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Tourism is a relative new phenomenon in the history of mankind. It appeared as such in the 19th century, when many people started to travel for pleasure and entertainment. Now-a-days it has become possible for everyone to travel abroad and to get acquainted with other countries. According to WTO between 2004-2020 the travel will increase from 760 million trips per annum to 1.5 billion trips. But since certain negative impacts of social life have hindered the development of tourism. Terrorism one of them and Statistically it is proved that the tourists react very sensitively to such calamities when making their choice of the destination.
The new millennium has been defined by several crises since the terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on Sept. 11, 2001. These acts of terror shocked the world and marked the beginning of a gloomy sentiment in the tourism industry. Several terrorist inflicted tourism crises followed including Bali bombings on October 12, 2002, Madrid train bombings on March 11, 2004, frequent armed unrest in Southern Thailand since January 2004, London terrorist acts in July 2005, hotel bombings in Sharm-el-Sheik Egypt in July 2005, the second round of Bali bombings on October 2, 2005 and the most recent hotel bombings in Amman Jordan in November 2005. These terror acts have obvious negative impact on tourism. Tourists are often the specific targets of terrorist organizations. Tourism is viewed to represent capitalism and conspicuous consumption and an attack on tourists signifies ideological opposition to these western values. In other areas of the world, where tourism is a state sponsored industry, an attack on tourists can symbolize an attack on the government (Richter and Waugh 1986).
2.1 History of Terrorism
The history ofÂ terrorismÂ is as old as humans' willingness to use violence to affect politics. TheÂ SicariiÂ were a first century Jewish group who murdered enemies and collaborators in their campaign to oust their Roman rulers from Judea. Their dramatically executed assassinations ofÂ AbbasidÂ andÂ SeljukÂ political figures terrified their contemporaries. Zealots and assassins were not, however, really terrorists in the modern sense. Terrorism is best thought of as a modern phenomenon. Its characteristics flow from the international system of nation-states, and its success depends on the existence of a mass media to create an aura of terror among many people
1793: The Origins of Modern Terrorism:
The word terrorism comes from the Reign of Terror instigated byÂ Maxmilien RobespierreÂ in 1793, following the French revolution. Robespierre, one of twelve heads of the new state, had enemies of the revolution killed, and installed a dictatorship to stabilize the country. HeÂ justified his methodsÂ as necessary in the transformation of the monarchy to a liberal democracy: Subdue by terror the enemies of liberty, and you will be right, as founders of the Republic.
Robespierre's sentiment laid the foundations for modern terrorists, who believe violence will usher in a better system. For example, the 19th centuryÂ Narodnaya VolyaÂ hoped to end Tsarist rule in Russia. But the characterization of terrorism as aÂ state actionÂ faded, while the idea of terrorism as an attack against an existing political order became more prominent.
Learn more aboutÂ whether states should be considered terrorists.
1950s: The Rise of Non-State Terrorism:
The rise of guerrilla tactics by non-state actors in the last half of the twentieth century was due to several factors. These included the flowering of ethnic nationalism (e.g. Irish, Basque, Zionist), anti-colonial sentiments in the vast British, French and other empires, and new ideologies such as communism.
Terrorist groups with a nationalist agenda have formed in every part of the world. For example, theÂ Irish Republican ArmyÂ grew from the quest by Irish Catholics to form an independent republic, rather than being part of Great Britain.
1970s: Terrorism Turns International:
International terrorism became a prominent issue in the late 1960s, when hijacking became a favored tactic. In 1968, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijacked anÂ an El Al Flight.Â Twenty years later, the bombing of aÂ Pan Am flightÂ over Lockerbie, Scotland, shocked the world.
The events at the 1972 Munich Olympics were politically motivated.Â Black September,a Palestinian group, kidnapped and killed Israeli athletes preparing to compete. Black September's political goal was negotiating the release of Palestinian prisoners. They used spectacular tactics to bring international attention to their national cause.
Munich radically changed the United States' handling of terrorism: "The terms counterterrorismÂ andÂ international terrorismÂ formally entered the Washington political lexicon," according to counterterrorism expertÂ Timothy Naftali.
Terrorists also took advantage of the black market in Soviet-produced light weaponry, such asÂ AK-47 assault riflesÂ created in the wake of the Soviet Union's 1989 collapse. Most terrorist groups justified violence with a deep belief in the necessity and justice of their cause.
Terrorism in the United States also emerged. Groups such asÂ the WeathermenÂ grew out of the non-violent group Students for a Democratic Society. They turned to violent tactics, from rioting to setting off bombs, to protest theÂ Vietnam War.
1990s: The Twenty First Century: Religious Terrorism and Beyond
Religiously motivated terrorism is considered the most alarming terrorist threat today. Groups that justify their violence on Islamic grounds-Â Al Qaeda,Â Hamas,Â Hezbollah-come to mind first. But Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and other religions have given rise to their own forms of militant extremism.
In the view of religion scholarÂ Karen ArmstrongÂ this turn represents terrorists' departure from any real religious precepts. Muhammad Atta, the architect of the 9/11 attacks, and "the Egyptian hijacker who was driving the first plane, was a near alcoholic and was drinking vodka before he boarded the aircraft." Alcohol would be strictly off limits for a highly observant Muslim.
Atta, and perhaps many others, are not simply orthodox believers turned violent, but rather violent extremists who manipulate religious concepts for their own purposes
2.2 Homeland Security Advisory System
The Homeland Security Advisory System is a mechanism for disseminating information about the current risk of terrorist acts to federal, state, and local authorities and, through them and the media and to the public. The system provides graduated warnings-called threat conditions- that mandate increasing security measures as the risk of an act of terrorism increases. Each threat condition triggers a corresponding set of protective measures by federal departments and agencies to reduce vulnerability and increase response capability, including situation reports and, as appropriate, recommendations to states and local governments. You will be informed by local officials if you need to take specific actions where you live and work.
Threat Conditions Under the Homeland Security Advisory System:
Low (green): low risk of terrorist attacks
Guarded (blue): general risk of terrorist attacks
Elevated (yellow): significant risk of terrorist attacks
High (orange): high risk of terrorist attacks
Severe (red): severe risk of terrorist attacks
2.3: TYPES OF TERRORISM
Researchers in the United States began to distinguish different types of terrorism in the 1970s, following a decade in which both domestic and international groups flourished. By that point, modern groups had began to use techniques such as hijacking, bombing, diplomatic kidnapping and assassination to assert their demands and, for the first time, they appeared as real threats to Western democracies, in the view of politicians, law makers, law enforcement and researchers. They began to distinguish different types of terrorism as part of the larger effort to understand how to counter and deter it.
Bioterrorism refers to the intentional release of toxic biological agents to harm and terrorize civilians, in the name of a political or other cause. The U.S. Center for Disease Control has classified the viruses, bacteria and toxins that could be used in an attack. Category A Biological Diseases are those most likely to do the most damage. They include:
Hemorrahagic fever, due to Ebola Virus or Marburg Virus
Cyber terrorists use information technology to attack civilians and draw attention to their cause. This may mean that they use information technology, such as computer systems or telecommunications, as a tool to orchestrate a traditional attack. More often, cyber terrorism refers to an attack on information technology itself in a way that would radically disrupt networked services. For example, cyber terrorists could disable networked emergency systems or hack into networks housing critical financial information.
Eco terrorism is a recently coined term describing violence in the interests of environmentalism. In general, environmental extremists sabotage property to inflict economic damage on industries or actors they see as harming animals or the natural environment. These have included fur companies, logging companies and animal research laboratories
"Nuclear terrorism" refers to a number of different ways nuclear materials might be exploited as a terrorist tactic. These include attacking nuclear facilities, purchasing nuclear weapons, or building nuclear weapons or otherwise finding ways to disperse radioactive materials.
Narco terrorism has had several meanings since its coining in 1983. It once denoted violence used by drug traffickers to influence governments or prevent government efforts to stop the drug trade. In the last several years, narco terrorism has been used to indicate situations in which terrorist groups use drug trafficking to fund their other operations.
Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)
Terrorists' use of an RDD-often called "dirty nuke" or "dirty bomb"-is considered far more likely than their use of a nuclear explosive device. An RDD combines a conventional explosive device-such as a bomb-with radioactive material. It is designed to scatter dangerous and sub-lethal amounts of radioactive material over a general area, but no nuclear explosion is
Involved. RDDs appeal to terrorists because they require limited technical knowledge to build
and deploy compared with a nuclear device. Also, the radioactive materials in RDDs are widely
used in medicine, agriculture, industry, and research and are easier to obtain than weaponsgrade
uranium or plutonium.
The primary purpose of terrorists' use of an RDD would be to cause psychological fear and economic disruption. Some devices could cause fatalities from exposure to radioactive
materials. Depending on the speed at which the area of the RDD detonation was evacuated or
how successful people were at sheltering-in-place against radiation, the number of deaths and
injuries from an RDD might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb
The size of the affected area and the level of destruction caused by an RDD would depend on the sophistication and size of the conventional bomb, the type of radioactive material used, the quality and quantity of the radioactive material, and the local meteorological conditions, primarily wind and precipitation. The area affected could be placed off-limits to the public for several months during cleanup efforts.
The research design used is questionnaire which is to be asked to the managers who are working in the IT companies in Bangalore. The sample size was random
Limitation and problems faced:
During the survey there were lots of problems faced due to the security issues where we were not allowed to meet the manager without their prior appointments. Most of the managers refused the survey as they were not interested and also since they were not involved in the department in which i was targeting.
Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of this study is to analysis the impact of cyber terrorism in the IT sectors (Bangalore) and safety measures taken by them to avoid cyber terrorism.
Cyber terrorism can be defined as the planned accomplishment of goals that are commonly related to affairs of the state or policy makers that are undertaken to cause damage that may range from data corruption to even death and sabotage of the financial and physical aspects of target organizations..Cyber terrorist prefer using the cyber attack methods because of many advantages for it.
It is Cheaper than traditional methods.
The action is very difficult to be tracked.
They can hide their personalities and location.
There are no physical barriers or check points to cross.
They can do it remotely from anywhere in the world.
They can use this method to attack a big number of targets.
The overall sophistication of cyber attacks has been steadily increasing. There are several types of cyber vulnerabilities and attacks: worms, distributed denial of service (DDoS), unauthorized instrusions, Web defacements and semantic attacks, Domain Name Service (DNS) attacks, and routing vulnerabilities.
This case study is on Cyber terrorism threat in Bangalore IT companies. A questionnaire was made and asked to the managers of the companies. The main objective of the questionnaire was to find the different kinds of threat a company could face, steps taken by the company to prevent Cyber terrorism in their company and the possibility of attacks in their city. There were also problems faced while doing the survey. The managers of the companies were not allowed to meet without prior appointments although managed to do the survey through the phone.
According to the study done in the companies it is found that there is a high risk of cyber terrorist attack in Bangalore. Because of cyber terrorism most of the companies said that the following gets affected the most in their organization
Data and information
It is also found that advancements in technologies like Bluetooth, mini pen drives, portable hard disk, palmtops etc where the data's of the companies can be taken away easily from the company system by the employees. The wireless internet which is provided in the company can also be a threat to the company if they are not protected properly where it can be misused to send emails and hack through their IP address. They also maintain software to avoid the attacking of viruses and other malware programmes. The companies have restricted this by setting up firewall for internet and separate user id and passwords for the employees so that they have a record of the persons who is using the computers in the company. There are also restrictions for the employees to approach the company confidential files and data's. Since internet plays a major role, there are certain links that a employees cannot access through the companies and cookies are also blocked by the companies.
The companies do agree that their employee have interaction with the terrorist. The company screens the employee well before they hire them. Special training and induction program are conducted by the companies for the employees regarding the awareness of the terrorism