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Worrall finds that morals and reasoning training favorably alters the behavior of low-level offenders. Also, according to Worrall treatment programs focusing on anger management and life skills training are promising, whereas programs focused on improving victim awareness do not. Finally, Worrall (2008) concludes that treatment aimed at rehabilitation is more effective than prison or other harsh sanctions, particularly when it is combined with cognitive-behavioral therapies.
The Kampala declaration section 7 makes provision that prisoners should be given access to education and skills training in order to make it easier for them to reintegrate into society after their release. The UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (1977) makes provision in section 59 for the remedial, educational, moral and other forms of assistance which are appropriate and available to the individual treatment needs of prisoners. The UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (1977) section 65 and 66 (1) makes provision that a prisoner receive appropriate treatment so far as the length of the sentence permits and given programmes that will encourage their self respect and develop their sense of responsibility.
According to Shea (2012) a criminal rehabilitation expert, J. Diaz, who supervises the Criminon program within the prison, has personally observed the changes, with the inmates he worked regularly with and which others have termed amazing.
2.1 When a person lost his self-respect
The mission of Criminon (meaning "no crime") is simple if frightening to wipe out crime by eliminates the factors that produce criminal behaviour. The international headquarters of Criminon are in Los Angeles, their radical and successful program speak in terms of results. Shea stated that "Success story after success story from criminals rehabilitated by Criminon who do not return to crime substantiate these beliefs."
A criminal rehabilitation program with juvenile delinquents was launched by Mr. Hubbard in London, England in 1952. Rising from the worldwide Narconon drug rehabilitation program, Criminon operates within the corrections systems all over the United States to rehabilitate offenders by reinstate their sense of self-worth for them to become productive members of society.
2.2 "They now regret for their wrong doings"
According to Shea Criminon on-site programs for inmates in prisons are conducted by volunteers, while courses to prisoners by correspondence are administer by others.
On-site Criminon courses start with practical training in how to correspond. Thereafter, a course in learning how to learn followed, and continues with a course based on The Way to Happiness. Shea states that a person on the Criminon program soon find out he is the one in charge.
2.3 Addressing the Problems Which Led to Criminal Behaviour
Criminal behavior, those factors which can send a person back to prison again and again and individual's problems are addresses by Criminon. The Criminon program has a separate section of instruction for each problem area,.
Other courses in the Criminon programme include:
Learning Improvement, Conditions of Life. Criminon replaces unusable methods that have only aggravates the crime problem. In any given week, more than 1,700 inmates in over 550 prisons across the United States are register on Criminon correspondence courses. With the assistance of more than 220 volunteers who help them with their courses.
2.4 Changing Lives for the Better
Shea quoted Joan Lonstein who stated that "The Criminon program has moved the entire field of criminal justice into a kingdom where genuine rehabilitation is possible,"
Women, juveniles and others wherever the Criminon program is delivered also benefited from these programmes.
2.5 From sentence to release: Offender management
It is important to prepare inmates for their return to life in the community, if we want to avoid the risks of recidivism as most offenders serving a sentence in an institution will return. Therefore, the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has planned a whole series of measures and programs for offenders to return safely to their respective communities. When the offender is sentenced, a thorough intake assessment establish the offender's risk level and needs, and ensures that the initial placement of the offender is at a suitable security level. This determined the factors that drove the offender to commit the offence, the risk he poses and his needs in terms of correctional services. Information is used from police officers, victims, courts, , the offender's employer, his family members, and psychologists by the CSC..
For example, the offender's correctional plan will be designed to break the cycle of substance abuse. if he has a substance abuse problem, He can be to transfer to an institution with a lower security level if he has made prominent progress in his current institution. Therefore, most offenders will finish serving their sentence in minimum-security institutions, which offer them more freedom, smooth the progress of the change from custody to the community.
2.6 A day in the life of an inmate
The aspects of offender management as described above intended to give an understanding of the administrative process surrounding the life of an inmate in prison, from admission to discharge. A typical day inside a correctional institution are describe by Shea as follows:
Sometimes, that is the only idea about life in a correctional institution. For most inmates, their daily routine tends to follow a timetable that states the times for meals and for participation in various programs and recreational activities. On the other hand, the security level of the prison will have a major impact on the everyday life of the inmates. Therefore, it is important to know the uniqueness that define the various institutions and their impact on the routine of inmates.
Maximum-security institutions are noticeably the most restrictive. While, at medium-security institutions are fenced off, and the rules are less restraining. Daily life does not differ much like that in maximum-security institutions: Similarly, inmates also participate in programs, work or study. Lastly, minimum-security institutions play a very vital role in the process for returning offenders to the community. In these institutions inmates live in living units in groups of seven or eight. On the other hand, in minimum-security institutions, inmates enjoy extensive freedom in their daily lives. When inmates meet a certain criteria, they can have access to special units in a correctional facility where they can spend time with their family.
2.7 SELECT COMMITTEE ON HOME AFFAIRS FIRST REPORT
The Halliday report (2001) argues that there is no prison rehabilitation command that is specifically planned to meet the needs of short-term prisoners.
In the United Kingdom short-term prisoners are defined as prisoners with a sentence of less than 12 months in prison. Short-term prisoners have higher reconviction rates than other offenders. The Halliday Report acknowledged that many short-term prisoners are constant offenders and commit the majority of crimes that impose upon the community.
Short-term prisoners make up one of the biggest challenges to a prison rehabilitation approach. The Social Exclusion Unit report in 2002 found that the "majority of prisoners, receive little practical support, before release or afterwards, particularly those serving short-term sentences ".
The Halliday Report gives an example of good practice in relation to the rehabilitation of short-term prisoners which is offered by the Kent and Medway Short-term Prisoner Project. These measures can have an important impact on reducing the number of prisoners who serve a short prison term with no controlled post-release.
However, the report is critical of the breakdown to include in the Government's National Action Plan approach for the short to medium term to develop the prison rehabilitation regime for short-term prisoners. In addition, it is not apparent how many prisoners will continue to serve relatively short-term sentences even after the introduction of Custody Plus.
The Kent and Medway Short-Term Prisoner Project offer evidence that a customized rehabilitative rule for short term prisoners which directly challenges their re-offending motivators and addresses the particular risks and needs of this productive and constant group of re-offenders can positively impact on re-offending rates. Short-term prison sentences must not be seen as individual episodes of an offender which go to prison and being released, rather start seeing the majority of short term offenders as prisoners who come back time and again and are, , serving a long sentence episodically.
The authors recommend that the Prison Service should initiate a properly structured approach to the treatment of short-term offenders and designed special intensive courses in basic education and drug treatment which can be completed by short-term prisoners whilst in custody. In addition, short-term prisoners should have the opportunity to start long-term education, vocational and treatment programmes while in prison which can directly linked with programmes available in their local community for them to continue after release. Considerable research reports supports the Kent and Medway Short Term Prison Project evaluation's finding that supervision of ex-prisoners after release makes their adjusting back into society easier.
2.8 'Warehouse' prisons falling short of Kenneth Clarke's rehabilitation pledge
According to Travis (2012) prisons and probation chief inspectors argues that jails still failing to tackle well-established attitudes of sex offenders and other criminals. Chief inspector of prisons Nick Hardwick says management of offenders within jails is 'too poor in too many places'
According to a joint report by the chief inspectors of prisons and probation a significant total of prisoners in England and Wales are being "warehoused" without any significant work being done to confront their criminal behaviour.
Hardwick, further stated that it was "particularly worrying" and a major failure that a third of imprisoned sex offenders could not get sex offender treatment courses, and that many of those who did, are not successful.
It was found that sex offenders are being released without sufficient interference to reduce the risk of reoffending. One recent prison inspection report on Maidstone jail, in Kent, which is a regional center for the treatment of convicted sex offenders, revealed that there were only 36 places available on one course, with a waiting list of 92 prisoners at the time of the inspection.
Liz Calderbank, chief inspector of probation states that "a period of incarceration offers an opportunity to tackle a prisoner's entrenched behaviour and attitudes, and moreover to observe and capture on a day-to-day basis whether the necessary changes are taking place prior to release". The report indicates that in 148 of 220 cases, the prisoners had been assessed as needing to go on an qualified offender management programme, but in a quarter of the cases there was no plan for this. Reviews of sentence plans were assume in fewer than half the cases.
In addition the report found that too often, sentence plans were based on the interference available in the prison, rather than what was required in the individual prisoner's case. It may be a decent warehouse, but it is a warehouse nonetheless." Michael Spurr, chief executive officer for the national offender management service, said: "Despite a challenging operating environment reoffending has been reduced by five percentage points since 2000. This reflects much better case management both in prison and the community. We are targeting resources to reduce risk to the public. More than 1,000 sex offenders completed programmes in custody last year and we will continue to priorities work on the basis of risk.
3. ACTUAL "PROGRAMMES" FOR SHORT TERM OFFENDERS AT WALVISBAY PRISON.
The programmes available at Walvis Bay Prison are Literacy Programmes, bible studies, Secondary education, daily allocation of work to external stake holders, HIV/AIDS-, violence prevention -, anger management -, substance prevention - and life skills programmes (Platt, 2013).
Description of programmes
The literacy programmes are offered by the education officer at Walvis Bay Prison and are aimed at prisoners who are illiterate. This programme is based on the National literacy programme of the Ministry of education. Not all illiterate inmates are willing to attend as some stated they are ashamed for their literacy level. The education officer will advise inmates who are released to continue with the programme and provide them with addresses of literacy officer at their Constituencies (Jahanika, 2013).
Bible studies are conducted by non Governmental Organisation and churches inside the Prison to all inmates on a scheduled time. The Prison Regulation section 234 makes provision for an inmate to receive bibles, religious literature and be visit by a minister of his denomination.
Secondary education is provided by the Ministry of education whereby offenders register for Grade's 10 and 12 on distance. The examinations are written in Prison and supervise by members of the NCS who is registered with the Ministry of Education as vacillators.
HIV/Aids programmes are provided by the Ministry of Health and delivered by the nurses of the State and Prison hospital as well as aids councilors. In this programme basic information of HIV/Aids are provided to all inmates.
Prisoners are allocated to different Ministries to perform ordinary work. This is to teach them job skills and responsibility.
In the violence prevention programme officer teach inmates what is domestic violence, the different forms of domestic violence different steps men can do to stop violence against women,
In the anger management programme inmates are given tips on how to handle an aggressive person, the warning signs before a violent outburst occurs, the different types of anger, what cause anger and the consequences of anger.
The substance prevention programme focus on drugs and alcohol, distinguish between a social drinker and an alcoholic, the causes of alcohol and how to prevent alcohol abuse.
The life skills programmes are divided into thirteen sessions and includes self concept, how to improve your self concept, stress management, prevention of stress, God's plan for parents, based on the teaching principles of proverb 22:5, problem solving, the POWER model, develop better relationships, life at the cross roads, plan your life, importance of education and employment, a programme about crime which includes the origin of crime and does crime pays?
All programmes are supportive programmes and the sessions are dived on a schedule and groups are maximum thirteen. This programmes are attended on a voluntarily basis by all sentenced inmates. Attendance of inmates are good as it is a requirement by the National Release board that inmates attend a programme at least six months before release.
4. "PROGRAMMES" AVAILABLE FOR SHORT TERM INMATES INTERNATIONALLY
The programmes available Internationally and presented by Criminon are drug education, Personal Integrity Course, The Way to Happiness Course, Literacy Programs , Life skills course, anger management, Parenting Skills and Communication Skills Course. (Criminon, 2012).
Criminon (which means "no crime") is an international non-profit public benefit corporation devoted to addressing the causes of criminality and restoring the criminal's self-respect through successful drug treatment, education and life skills programs. By making them responsible for their actions, people under the Criminal Justice system can become ethical and productive citizens.
Criminon make use of the research discoveries made by American author and humanitarian L. Ron Hubbard. Mr. Hubbard discovered that every criminal career began with a loss of self-respect. When man could no longer trust himself, only then did he become a real threat to society. (Criminon, 2012).
As early as 1952, Mr. Hubbard began a criminal rehabilitation program with juvenile delinquents in London, England. Thereafter, the Criminon program was born after two decades of research developments,
4.1 Description of programmes
In the United States, well over half of all crimes are linked to drug use or are committed while the person is under the influence of drugs. The treatment of drug addiction and education which serves to keep someone from using drugs both goes a long way in handling the evils of crime.
The drug education course teaches the student precisely what drugs are and the effects they have on the body and brain. It also clarify how and why one becomes addicted to drugs in the first place and then details an precise treatment which involves the use of vitamins and exercise for freeing a person from the hold of dependence, and all without medical substitutes.
Personal Integrity Course
Ethics, Honesty & How One Can Correct Past Harmful Actions
The loss of honesty and self-respect are real factors when considering an individual's fall into crime and unethical behavior. The revival of both is the main concern of this course.
The courses starts with basic principles and conclude with exact steps how the student can help him or another recover personal integrity through the inspection of past damaging actions and then taking responsibility for them. The inmate must find out for himself what he did wrong and what should have been done as an option.
The course also shows the inmate why maintaining honesty in the future is a central factor in one's own strength and happiness, and exactly how this can be done on a practical level. Eventually, it is the recovery of his own self-trust which makes his rehabilitation practical, and that is exactly what this course conveys.
The Way to Happiness Course
Restoring the Individual's Self-Respect
The Way to Happiness course is perhaps the greatest tool in reforming criminals and in preventing criminal activity from beginning in the first place.
The Way to Happiness is a non-religious, common-sense moral code consisting of 21 principles. Each principal deals with a specific area or activity of life, and explains why following such a code of conduct will actually lead to a better life. It is in fact this understanding which helps the individual appreciate why ethical behavior is the way to lead a happier and more creative life. If this is understood, they change their behavior themselves.
Each principal on the course is studied to a full understanding, and is followed by lessons and practical exercises and assignments which aggressively demonstrate how these are used and apply in life. Inmates on the course also put the principle to use in their own lives as a major final practical assignment, and in fact get to see their workability for themselves.
In effect, this course displaces the "criminal code of conduct" by teaching a common-sense moral code that anyone can use to live a life of stability and productivity, where they can be safe and happy, and most importantly get back and maintain their self-respect.
It is no secrecy that the level of literacy has a lot to do with crime and there are several reasons for it, the most obvious being that a person who can't read well will have trouble finding and holding a job. A less obvious reason is that people who can't read are cut off from a lot of information that would give them a viewpoint on life and tools to understand and tackle the somewhat complex business of life.
Illiteracy is also a factor in an individual's sense of pride and self-respect. The material has been developed by educators, based on the discoveries L. Ron Hubbard has made about learning and study. The training is done one on one by trained tutors.
Within a few weeks, a person can be brought up from illiteracy to an 8th grade reading level, at which point he would then be able to study the rest of the Criminon courses.
Through Criminon's literacy and learning programs, not only is an individual increased in his reading and literacy level, he is also taught the techniques of how to study. He is then equipped to study any subject and fully apply the data for the rest of his life.
Life skills course
How to evaluate & Improve One's Performance in Life
Inmates often lack the ability to know just how far they have walk from suitable conduct, much less legal behaviour, and even then do not possess the knowledge or know-how to correct the problem and regain good standing.
This course deals honestly with the various states, or conditions, one can be in, in any area of his life. This course also gives the student the ability necessary to correctly evaluate how well or how poorly he is doing in that area of his life, and teaches the exact steps one must do in order to improve his condition.
Successes often demonstrate how the course has assist offenders see their way out of their poor condition in regards to society, and those they may have harmed, and also how this knowledge can be put to use in a friendship, in a family, on the job, or just with him.
How to Handle the Negative Influences in Life
There is some truth in judging someone by the group they keep. It can easily be seen that those around us do influence our attitudes and behaviour, for better or worse. And it does not surprise many to learn that criminals often group with criminals and they promote anti-social activities and influence others to continue such immoral and illegal conduct.
This section of the Program deals with establishing the skill to plan one's own course in life, with honesty and integrity, and to spot and disassociate from those essentials which would tend to lead one off course.
The course teaches the students the characteristics of both anti-social personalities and social personalities, so that they may recognize both and know the differences between the two. That way, they can choose their friends and associates, and become more aware of their own attitudes and be made less vulnerable to those who would have them relapse to crime.
Parenting Skills & the Raising & Care of Children
Our parents learned from their parents and most likely taught us those same lessons. Regrettably, lessons which seem to endorse bad behaviour or even illegal behavior are also learned in the same manner.
This course offers some real help on how to raise children so that they can learn the worth of honesty, what it is to be a productive and respected member of society, as well as how to live a life with happiness and love. The exercises and drills also help the student with how to speak with children, and even how to teach and pass on the principles of The Way to Happiness, so the child may use them on his or her own.
Communication Skills Course
How often has a failure in communication quickly breakdown relations or been the cause of violence? This course answers the question, if it is possible for someone to handle any situation in life with communication alone? Gladly, the answer is a resounding yes.
This section of the Program breaks down the subject of communication into all of its parts, and systematically trains the student on each element before going on to the next, through a series of drills which increase the student's ability to confront people and communicate clearly and competently.
The student is also taught to identify where communication has broken down in the past and why, so that he can correct it in the present. And more importantly, he learns how to remain calm in the face of unfriendliness or difficulty, maintaining self-control and handling the situation with communication alone and without violence.
Students of the course report not only feeling more calm, more able to tolerate others, they also say how much they simply enjoy actually speaking with people now, as opposed to talking to them before
The duration of each course is dependant upon a couple of factors: a) the type of course delivery, correspondence or onsite. Correspondence can be completed in 3 months while
onsite can be completed in 50 hours. (Except the way to happiness course which has an
exercise that is mandatory and minimally 21 days)
A radical rethink about the treatment of short-term prisoners is urgently required. The self-satisfied thinking that nothing effective can be done to rehabilitate short-term prisoners has crippled the response to government provision for short-term prisoners. Therefore, in action towards and neglect of this majority group of prisoners can no longer be justified.
In addition, special intensive courses in basic education and drug treatment have to be planned which can be finished by short-term prisoners whilst in custody. Building on these, short-term prisoners should have the chance to start longer-term education, vocational and treatment programmes in prison which are directly linked with programmes available in the local community. This will allow them to continue the programmes after release.