The Causes Of Juvenile Delinquency Criminology Essay

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Examine the causes of juvenile delinquency and the best strategies and interventions designed to stop juvenile delinquency. At a minimum, paper should include the following:

1.A detailed history of juvenile justice and varying approaches to its prevention.

The history of the juvenile justice system was formed in the late 1800s to change the US polices with regards to youth offenders. Initially, child offenders above the age of seven were treated and incarcerated like common offenders. Since then some of the objectives that have been set for the juvenile justice system have included the "rights of youth", creating a hate among the youth towards jail terms, and compliance with the "due process of law" has made the system harsh and in some cases inhuman. The earliest Reformatory Refuge was built in 1824 and was called the New York Hoses of Refuge. It was only in 1899 and when the Progressive Era commenced in the US that individual states started setting up rehabilitating centers. There was a feeling during the progressive era starting 1901 that the justice system should take the responsibility to recover the lives of young offenders before they were sucked into criminal activities. The parenting responsibility was that of the state so that the children got an opportunity to recover. In the year 1967 mot of the cases of juvenile delinquency were tried in juvenile courts. Persons under the age of 18 were tried in juvenile courts. The approach was to use civil proceedings rather than criminal proceedings. However, in 1967 it was held by the Supreme Court that it was necessary for the juvenile courts to use the due process of law (Zigler, Edward. 1994)".

The approach after the decision was to encourage the states to develop plans that would discourage juvenile delinquency. In this context The juvenile delinquency Prevention and Control Act 1968 was passed. To strengthen this movement, the Office of juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention, The Runaway Youth Program, and The National Institute for Juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention was established. The law was The juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention Act 1974. However, the movement received a setback when there was an increase in juvenile crimes during 1980s and 1990s. The 1974 Act was amended to allow states to try juveniles as adults. In 1990s however, there was high publicity of juvenile crimes and the approach towards juvenile delinquency changed (Welsh, Brandon C., and David P. Farrington. 2007).

2.An exhaustive examination of all stakeholders to juvenile delinquency.

The first stakeholder is the youth that commits crime. He has all the rights that are promised to adults under the constitution. It is necessary to understand that legally a youth should have more rights than an adult has. The same justice system cannot be used for youths. The other stakeholders are the parents. The parents have the primary responsibility for ensuring that their wards do not commit crimes. The other stakeholders are the government state, Fed, and local, that has the dual responsibility of protecting the community as well as rehabilitating the juvenile. The other stakeholders are the community. It is because of the demands made by the community that stronger action is contemplated against juvenile offenders as a deterrent. The perspective of the community is that it has the right to safe and secure community. The community must be safe and secure from crimes committed by the youth(Zigler, Edward, and Cara Taussig. 1992)"  

3.A complete description of the issues addressed.

The issues involved are if juvenile should be treated like adults if they commit crimes that are normally committed by adults. Is it fair? Some are status crimes like truancy. How can these be stopped? To what extent can the parents be held responsible for supervision of children? What local agencies are available to the parent if she cannot by herself control the child? The issues are if child drug abuse can be stopped. On the other hand the existence of after-school recreational activities, or sport can reduce juvenile delinquency by a great extent. On the other hand if peer pressure is applied by juvenile delinquency, the parent needs to be alert to such problems and must seek intervention (Welsh, Brandon C., and David P. Farrington. 2007).

4. A detailed analysis of possible strategies and interventions designed to stop juvenile delinquency.

Parental guidance and good home life are the best overall approach to stop juvenile delinquency.

In this context the strategies and interventions proposed are:

There are three strategies and interventions that are suggested that would stop juvenile delinquency:

1. Every minor offense including truancy should be treated quickly and seriously by the parents and school attendance should be given the greatest importance.

2. The parents should use the three point strategy of supervision, prevention of drugs and introduce activities to the children.

3. If there is any doubt an advocacy group should be contacted at the earliest (Koffman, Stephen, et al. 2003)".

5.A comprehensive list and weighing of alternatives, both pro and con, to the strategies/interventions proposed.

1. The alternative that "Every minor offense including truancy should be treated quickly and seriously by the parents and school attendance should be given the greatest importance": has the pro that juvenile delinquency can be stopped at the incipient stage and school can play an important part in preventing juvenile delinquency. The con is that often parents are not aware of truancy and come to know of it when it is too late.

2. The alternative that "The parents should use the three point strategy of supervision, prevention of drugs and introduce activities to the children" had the pro that its implementation can surely stop juvenile delinquency. In addition, it is a multi-pronged strategy that has worked well. further, it contributes to the holistic development of children. The cons are that parents that hold jobs which make it difficult to supervise cannot implement this strategy. Second con is that in case of several parents some training is required to implement this strategy.

3. The alternative of "If there is any doubt an advocacy group should be contacted at the earliest" has the pro that advocacy group can provide expert guidance to the parents. Further, the advocacy group can devise strategies for particular youth. The con is that in most cases the advocacy group is contacted after serious crimes are committed or the case becomes difficult. for instance advocacy groups are contacted after the child is addicted to drugs.

6.A prediction for how juvenile justice prevention and intervention strategies will be handled over at least the next two decades. (64)

Over the next two decades the preschool system will be so strengthened that juvenile delinquency will be reduced if not prevented. In addition, there will be compulsory training for parents that will ensure good support for parents. further, there will be greater support and practical advise for adults. A move that is designed to improve family life and avoid divorces; A strong family unit will become the strongest method of keeping away juvenile delinquency.

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