Smuggling And Border Security Criminology Essay

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According to the research, porous border in various nations has been a great threat to the developing countries and especially to the United States. On the other hand, the lax borders greatly help the United States to achieve the ability to control the international criminals, terrorists and smugglers from entering the state. Conversely, such criminals have noted such ways of control hence they use various techniques to merge in to the state. For instance, through corruption, use of falsified documentations, or overwhelm the illegal goods to the state. In United States the borders have been made lax in order to facilitate the control of the narcotic smuggling, illegal immigration, terrorists, stolen natural resources, criminals and weapons. Not only in the United States that such control is facilitated but also in other countries effective border prevention for the persons movement, cargo across national borders and vehicles never exists. [1] This is because, the officials that are assigned the duty to take the border control are poorly equipped and trained. On the other hand, the inspections that are facilitated by the officials are not well done. The United States border security and the coastal security would be discussed in the paper.

In various countries, the man defense that is put in the first INS is the effective border controls that help provide the substantial deterrence to the transnational crime networks organizations and the smugglers [2] . Conversely, these officers found in the borders try to force such international crime networks and the smugglers in to less attractive, routes, and also try to provoke the traffickers in to various ways in such a way that, they raise their operational costs hence make them venerable to the law enforcement. Additionally, important intelligence is also collected in to the borders. In such cases, the officers glean information from documents, arrests and seizures hence various cases are made that enable them dismantle various major international criminal syndicates. [3] The successful law enforcement at the borders has also functioned as a major instrument that has helped in generating the greatest public support that fight against the transnational crime. Development of border security lead to law enforcement, cooperation, corruption reduction, raise of the revenue collections and finally lead to strengthening the law in the developing countries.

In the United States the most national border security concern is the smuggling of the illegal migrants which acts as the vehicle used by the terrorists to enter in to the country. [4] To the United States authorities, dismantling, identifying, and disrupting the criminal networks is their priority. The United States government major on the disrupting of the alien smuggling organizations. In that case, the government prevents and deters the flow of the prohibited aliens in to the state. Wherever the law enforcement and influence by the authorities is limited, the fight against such alien smuggling should be started in order to build up security in the states.

Border protection has been a great issue existing in the United State as a great challenge for a long time than it was expected by various people. It is thought that such protection applied to the borders can only involve catching of the drugs and the aliens that are illegally smuggled in to the country. [5] However, this protection is more than their thoughts. The prevention of the drug, humans, guns and the other various criminal contrabands has brought out a great challenge for the governments. Such challenge is highly dominated in the underdeveloped and developing countries. This mostly happens when the communities in a certain state accept various behaviors such as smuggling as normative. Many of such communities believe that making various improvements for the border security in the areas that are dominated with smuggling would render to the negative social economic impacts on their communities [6] .

The United States is termed as the first nation and ranked in the first line for its border patrol against the illegal migration. In the present days, the United States border patrol primary task is to prevent and detect the terrorists’ entry, illegal aliens and the weapons of mass destruction. Additionally, they aim at interdicting any drug smugglers in the border. This United States border patrol has looked back to their strategic plan and finally came up with a new intention for the border prevention, through deterrence. They came to realize that the old strategic plan consisted of a traditional policing model. Their new step of the strategic plan changed their first object in which they aimed at only increasing the number of arrests for the people who had already entered in to the country illegally. Their new plan was to make a step from the reactive receptive oriented approach to a more practical, prevention strategy [7] .

In 1990, the United States border control had gained other new patrol tactics such as the safeguard and the gatekeeper. Their various activities such as placing various officers to the boarders passed a clear message to the public about the purpose and their aim of dismantling the cross border smuggling activities. Although the new plan seemed to slightly differ from the old one, the tactics used in the new strategic plan hence visible impact to the areas where such action was taken and considered as a serious note [8] . In that case, this new strategic plan resulted to disruption of the smuggling rings declination of the number of arrests. Additionally, the local leaders came to realize the importance of security strategy. The public perceptions of the social disorders in the states border and chaos have been reduced as compared to the past preventive strategic plan. This new security strategic plan has also improved security in the United States border hence new opportunities which brought about cooperation among the border agencies.

INS, the border patrol parent agency got the ability to expand the various legal immigration due to the increase of perceptions and realities which are build upon due to the increased border security. Thus organization on the border security has ensured that the long vehicle lings which are waiting to cross the border are reduced. In that case, it has improved the border infrastructure. Though the organization had a lot of efforts to maintain their border prevention measures, there raised a lot of opposition and criticism [9] . When a community tries to implement a similar strategic security measures, different people perceive it differently. The organization faces challenges of opposition firstly from the people who believe that the strategy is too weak. On the other hand, there are people who also perceive that the strategy is too intrusive hence opposition to the community prevention measures. This was a great impact to the US patrol border.

On the other perspective, the public disagreement became a general censure of the US border security agencies such as the INS concerning the border strategy. Since 1990, the patrol strategy moved in very good pace however the pace slowed down by 2000 [10] . During that period of time, the security strategy had only reached a few of the areas in United States such as the Brownsville, Nogoles, San Diego and the El Paso. The strategy execution waned though the strategy was still in force. For instance, the corporation with the Mexican declined, the support by the public quitted and the smuggling rings along the borders were disrupted. In the course of that period, there was an increase in the illegal crossers in the ports of entry as the border agencies had given up to the new tactical habits and returned to the old.

Conversely, the department homeland security also underwent a daunting task concerning the bounder security in the Canadian and Mexican borders. This is because it was a new border agency however it launched the initiatives to the Arizona to help them realize the weakest spot on the border [11] . Though the agency had a lot of efforts towards reducing the illegal in flow, it has not been successful. This was as a result of the more concentration of the interdiction rather than prevention by the border protection and the customs. They have only increased the number of the arrests through their tactics instead of reducing the arrests. Additionally, the attention by the agencies has also returned to the track, locate and detain the arrested illegal immigrants. On the other hand, they have activated the physical removal of the illegal border crossers after being prosecuted [12] .

In the United States airports and ports, the INL border security programs have helped these improve the border security in these areas. It has managed to make the improvement through various tactics such as training the border officials, paying attention to the education initiatives and getting technical assistance from other neighboring countries. Their believe is that having a strong security to the ports and airports would help in the terrorists acts and criminal acts which would greatly affect the transport and trade in the united states. The alien smuggling and the INL’s Border Security program objectives include rising the US border security standards and awareness globally, making various efforts to improve the individual nations’ border control capacity, impend the movement of people, arms, counterfeit goods, bulk cash and narcotics. Additionally, the organization also aims at building the international capabilities to dismantle and disrupt the various criminal smuggling networks such as human smuggling and the other criminal organization. Finally, they aim at improving the global travel document security and the integrity of the issuance processes [13] .

The organization has come together with others such as OAS and UNODC and other international organizations to improve the border security awareness and global standards. They also aim at providing targeted training and assistance to build the international law enforcement and border control capacity. This organization also indulges closely with the justice departments in the United States, homeland defense and security to help deliver the state with various effective training and technical assistance. All this efforts the organization aim is to achieve the capabilities to be able to identify any fraurent documents and the methods used by the smugglers to move their large quantities of their luggage across the border.

On the other hand, it works with the Bureau of Consular Affairs to give passport fraud prevention as a technical assistance in the United States to achieve the improvement that they aim at of integrity of the developing countries passport distribution systems [14] . In the united states activities of interagency anti-smuggling associations, the INL organization merge in to these activities to dismantle and disrupt the major alien smuggling rings in the state which takes place in both overseas and domestic areas. The third strategic border security focus involves the effort of achieving deterrence through making various enforcement actions in the United States. This is a disincentive to the people willing to cross the US border for any activity such trade. For instance, the USA patriot act provides the state with various new authorities to make use immigration violations. In that way, the act is able to assist in doing various investigations of terrorism support networks and the financial ties in the country Fay, In that case, this act aim at eliminating the ways in which the immigration to the United States can provide and forster safe through potential terrorists [15] .

However, the USA Patriot Act in practice has further brought about various complications of entangled relationships between immigration enforcement and the counterterrorism actions. The republic reports state that the most terrorist investigations undertaken in the United States have not provided enough results to terrorists associated convictions but instead, the investigation ended up resulting to immigration authorities to make one from the country to disappear completely. This has made it easier to remove any controversial immigrants from the United States unquestionably. According to the public, this Us patriot act is giving various authorities by use of extraordinary powers in order to achieve the immigration enforcement.

This embarrassing situation of anti-terrorism and border control strategies is counterproductive because it undermines the preventative focus of patriot Act examinations. The director of the organization, Robert Mueller, came to realize the potential problem and went out of his way to reach out to immigrant communities to reassure them of the distinction between these security objectives. Yet the problem continues, primarily because home immigration enforcement as traditionally conducted, lays its focus on the punishment after arrest than on creating an effective prevention anticipation strategy [16] . The areas dominated with immigrant communities, serve as good informative sources about possible activities that are prevented by the immigration authorities. The intrusion in tot the local communities in the United States have resulted to the character of enforcing the immigration laws. For instance, according to the research, in the year 2004, the border patrol in the US resulted to series of raids in the local California that sparked the national controversy. It is reported that the operation during the raids was son ineffective and the community actions were extremely contentious [17] .

There have been various complicated controversies over how the interior enforcement goes hand in hand with the border security strategy. In that case there rose various debates on the controversy between the administration and the congress. The reactive approaches of the two, had three principles of focus; enforcement at the workplace more so in raids form would deter employers from hiring worker who are undocumented who finally appear jobless and they later return to their homelands [18] . Secondly, they believe that borrowing from the general theories of the law enforcement and the significant penalties such as substantial sentences and detention. All this with the high certainty and expectation of deportation would help to eliminate the incentive to try to in the work search by the migrants in United States hence convince them to return home and stay back to their homes. Finally, the immigration enforcement should adhere to very tough law policies similar to the California’s three strike law. In that case, these three law enforcement; the removal, detention and the arrest would highly create a future deterrent to the future illegal migration. However, in each area, the interior enforcement of the law comes up short of its goals. The arrests of the immigrants at the workplaces lead to lose of work for the immigrants hence creation of job opportunities to the citizens. Both the number of arrests and the illegal immigrants increase resulting to the skyrocketing f the cost of both detention and removal. In that case both the deportation and the removal fail [19] .

In summation, according to the research arrests of the criminals in the United States have not been helpful to the security organization keepers. This is because, the research result is that though the arrest is done, many of them are imprisoned and finally subsequently deported. After a very short period of time, the research reported that all the arrested criminals return to their workplaces. The alternative border security strategy was inspired by the policing community innovations. The united states border security has been a great issue where by the country have been trying the best to achieve. Their aim has been to dismantle the in and out coming of the smugglers and the illegal immigration.

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