Support For Victims Of People Trafficking Criminology Essay

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It was a huge step to recognize trafficked persons as victims of crime, rather than as criminals themselves

However , provision of social services and support remain ad hoc. Victim support and services fall primarily within provincial and territorial jurisdiction, but each jurisdiction has a different approach to service provision, which may or may not apply to trafficked persons.  As well, trafficked persons generally receive front-line support from NGOs that do not necessarily receive direct funding from the federal government.  Agencies have noted that the biggest obstacle to service provision at the grassroots level is financial. Certainly, illegal immigrants or those on temporary visas do not generally have access to provincial welfare.

Canada Health Act states that an individual must meet certain residency requirements to be eligible for provincial health insurance, thus effectively excluding illegal immigrants and others with only short-term immigration status.  Generally, a trafficked person who entered Canada surreptitiously would most often be considered ineligible for coverage.  It must be noted that Health Canada does offer limited support for undocumented migrants to gain access to health clinics, and has funded some small-scale projects providing services to trafficked women - particularly those in sex trade.(

Territo ,L & Kirkham, G (2009) International Sex Trafficking of Women & Children. Understanding the global epidemic.

Info from Lidia

Became an offence in June 2002

prohibits anyone from receiving a financial or other material benefit for the purpose of committing or facilitating the exploitation of that person (maximum penalty: 10 years);

prohibits anyone from recruiting, transporting, transferring, receiving, holding, concealing or harbouring a person, or exercising control or influence over the movements of a person, for the purpose of exploiting or facilitating the exploitation of that person (maximum penalty: life where it involves the kidnaping, aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault, or death of the victim and 14 years in any other case);

prohibits the withholding or destruction of documents, such as a victim's travel documents or documents establishing their identity, for the purpose of committing or facilitating the exploitation of that person (maximum penalty: 5 years).

defines exploitation as causing a person to provide, or offer to provide, labour or services by engaging in conduct that leads the victim to reasonably fear for their safety or that of someone known to them, if they fail to comply. It would apply to the use of force, deception or other forms of coercion causing the removal of a human organ or tissue.

Also (RCMP) provides human trafficking-specific training to immigration, law and police officers and to improve victim identification. There is a plan for telephone numbers where specialized

RCMP officers will be available 24/7 to provide direct assistance to law enforcement agencies on questions about human trafficking. In May 2006, the immigration and passport program developed Canada's first Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre to address national and international components of human trafficking investigations. At the same time, the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (CIC) introduced guidelines to assist immigration officers in issuing short-term temporary resident permits to trafficking victims for a period of up to 120 days with an option for obtaining long-term residence visas conditional on the willingness to testify against traffickers (Citizenship and Immigration Canada, 2006)

With increased economic globalization, trafficking in women from poor to wealthier countries appears to be on the rise. Seeking economic opportunities abroad, women turn to a variety of resources, including newspaper ads, acquaintances, marriage agencies, labor recruiters, and modeling agencies. They accept positions as nannies, maids, sex workers, dancers, factory workers, and hostesses. Many of these migrants end up as victims of illegal trafficking networks.From a socio-economic perspective, the causes of women trafficking and female migration are commonly divided into two areas: 'push' (or supply) factors that intensify the vulnerability of disadvantaged or marginalized social groups to trafficking), and 'pull' (or demand) factors which create the demand for women in particular forms of 'labor'.

Gender: Gender is a factor that affects risk and vulnerability, and increases exposure to exploitation. Although men are also trafficked, women are clearly more vulnerable. The gendered nature of the labor market places many women in unregulated, and informal sectors of work such as domestic work, prostitution, and the invisible sector of marriage.

Poverty: Studies have repeatedly shown that low socio-economic conditions are associated with poor health indicators and risktaking behaviors. Women who are trafficked represent the sum of the effects of poverty, both in their health and well-being and in their decisions about and means of migration.

Lack of education: As a result of the interplay of poverty and cultural factors, girls are often prevented from enjoying the right to an equal education. If there is little money for education, it is more likely to go towards the education of a male child, who is seen as the future primary supporter of the family. Even if adequate funds are available, many societies still resist the education of girls, deeming it unnecessary or even detrimental to the existing status quo. Women with limited education have fewer viable job skills and opportunities and are thus more prone to trafficking as they look to migrate for unskilled work.

Social injustice and inequity: Women's universal inequality in status, power and access to resources has left them more vulnerable to be trafficked.

Abuses of rights are often hidden or excused as being fundamental cultural or religious practices or as somehow 'natural'.

Women's abilities to migrate legally are significantly less than their male counterparts. Many migration policies favor only skilled labor or unskilled males for manual labor.

War and conflict: Conflict in many regions has resulted in vast numbers of internally displaced people and refugees. Women are often driven from home as the only income earner as men are killed or disabled by war.

It is common for women who have been trafficked to report a history of violence or abuse. For many, abuse by family members or authority figures not only affects their health and well-being, but is the driving force that propels them into the hands of traffickers.

Unstable eco-system: Migration has also increased with the growing prevalence of natural disaster, environmental degradation, and deforestation or from the increasing concentration of land in the hands of a few land-holders. Women in such situations are extremely vulnerable to being trafficked as they are often left homeless, without any financial support.


Demand for Cheap Labour: Women are targeted for trafficking in part due to the perception that they are 'by nature' more easily controlled and accepting of low wage work and hazardous conditions.

Commercialisation and the Sex Industry: Many governments in developing countries view prostitution as a necessary part of promoting tourism as a means to development.

A further cause of increased demand for women to be trafficked into the sex industry in particular areas is the presence of military forces, including UN peace-keepers, mining companies and aid workers.

While women may also be trafficked for domestic labor, forced marriage, sweatshop labor or begging, it is the sex industry that continues to be the primary destination for young women who are trafficked.

HIV/AIDS: The spread of HIV/AIDS, particularly in the developing world, has also led to an increase in the trafficking of women, as the demand has increased for younger women from rural areas. Myths such as "sex with a virgin cures AIDS" continue to pervade some communities.

A Low-risk, High-profit Trade: The trafficking of women is an increasingly lucrative trade that assures high profits for very little risk. Trafficking syndicates are frequently linked to other aspects of organized crime such as the trade in narcotics, extortion or loan-sharking. Such operatives are sophisticated in their communications and often operate in collusion with law enforcement officials.

Trade and Border Controls:] Increased border permeability due to increased trade and modern transportation have opened routes of human migration.

Poor Enforcement of International Treaties and Legal Protection for Trafficked Women: Weak international legal instruments and poor co-ordination of prevention efforts between countries and regions means that, even if the trafficker is caught, it is often only the woman who is prosecuted as an illegal immigrant. Women who have been trafficked often fail to seek help because of a well-founded distrust of police, lack of knowledge of the law and of their rights, a shortage of translators and cultural insensitivity within the judicial system.


Canadian forensic nurses (as a group of CNA) is working on their first position statement regarding human trafficking

Violations of women's human rights such as sexual and other forms of violence, unwanted pregnancies related to rape and trafficking expose them to sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS


ICN urged the United Nation (UN) to create the agency for women protect the right of the vulnerable group and address the root cause of women vulnerability as well as bring attention to the gender perspective on health including the significant disproportional prevalence of AIDS among women and girls. As a result, UN now in the process of establishing the new agency for women focusing on gender equality and women empowerment


Create awareness about the vital link between human rights and health and the harmful impact of human rights violations on health

Work with the media, human rights groups, lawyers' associations, women's associations and policy-makers to heighten awareness about the 'rights approach

Use specific examples of human rights violations to demonstrate their harmful consequences on health

Lobby for equity and universal access to comprehensive, cost-effective and affordable health care for all people

Nurses, united with other groups and services in society, must

be in the forefront to combat violence


A prerequisite for victim protection is the ability of immigration and law enforcement officials to recognize trafficked persons and the tell-tale signs of trafficking.  Currently in Canada, there is no formal process for the identification of trafficked persons. 

trafficked persons have varying experiences and needs, but that these needs generally include protection services, shelter (emergency shelter, assisted living) health services ,long-term counseling; and economic services (access to welfare, employment, access to education and skill development, language training . most of these services are offered at the provincial level in Canada, and accordingly exist at uneven levels across the country.  Agencies that provide assistance to trafficked persons include those that focus on issues of poverty, the needs of immigrants, and female victims of various types of abuse and violence.  Trafficked persons are referred to these agencies through settlement services, prison advocates, women's organizations and Aboriginal leaders.  However, lack of funding for such organizations remains a significant obstacle.

Individuals returning home can face a wide variety of emotional and physical obstacles, ranging threats from traffickers, to a mere repeat of the conditions of poverty that led to the initial need to leave.  Ensuring the safe return of trafficked persons must involve an organized mechanism to oversee return and reintegration, possibly through the involvement of an NGO or an international organization such as the International Organization for Migration.  Need for retraining programs in order to facilitate this process by providing trafficked persons with viable alternatives.  Such initiatives would go some way toward ensuring that the trafficking problem does not simply become a "revolving door" in which individuals again fall into the hands of traffickers or again seek a means of escaping oppressive conditions in the home community

Laura Barnett (2008) Trafficking in Persons. Staff of the Parliamentary Information and Research Service (PIRS) of the Library of Parliament . Law and Government Division

Revised 18 July 2008


This fact undermines the "principal of health" in Canada as it does not work toward the highest level of health as a main social goal and health sector in Canada doesn't show any action toward this issue (Alma Ata, 1978). It also undermines "principal of justice" as resources are not shared justly and victims of human trafficking are not able to attain their basic human right (access to health resources) in Canada. As such, due to the unbounded nature of nursing practice (principal of wholeness) nurses need to adapt a critical attitude toward this issue by advocating for this vulnerable group.

As discussed by Veljanoski & Stewart (2007), human trafficking constitutes the denial of the person's rights to autonomy, integrity, security and freedom of movement. In addition to the violation of their basic human rights, trafficking in women is also a health issue as it leads to many health outcomes of sex trafficking including physical violence, mental illness (psychological and substance abuse), violent and unsafe sex practices (HIV), brutal working and living conditions and lack of access to healthcare services

Healthcare services are not likely to be covered by the Canada Health Act as trafficked women should obtain permanent residence status to be eligible for provincial health insurance. (Veljanoski & Stewart 2007)



Yi's part

The economic globalization induces significant poverty and great burden of health issues in the developing countries

It also uplifts the level of environmental destroy.

Suggestions of Falk-Rafael (2006): care for humanity and socio-environment through promoting health worldwide; reform current global economy to battle poverty and to promote global health and global justice;

(Cont'd) relate economic globalization to global health; consciously contribute to global health through nursing sciences and caring perspectives to battle poverty.

Yi's part

Adopt critical caring perspective

Nurses need to adopt eco-centric perspective using upstream strategies, not only thinking in a broader view, but also acting from local points. Nurses might to start from their community that provided the basic concepts of women's rights to enable women fighting for their own human rights.

Participate the alternation of the global economic order

Nurses need to take action to deal with the socio-economic well-being problems. They might to start from fighting social exclusion or social isolation that eventually tackling the root cause - poverty.

Re-conceptualize international health to global health

Nurses need to use macroscopic approach to promote health in practice. They might start from working under the direction of ICN and CNA contributing efforts to intervene health determinants.

Extend social justice to global justice

Nurses need to endeavor in socio-environmental improvement. They might start from involving politicians and community leaders to promote human rights


1.- Inform as many people as possible how serious and how big this problem is. Encourage everyone take possible action to against women trafficking.

workshops for primary and secondary

school pupils, lectures, seminars for

university students

2.-- writer articles to newspapers and video, make posters in public place like TTC station, subway, bus. Park, community center Send leaflets, booklets and manuals to personal mail box; encompassing presentation of the problem of human trafficking to wider public

large- scale media campaigns by

media, video spots, radio jingles,

posters, leaflets, booklets and manuals

SOS Hotline and Victim assistance: poster sos hotline phone number every where with different language, let trafficked women know this is not a police hotline, it is a line offering assistance including consultations, and legal aids, medical help and any support.

ACTION: Become an Events Team Volunteer - tasks include; distributing fliers and general publicity work, helping out on the door at events, coordinating stalls and much more, depending on the type of event we're running at that time.

ACTION: Organise your own event - you could arrange a fund or awareness-raising event of your own which we will provide support for and/or speakers if required.

START FREEDOM - a campaign to inspire young people around the world to become advocates for trafficked people and help those at risk stay safe.

ACT - Active Communities against Trafficking campaign. Set up a group to research trafficking in our area and liaise with other concerned individuals, local authorities, media and NGOs.

Business Travellers Against Trafficking campaign. Learn how to identify and report suspected incidences of trafficking that you see as you travel.

Olympics 2012 campaign. Attend the STOP THE TRAFFIK Global Summit in 2011.

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