study. While entering or staying in this country illegally is already a crime, it will be excluded in this study since the focus is about crimes that have been committed after the immigration. Immigrants' crime involvement will be based on statistics by relevant agencies such as RMP and PRIDE.


This chapter will provide a better understanding on the research topic. It will begin with relevant literatures on immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah. Then, it will be followed with the development of the conceptual framework.

2.1 Introduction

This issue began to be given an attention after the massive influx of Filipino immigrants to Sabah after 1978 (Sadiq, 2005; Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006) which cause a huge growth of Sabah's population in the last three decades. The number of population in Sabah has dramatically increased from 929,299 in 1980 to 3,120,040 in 2010 compared to other states in Malaysia (Statistics Department of Malaysia, 2011). Despite of being smaller and sharing similar geographical location, Sabah has higher population compared to its neighbouring state, Sarawak, as in Table 2.1.

Table 2.1: Number of Population in Sabah and Sarawak According to Year


Years (Number of Population)












Source: Statistics Department of Malaysia (2011)

In 2010 alone, the official number of non-Malaysian citizens who live in Sabah is over 27.8 per cent of the overall population of Sabah (Statistics Department of Malaysia, 2011). While the figure may only reflect the official number of non-Malaysian citizens live in the state, it could create concern towards this matter.

Immigrants could be generally defined as "persons who have settled permanently in another country" (Canadian Council for Refugees, n.d.). Contrary to the negative connotation of the word 'immigrant', not all immigrants are illegal. According to the Special Task Force Report (n.d.), immigrants in Sabah could be classified into three categories, namely illegal immigrants, alien workers and Filipino refugees as in Table 2.2. Still, movement from legal immigrants to illegal immigrants is very fluid as the legal migrant workers could also eventually be illegal once they fail to renew their work permit (Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006).

Table 2.2: Groups of immigrants in Sabah and its description

Group of immigrants


Illegal immigrants

Subject to apprehension and deportation

Alien workers

Allowed to work in the state as long as they obey state laws and regulations

Need work pass or permit that must be updated regularly

Filipino refugees

On humanitarian grounds, they are allowed to stay in the state temporarily but are encouraged to go back to their homeland as soon as it is safe to do so

Source: Special Task Force Report (n.d.)

There are various reasons for migration such as financial or humanitarian necessity. In the case of southern Philippines, political instability occurred with the dispute of Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) against Manila for Mindanao in the 1970s (Smith, 2007). In this regard, it was estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 refugees went to Sabah for security reasons (Smith, 2007). In fact, Filipino refugees had outnumbered the native Sabahan population in certain areas in Sabah (Adnan, 2007).

Poverty and unemployment had caused more Filipinos to enter Sabah in the late 1970s onwards, no longer as political refugees but as economic refugees instead (Marquez, 1988; Gunggut, Mohamed Ajmal and Zaaba, 2006). Similarly, job opportunities were limited in Indonesia as well (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2008) especially after the Asian financial crisis in 1997. In addition, in Sabah, some less skilled jobs in several sectors such as construction, logging and farming, are widely known to not be favoured by the Sabahans. These sectors are usually associated with 3D syndrome, which are 'dirty, difficult and dangerous' (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2008). As job opportunities were made available in Sabah, foreigners may decide to immigrate to Sabah either by legal or illegal means (Kaur, 2007).

According to Hassan (2009), migrant workers also came to Malaysia for a job with a higher salary. In fact, supported by Kang (2007), the wage rate of the construction industry in Malaysia is ten times higher than Indonesia and relatively higher than most ASEAN countries.

Other than that, many Indonesians choose to immigrate to Malaysia as the social and cultural background is somehow similar to the home country (APMRN, 2003). Similar language, ethnic background as well as religion may encourage many immigrants to migrate.

While the influx of immigrants in Sabah seems to always be related to crimes, there are limited studies being conducted to confirm the assumption. It is common to hear immigrants' involvement in crimes such as violence, robbery, prostitution and drug abuse.

Generally, crime involves two aspects, namely laws and codes of norms that exist in a culture. Abbas (1998) as cited by Gan (2007) defined crime as an offence committed by a person with intention to commit the offence, which then cause the person responsible to be punished according to the law.

2.2 Sabahans' Perception towards Immigrants' Crime Involvement in Sabah

The concern on immigrants' involvement in criminal activities was expressed by state leaders and the society since three decades ago (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010). The sudden influx of Filipino refugees in 1970s and more immigrants could have made the Sabahans to feel overwhelmed in many ways.

In the receiving countries, immigrants are commonly used as a scapegoat for problems that occurred, which includes the increase in the crime rate (Kassim, 2009). As the involvement of immigrants in crime often receives wide media attention, it may cause the Sabahans to have negative perception, which later may turn into fear or anxiety of their own safety.

Marquez (1988) stated that that strangers who seek for safety refuge are welcomed, as long as they get the sympathy of society, has the same opinion as everyone else and to comply with local regulations. However, they are less welcome once they become a political threat, and affect the norms and standards of living of the Sabahans. However, from Marquez's perception study, it was found that the Filipino refugees were blamed for the increase of crime rate, especially on killing, stealing and housebreaking. The Sabahans also perceived the Filipinos to disregard the state laws.

It is not surprising to find the media as an influence on the Sabahans' perception towards immigrants. For instance, a study by Goodall et al. (1994) found that the media produces stereotypes on minority migrants as a violent and criminal community. The nightly news, cable television and conservative radio talks spend considerable time discussing the issue, making it seems serious (Caldwell and Sacks, 2007). Local media also tend to actively publicize crimes committed by immigrants compared to the crimes committed by locals. This could easily be seen by the numbers of news articles published in daily newspapers on immigrants' crime involvement.

2.3 Immigrants' Crimes Involvement in Sabah

Poverty could be the underlying cause for immigrants' involvement in crime. According to the UNODC (2005), crime is both the cause and consequence of poverty, insecurity and under-development. In Sabah, immigrants could be seen as poor and willing to take jobs with lower wages compared to the locals. According to Wan Hassan and Dollah (2010), in Kota Kinabalu, the immigrants' best income was only about RM20 to RM30 a day. In Pulau Gaya, Kota Kinabalu, poor people was used as tools by wealthy groups to carry out criminal activities involving drugs and smuggling activities (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2005). To meet life necessities, immigrants may need to engage in any activity to earn money (DBKK, n.d.).

In 2003 alone, it was found that 41.9 per cent or 1,545 foreign prisoners who have been convicted were earning around only RM250 to RM499 a month (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010). Chiu and Madden (1998) suggested that individuals rationally choose to commit or not to commit a crime based on expected profit of the two alternatives. Thus, there seems to be a relationship between income earned and the commission of crime.

According to Bersani (2010), neighbourhoods of immigrants' settlement were often characterized by high crime rates, which led to the conclusion that immigration and crime were causally related. In Sabah, many activities could be linked to immigrants in the squatter colonies (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2005). Those activities include syabu smuggling and distribution, prostitution, fake documents and fake money syndicates, as well as goods and arms smuggling from neighbouring countries. Apart from that, water and electricity theft were also rampant in the squatter colonies (Wan Hassan, Omar and Dollah, 2010). This is supported by Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1967), who found that violence can become a normal and expected means of dispute resolution in economically disadvantaged areas.

Apart from that, the establishment of entertainment centres in Kota Kinabalu may also cause many foreign women to be involved in immoral activities such as prostitution. As the local women tend to perceive such jobs as disgraceful, it leaves job opportunities for the financially needy immigrants. On this basis, the Sabahans would assume immigrants commit crimes more in order to fulfil their financial needs.

Based on a study by Wan Hassan and Dollah (2010), immigrants were involved significantly in certain type of crimes such as murder, attempt to murder and drug distribution in 2001 to 2002. In rape cases, Sabahans were involved almost equally with immigrants. While the number of immigrants' involvement in theft was high, the number of Sabahans committing this type of crime was even higher.

Furthermore, crimes occurred not only because of the function of economics such as poverty, but also cultures such as the subculture of violence. For instance, there could be a clash of cultures between the home countries and host countries (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010). Immigrant population brought in some cultures that could not be accepted by the local community. These cultures may encourage immigrants to disregard Malaysian laws and local norms. One of the ways to explain this situation is with the concept of martabat, in which the Filipinos believe in revenge (East, 2010).

However, it would only be fairer to not assume every immigrant to be prone to commit crimes. This reasoning was supported by Griswold (2009) who found that immigrants would prefer to stay out of trouble in order to earn more money and send remittances to their home countries.

2.4 Conceptual Framework




Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement?

Gap between Sabahans' perception and the actual immigrants' crime involvement (misconception)

Immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah?


Clash of cultures

Lack of job opportunities

Crimes opportunities

Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework of the Study

As in Figure 2.1, the chart presents a conceptual framework that shows univariate variables that would be involved in this study.

2.4.1 Sabahans' Perception towards Immigrants' Crime Involvement

Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement could be influenced by several main factors. The first factor is experience. Experience may influence Sabahans' perception towards immigrants regarding crimes. For instance, they could have seen immigrants' crime involvement or victimized by immigrants themselves.

The second factor is knowledge. As in a study by Xia (2012), individuals with different level of studies are most likely to have different perceptions towards immigrants' crime involvement.

The last factor is environment, which includes media coverage, community leader influence and society influence. It could affect Sabahans' perception as these exposures could shape their understanding of who to be blamed for crimes that occurred.

2.4.2 Immigrants' Crime Involvement in Sabah

Immigrants' crime involvement could be influenced by several factors. Firstly, there could be a clash of cultures between the home countries and host countries where the immigrant population may bring in some cultures that disregard Malaysian laws and local norms (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010).

Secondly, lack of job opportunities may also affect immigrants' crime involvement. So far, migrant workers are only allowed to work in several sectors of employment, such as in manufacture sector, in plantation sector, in agriculture sector, in construction sector and in service sector (Immigration Department of Malaysia, n.d.). These sectors, on the other hand, are generally known to provide small wages for heavy labours. Illegal immigrants may face greater difficulty finding jobs. Therefore, immigrants will be willing to work for unlawful jobs such as being a prostitute or drug dealer.

Thirdly, poverty could also be one of the reasons for immigrants' crime involvement. Immigrants are known to earn less wages compared to the locals (Wan Hassan and Dollah, 2010) and may not even be sufficient for the standard of living. Thus, immigrants may commit crimes in order to earn more money so that they could send remittance to their family in their home country.

Finally, immigrants may also see some opportunities to be involved in crime. There might be some demands over some unlawful acts. For instance, stolen items such as car accessories, spare parts or the vehicle itself could be sold with cheaper than the market price. Furthermore, as illegal immigrants are undocumented, it is more difficult to track them down after a crime is committed. As a result, these opportunities increase the likelihood of immigrants to commit crime.

2.4.3 Misconception towards Immigrants' Crime Involvement

From Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement and the actual immigrants' crime involvement, the gap of both aspects could be identified. This gap could also be translated as misconception by Sabahans towards immigrants' crime involvement.


This chapter will describe the research design, unit of analysis, sample size, sampling techniques, research instrument, data collection procedures and data analysis. Other than that, the structure of research will also be included to further illustrate the research methodology.

3.1 Research Design

This research is a cross-sectional study, as the data will be gathered just once in a period of time (Sekaran, 2003). Furthermore, methodological triangulation approach will be considered as suitable for this study. Qualitative method of data collection will be mainly used in this study, while quantitative method of cross-sectional survey will be conducted to support qualitative findings, especially on Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement.

3.2 Unit of Analysis

Unit of analysis in this study will be in individual unit. The respondents will be interviewed individually, while the questionnaires will be distributed per house.

3.3 Sample Size

For qualitative method, 10 to 30 respondents will be interviewed until saturation point, or no new concept could emerge from the interviews (Corbin and Strauss, 2007). For quantitative method, Roscoe's (1975) rule of thumb suggests that a minimal sample size of 30 is acceptable for statistical analysis. The quantitative study site, which is Taman Teluk Vila, Putatan, Sabah, has a total of 500 houses. Therefore, 50 respondents will be considered as appropriate for this study, since the purpose of quantitative method in this study is to support the qualitative findings with the diversity of respondents' background.

3.4 Sampling Techniques

In investigating Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah, two sampling methods will be used in this study.

3.4.1 Qualitative Method

The interviewees will be selected using purposive sampling. This sampling method involves selection of interviewees based on which districts they came from, occupation, level of study and age. The study will focus on Sabahans who live in the West Coast of Sabah as respondents. Semi-structured interviews will be used to allow flexible ordering of questions (Barbour, 2008). Moreover, the interviewees' perception could be explored in depth.

3.4.2 Quantitative Method

This quantitative method is necessary to support the qualitative finding. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2007) emphasise that collecting data from a sample that represents the entire population is a valid alternative, especially when there is a time and budget constraint to survey the entire population. By choosing a housing area as the study site, perceptions of respondents with various backgrounds could be obtained. In addition, quantitative method will also guarantee the respondents' anonymity.

For this method, systematic sampling will be used to maintain randomness. Firstly, a starting number will be selected randomly. After that, the number of the population will be divided by the sample size to obtain the sampling fraction. The sampling fraction will then be used as the constant difference between houses, from the starting number onwards (Castillo, 2009).

3.5 Research Instrument

Structured questionnaires will be used as the research instrument in the quantitative study. The questionnaire will be developed by the researcher to suit the research settings and allow the assessment of respondents' demographic information and perception. It will be divided into three parts, which the researcher will categorize as Part A, Part B, and Part C.

Firstly, for Part A, the researcher will request some information on respondents' profile and background, such as their citizenship, age, gender, religion, race, level of education, job and other necessary information. The measurement that will be used in this part will be Category Scale, which only required the respondents to tick on the answer that suits them the best.

For Part B, the researcher will include several questions that are related to the respondents' perception towards immigrants. For this category, Likert Scale will be used as the measurement in order to ease the respondents, as they only have to rate their answers. Moreover, Likert Scale also provides more options for the respondents to choose for.

Lastly, for Part C, the researcher will provide an open ended question for the respondents to share suggestions on how to correct misconceptions of immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah.

3.6 Data Collection Procedures

The data for this study will be obtained in several ways according to the type of data.

3.6.1 Primary Data

Primary data will be obtained from the respondents by conducting in depth interview in order to know their perception towards immigrants' crime involvement. The researcher will also hand out some questionnaires to further confirm the qualitative findings.

Other than that, some interviews will also be carried out with RMP officers, PRIDE officers and community leaders on the actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah.

3.6.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data will be gathered from the internet, newspaper clippings as well as previous research. Besides that, the researcher will obtain some statistics reports from RMP and PRIDE in Kota Kinabalu headquarters regarding crimes committed by immigrants.

3.7 Data Analysis

For the qualitative data, the results of the perception interviews will be transcribed as soon as the interviews ended and be categorised based on themes emerge. Then, the findings could be analysed and interpretation could be made. A similar process will be carried out to the interviews with RMP officers, PRIDE officers and community leaders. The data obtained from documentations and statistics reports, on the other hand, will be categorized and combined if necessary to ease the analysis process.

For the quantitative data, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software will be used in the data analysis. Descriptive analysis will be used to examine Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' crime involvement according to the respondents' age, gender, religion, race, level of education and job. Apart from that, descriptive analysis will also be used to analyse which factor influences the respondents' perception the most.

3.8 Structure

Identify research problems

Write literature review of immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah

Sabahans' perception towards immigrants' involvement in crime in Sabah

The actual immigrants' crime involvement in Sabah

Organizing data

(Data analysis)

Documents, statistics reports and interviews

(Data collection)


(Data collection)

Transcribe data

(Data analysis)


(Data collection)

Using Descriptive Statistics

(Data analysis)


Figure 3.1 Flows Chart of Methodology


As a conclusion, it is hoped that this research proposal would guide the study to achieve its objectives. Not only that, it is also hoped that this research proposal would highlight its significance and provide an insight to the readers.