The effects of terrorism in the tourism industry

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Tourism is a relative new phenomenon in the history of mankind. It appeared as such in the 19th century, when many people started to travel for pleasure and entertainment. Now-a-days it has become possible for everyone to travel abroad and to get acquainted with other countries. According to WTO between 2004-2020 the travel will increase from 760 million trips per annum to 1.5 billion trips. But since certain negative impacts of social life have hindered the development of tourism. Terrorism one of them and Statistically it is proved that the tourists react very sensitively to such calamities when making their choice of the destination.

The new millennium has been defined by several crises since the terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington D.C. on Sept. 11, 2001. These acts of terror shocked the world and marked the beginning of a gloomy sentiment in the tourism industry. Several terrorist inflicted tourism crises followed including Bali bombings on October 12, 2002, Madrid train bombings on March 11, 2004, frequent armed unrest in Southern Thailand since January 2004, London terrorist acts in July 2005, hotel bombings in Sharm-el-Sheik Egypt in July 2005, the second round of Bali bombings on October 2, 2005 and the most recent hotel bombings in Amman Jordan in November 2005. These terror acts have obvious negative impact on tourism. Tourists are often the specific targets of terrorist organizations. Tourism is viewed to represent capitalism and conspicuous consumption and an attack on tourists signifies ideological opposition to these western values. In other areas of the world, where tourism is a state sponsored industry, an attack on tourists can symbolize an attack on the government (Richter and Waugh 1986).

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 History of Terrorism

The history of terrorism is as old as humans' willingness to use violence to affect politics. The Sicarii were a first century Jewish group who murdered enemies and collaborators in their campaign to oust their Roman rulers from Judea. Their dramatically executed assassinations of Abbasid and Seljuk political figures terrified their contemporaries. Zealots and assassins were not, however, really terrorists in the modern sense. Terrorism is best thought of as a modern phenomenon. Its characteristics flow from the international system of nation-states, and its success depends on the existence of a mass media to create an aura of terror among many people

1793: The Origins of Modern Terrorism:

The word terrorism comes from the Reign of Terror instigated by Maxmilien Robespierre in 1793, following the French revolution. Robespierre, one of twelve heads of the new state, had enemies of the revolution killed, and installed a dictatorship to stabilize the country. He justified his methods as necessary in the transformation of the monarchy to a liberal democracy: Subdue by terror the enemies of liberty, and you will be right, as founders of the Republic.

Robespierre's sentiment laid the foundations for modern terrorists, who believe violence will usher in a better system. For example, the 19th century Narodnaya Volya hoped to end Tsarist rule in Russia. But the characterization of terrorism as a state action faded, while the idea of terrorism as an attack against an existing political order became more prominent.

Learn more about whether states should be considered terrorists.

1950s: The Rise of Non-State Terrorism:

The rise of guerrilla tactics by non-state actors in the last half of the twentieth century was due to several factors. These included the flowering of ethnic nationalism (e.g. Irish, Basque, Zionist), anti-colonial sentiments in the vast British, French and other empires, and new ideologies such as communism.

Terrorist groups with a nationalist agenda have formed in every part of the world. For example, the Irish Republican Army grew from the quest by Irish Catholics to form an independent republic, rather than being part of Great Britain.

1970s: Terrorism Turns International:

International terrorism became a prominent issue in the late 1960s, when hijacking became a favored tactic. In 1968, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine hijacked an an El Al Flight. Twenty years later, the bombing of a Pan Am flight over Lockerbie, Scotland, shocked the world.

The events at the 1972 Munich Olympics were politically motivated. Black September,a Palestinian group, kidnapped and killed Israeli athletes preparing to compete. Black September's political goal was negotiating the release of Palestinian prisoners. They used spectacular tactics to bring international attention to their national cause.

Munich radically changed the United States' handling of terrorism: "The terms counterterrorism and international terrorism formally entered the Washington political lexicon," according to counterterrorism expert Timothy Naftali.

Terrorists also took advantage of the black market in Soviet-produced light weaponry, such as AK-47 assault rifles created in the wake of the Soviet Union's 1989 collapse. Most terrorist groups justified violence with a deep belief in the necessity and justice of their cause.

Terrorism in the United States also emerged. Groups such as the Weathermen grew out of the non-violent group Students for a Democratic Society. They turned to violent tactics, from rioting to setting off bombs, to protest the Vietnam War.

1990s: The Twenty First Century: Religious Terrorism and Beyond

Religiously motivated terrorism is considered the most alarming terrorist threat today. Groups that justify their violence on Islamic grounds- Al Qaeda,HYPERLINK "http://terrorism.about.com/od/groupsleader1/p/AlQaeda.htm" Hamas, Hezbollah-come to mind first. But Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and other religions have given rise to their own forms of militant extremism.

In the view of religion scholar Karen Armstrong this turn represents terrorists' departure from any real religious precepts. Muhammad Atta, the architect of the 9/11 attacks, and "the Egyptian hijacker who was driving the first plane, was a near alcoholic and was drinking vodka before he boarded the aircraft." Alcohol would be strictly off limits for a highly observant Muslim.

Atta, and perhaps many others, are not simply orthodox believers turned violent, but rather violent extremists who manipulate religious concepts for their own purposes

2.2 Homeland Security Advisory System

The Homeland Security Advisory System is a mechanism for disseminating information about the current risk of terrorist acts to federal, state, and local authorities and, through them and the media and to the public. The system provides graduated warnings-called threat conditions- that mandate increasing security measures as the risk of an act of terrorism increases. Each threat condition triggers a corresponding set of protective measures by federal departments and agencies to reduce vulnerability and increase response capability, including situation reports and, as appropriate, recommendations to states and local governments. You will be informed by local officials if you need to take specific actions where you live and work.

Threat Conditions Under the Homeland Security Advisory System:

Low (green): low risk of terrorist attacks

Guarded (blue): general risk of terrorist attacks

Elevated (yellow): significant risk of terrorist attacks

High (orange): high risk of terrorist attacks

Severe (red): severe risk of terrorist attacks

2.3: TYPES OF TERRORISM

Researchers in the United States began to distinguish different types of terrorism in the 1970s, following a decade in which both domestic and international groups flourished. By that point, modern groups had began to use techniques such as hijacking, bombing, diplomatic kidnapping and assassination to assert their demands and, for the first time, they appeared as real threats to Western democracies, in the view of politicians, law makers, law enforcement and researchers. They began to distinguish different types of terrorism as part of the larger effort to understand how to counter and deter it.

Bioterrorism

Bioterrorism refers to the intentional release of toxic biological agents to harm and terrorize civilians, in the name of a political or other cause. The U.S. Center for Disease Control has classified the viruses, bacteria and toxins that could be used in an attack. Category A Biological Diseases are those most likely to do the most damage. They include:

Anthrax

Botulism

The Plague

Smallpox

Tularemia

Hemorrahagic fever, due to Ebola Virus or Marburg Virus

Cyber Terrorism

Cyber terrorists use information technology to attack civilians and draw attention to their cause. This may mean that they use information technology, such as computer systems or telecommunications, as a tool to orchestrate a traditional attack. More often, cyber terrorism refers to an attack on information technology itself in a way that would radically disrupt networked services. For example, cyber terrorists could disable networked emergency systems or hack into networks housing critical financial information.

Eco Terrorism

Eco terrorism is a recently coined term describing violence in the interests of environmentalism. In general, environmental extremists sabotage property to inflict economic damage on industries or actors they see as harming animals or the natural environment. These have included fur companies, logging companies and animal research laboratories

Nuclear Terrorism

"Nuclear terrorism" refers to a number of different ways nuclear materials might be exploited as a terrorist tactic. These include attacking nuclear facilities, purchasing nuclear weapons, or building nuclear weapons or otherwise finding ways to disperse radioactive materials.

Nacro Terrorism

Narco terrorism has had several meanings since its coining in 1983. It once denoted violence used by drug traffickers to influence governments or prevent government efforts to stop the drug trade. In the last several years, narco terrorism has been used to indicate situations in which terrorist groups use drug trafficking to fund their other operations.

Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD)

Terrorists' use of an RDD-often called "dirty nuke" or "dirty bomb"-is considered far more likely than their use of a nuclear explosive device. An RDD combines a conventional explosive device-such as a bomb-with radioactive material. It is designed to scatter dangerous and sub-lethal amounts of radioactive material over a general area, but no nuclear explosion is

Involved. RDDs appeal to terrorists because they require limited technical knowledge to build

and deploy compared with a nuclear device. Also, the radioactive materials in RDDs are widely

used in medicine, agriculture, industry, and research and are easier to obtain than weaponsgrade

uranium or plutonium.

The primary purpose of terrorists' use of an RDD would be to cause psychological fear and economic disruption. Some devices could cause fatalities from exposure to radioactive

materials. Depending on the speed at which the area of the RDD detonation was evacuated or

how successful people were at sheltering-in-place against radiation, the number of deaths and

injuries from an RDD might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb

explosion.

The size of the affected area and the level of destruction caused by an RDD would depend on the sophistication and size of the conventional bomb, the type of radioactive material used, the quality and quantity of the radioactive material, and the local meteorological conditions, primarily wind and precipitation. The area affected could be placed off-limits to the public for several months during cleanup efforts.

2.4 TERRORISM HAPPENED BEFORE

Approximately 11,000 terrorist attacks occurred in 83 countries during 2009, resulting in over 58,000 victims, including nearly 15,000 fatalities. Attacks decreased by about six percent in 2009 and deaths by about 5 percent. This marks the second consecutive year for declines of both attacks and fatalities. Unlike the preceding four years where the Near East witnessed the greatest number of attacks, the largest number of reported terrorist attacks in 2009 occurred in South Asia, which also had, for the second consecutive year, the greatest number of fatalities. Together, South Asia and the Near East were the locations for almost two-thirds of the 234 high-casualty attacks

Of the 10,999 reported attacks, about 4,850, or 44 percent, occurred in South Asia. These attacks accounted for approximately 6,270 fatalities, or 42 percent of the worldwide total in 2009. Attacks in Afghanistan nearly doubled from 2008 and increased in Pakistan for the third consecutive year

Another 30 percent of the attacks occurred in the Near East with attacks in Iraq accounting for three-fourths of these incidents. Compared with 2008, attacks in Iraq declined by nearly one-quarter, continuing an ongoing decline since August of 2007. Since 2005, Iraq continues to be the country with the most attacks and fatalities due to terrorism

Almost 700 of the 850 reported attacks in Africa were associated with turmoil in the Somalia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Compared with 2008, attacks in Africa rose by 140 (19 percent) and fatalities increased by over 250 (8 percent).

The number of reported attacks in 2009 increased in the Western Hemisphere by about 27 percent, mostly attributable to increases in Colombia; in East Asia and the Pacific the number of reported attacks declined by 16 percent, mostly attributable to declines in the Philippines

Islamic extremists conducted several attacks in the United States, including two that resulted in fatalities. These attacks represent the most significant activity by such extremists in the United States since 2001.

On October 25, 2009, al-Qa'ida in Iraq killed 155 people including 24 children, and wounded 720 in a double suicide VBIED attack in Baghdad, Iraq

On December 8, 2009, al-Qa'ida in Iraq killed 127 people including 12 students, and wounded 513 others in multiple suicide VBIED attack in Baghdad, Iraq

On October 28, 2009, Sunni extremists killed 117 people and injured 200 others in a VBIED attack in Peshawar, North-West Frontier, Pakistan

On August 19, 2009, al-Qa'ida in Iraq killed 101 people and wounded 1,200 others in a coordinated SVBIED and VBIED attack in Baghdad, Iraq

On May 10, 2009, Sunni extremists killed 88 people and wounded 245 others including several journalists in mortar attacks in Mogadishu, Banaadir, Somalia

Sunni extremists were identified with about one-half of all attacks in 2009. Almost 90 groups were associated with these attacks. According to open source reports, the Taliban claimed credit for the largest number of attacks causing the highest number of fatalities. Al-Shabaab was the second deadliest group, followed by al-Qa'ida in Iraq as the third deadliest group. Most attacks in 2009 were perpetrated by terrorists applying conventional fighting methods such as armed attacks, bombings, and kidnappings. Drawing on the lessons learned from the Mumbai attack in 2008, Sunni extremist elements used suicidal militia style attacks in numerous large scale attacks in 2009. Terrorists continued their practice of coordinated attacks that included secondary attacks on first responders at attack sites; they also continued to reconfigure weapons and other materials to create improvised explosive devices, and used women and children to evade security counter-measures

Figure 2.4.1 Deaths By Method

Source: The National Counterterrorism Center

Figure 2.4.2 No of deaths by country

Source: The National Counterterrorism Center

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Design:

The research design used is questionnaire which is to be asked to the managers who are working in the IT companies in Bangalore. The sample size was random

Limitation and problems faced:

During the survey there were lots of problems faced due to the security issues where we were not allowed to meet the manager without their prior appointments. Most of the managers refused the survey as they were not interested and also since they were not involved in the department in which i was targeting.

Purpose Of The Study

The main purpose of this study is to analysis the impact of cyber terrorism in the IT sectors (Bangalore) and safety measures taken by them to avoid cyber terrorism.

CHAPTER-4

CASESTUDY

INTRODUCTION

Cyber terrorism can be defined as the planned accomplishment of goals that are commonly related to affairs of the state or policy makers that are undertaken to cause damage that may range from data corruption to even death and sabotage of the financial and physical aspects of target organizations..Cyber terrorist prefer using the cyber attack methods because of many advantages for it.

It is Cheaper than traditional methods.

The action is very difficult to be tracked.

They can hide their personalities and location.

There are no physical barriers or check points to cross.

They can do it remotely from anywhere in the world.

They can use this method to attack a big number of targets.

4.2 Cyber Attacks so far

The overall sophistication of cyber attacks has been steadily increasing. There are several types of cyber vulnerabilities and attacks which has happened before. The attacks like worms, distributed denial of service (DDoS), unauthorized instrusions, Web defacements and semantic attacks, Domain Name Service (DNS) attacks, and routing vulnerabilities.

Worms

Worms and viruses are malicious, autonomous computer programs. Most modern viruses are in fact worms. The worm epidemic is enabled by buffer overflows in which more data is put into the buffer (computer data holding area) than the buffer has allocated. This results in a mistmatch between the producing and consuming processes. Therefore, resulting in system crashes or the creation of back doors leading to unauthorized access. Examples of worms include Code Red, Code Red II and Nimda.

Eg: A computer virus dubbed the "Love Bug" forced email servers to shut down in Europe and the US. The new virus originates in an email entitled "I love you." Once the attachment is launched, the virus sends copies of the same email to everybody listed in the user's address book. The Melissa virus operated similarly, infecting about a million computers, clogging whole networks in the Western Hemisphere, and causing $80 million in damage.

Nimda, which contained five different malicious payloads, infected all 32-bit Windows systems it encountered, including Windows 98, 2000, Millennium Edition, XP and NT. It scanned systems for as many as 100 different vulnerabilities and automatically exploited them when found. Within 30 minutes of being discovered, Nimda had become a global problem.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks

DDoS attacks employ armies of unsecure servers compromised by a hacker who places software on it. When triggered, an overwhelming number of requests towards an attacked web site will be launched, generally in coordination with other unsecure servers.

On February 2000, some of the Internet's most reliable sites were rendered nearly unreachable by DDoS attacks. Yahoo took the first hit on February 7, 2000. In the next few days, Buy.com, eBay, CNN, Amazon.com, ZDNet.com, E*Trade, and Excite were taken down by DDoS attacks. Though damage estimates vary widely, the FBI estimates that the companies suffered $1.7 billion in lost business and other damages.

Some attacks aim to crash the system while other DDoS attacks make the targeted system so busy that it cannot handle its normal workload. The attacks on Yahoo and the other companies were DDoS attacks, where one attacker can control tens or even hundreds of servers. After installing the DDoS script on several computers, a coordinated attack can be orchestrated from a remote location.

On April 18, 2000, a juvenile in Canada, known online as "MafiaBoy," was arrested and charged in connection with the February DDoS attacks. Prosecutors alleged he broke into several computers, mostly at US universities, and used them to launch the attack against the web sites. MafiaBoy gained illegal access to 75 computers in 52 different networks and planted a DDoS tool on them which he then activated and used to attack 11 Internet sites by sending up to 10,700 phony information requests in 10 seconds.

.

Unauthorized Intrusions

These intrusions are of great concern to businesses and government. The theft of money, credit card numbers, proprietary information, or sensitive government information can have devastating consequences. In 2001, a series of actions originating in Russia, collectively known as Moonlight Maze, intruded into US government systems over a period of several years. The first attacks were detected in March 1998 and hundreds of unclassified networks in the Pentagon, Department of Energy, National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and other defense contractors were compromised. Cyber attackers can employ sophisticated attack tools and techniques to disrupt or compromise critical infrastructure systems in response to a US and allied military strike during the war on terrorism.

DNS (Domain Name Service)

Computers connected to the Internet use numerical Internet Protocol (IP) addresses to communicate with one another. Domain Name Service (DNS) are the information pages that computers consult in order to obtain the mapping between the name of a system (or website) and the IP address of that system. If the DNS server provides an incorrect IP address for a website, the user would connect to the incorrect server. The result will be that the user thinks he is connected to the correct server when in reality he is connected to the attacker's server. An attacker can disseminate false information or deprive the original web site of its righteous traffic. The system of DNS is hierarchical. Therefore, the cascading effect on remote servers would result in traffic to selected sites to be redirected or lost. The potential for an attack on the root DNS servers increases during the war on terrorism.

Routing Vulnerabilities

Routers are the air traffic controllers of the Internet. They ensure that the information, in the form of packets, gets from the source to the destination. Although routing operations have not been the main cause of deliberate disruption, the lack of diversity in router operating systems leaves open the possibility of a massive routing attack. Currently, most sold routers are Cisco routers. If an attacker can find a common vulnerability in the Cisco hardware, an attack on routing operations would bring the Internet to a halt. It is very important for Internet backbone operators to follow standards or regulation for maintaining security on routers.

The graphic below shows that amateur hackers are by far the biggest threat on the Internet at the current time. They are responsible for about 90% of all hacking activity.

Figure 4.2.1

According to a source in Great Britain, terrorists have gained at least up to 400 million pounds from 1993 to 1995 by threatening institutions. Over the three years, there were 40 reported threats made to banks in the U.S. and Britain. In January of 1993, three separate incidents took place in London. During the sixth, a brokerage house paid out 10 million pounds after receiving a threat and one of their machines crashed. On the fourteenth incident, a blue-chip bank paid blackmailers 12.5 million pounds after receiving threats. Another brokerage house paid out 10 million pounds on the twenty-ninth incident. Some terrorists just take money, rather than resorting to blackmail. A Russian hacker, for example, tapped into Citibank's funds transfer system and took $10 million.

FINDINGS

According to the study done in the companies it is found that there is a high risk of cyber terrorist attack in Bangalore. Because of cyber terrorism most of the companies said that the following gets affected the most in their organization

Data and information

Telecommunication system

Security systems

It is also found that advancements in technologies like Bluetooth, mini pen drives, portable hard disk, palmtops etc where the data's of the companies can be taken away easily from the company system by the employees. The wireless internet which is provided in the company can also be a threat to the company if they are not protected properly where it can be misused to send emails and hack through their IP address. They also maintain software to avoid the attacking of viruses and other malware programmes. The companies have restricted this by setting up firewall for internet and separate user id and passwords for the employees so that they have a record of the persons who is using the computers in the company. There are also restrictions for the employees to approach the company confidential files and data's. Since internet plays a major role, there are certain links that a employees cannot access through the companies and cookies are also blocked by the companies.

The companies do agree that their employee have interaction with the terrorist. The company screens the employee well before they hire them. Special training and induction program are conducted by the companies for the employees regarding the awareness of the terrorism

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